Chapter 10 & 11 Ancient Greece Study guide 7th Grade Ashe/Stingley/Mosley Multiple Choice: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which development eventually led to the Peloponnesian War?
Why could the Persian defeat at Salamis be considered the turning point in the Second Persian War?
3. Which group resented Athens’ growing power after winning the Second Persian War?
4. What was the result of the rivalry between Athens and Sparta for supreme power in ancient Greece?
5. The defeat of which city-states was key to the Macedonians’ conquest of Greece?
6. Much of the territory conquered by Alexander the Great was previously part of which empire?
7. According to the ancient Greeks’ beliefs, where did most of their major gods live?
8. Who was the most powerful and important of the Greek gods and goddesses?
9. Whose work can be linked to the earlier observations of Thales of Miletus?
10. Assistance from ___________ helped Athens defeat the mighty Persian empire in 480 B.C.
11. What was the MOST important factor in making Athens the most powerful Greek city-state after the Persian Wars?
12. Why did Sparta want to weaken Athens’ power in ancient Greece?
13. What was the result of the Peloponnesian War?
14. Why did the ancient Greeks study and write about the past?
15. What feature of Greek geography encouraged a spirit of independence among its early peoples?
16. People who lived in ____________ influenced early civilization in Greece.
17. Who was allowed to vote in Greek city-states?
18. Which group of ancient Greek women had greater freedom?
19. Trade with Greek colonies in Asia Minor brought the first __________ to ancient Greece.
20. What was Sparta best known for throughout ancient Greece?
21. What was a woman’s most important role in Spartan society?
22. Who held the most power in Sparta’s government?
24. The type of government in which the “best” people inherited the right to rule a Greek city-state was called a(n)
25. What was the relationship between Greece’s geography and the Greek’s connection with the sea?
26. Colonization brought the greatest change to a city-state’s _________________ because they grew rich from trade.
27. By what means did Sparta obtain the resources it needed for growth?
28. Which person enjoyed the most rights in ancient Greek society?
29. How did the roles and rights of women in Sparta differ from the roles and rights of women in most other Greek city-states?
30. The ancient Greek form of government in which one leader ruled with the people’s support was called
31. Under which form of ancient Greek government did ordinary citizens have the least influence?
32. In Sparta, ordinary citizens
Completion:Complete each statement. 33. After the Persian Wars, __________ became the most powerful city-state in ancient Greece.
34. The customs the Greeks introduced into the empire of Alexander the Great mixed with the arts and ideas of the conquered lands to create a new form of culture called __________ culture.
35. Assistance from ___________ helped Athens defeat the mighty Persian empire in 480 B.C.
36. The ________________ of teaching is still used by teachers today.
37. Hades, Poseidon, and Apollo are all gods described in the stories of Greek ______________.
38. The basic unit of ancient Greek government was the city-state, or ________.
39. In ancient Greek society, foreigners were known as __________.
40. The roles and lives of women in __________ shocked most ancient Greeks.
41. Many Greek city-states practiced a form of government called ___________, in which a council of aristocrats made laws that usually benefited the people with the most wealth.
42. The form of government we know today as ___________ first arose in the Greek city-states of Athens.
Short Answer:Answer in detailed complete sentences.
Use the map to explain what happened at Thermopylae and why it might have prevented Athens’ defeat in the Second Persian War.
44. Explain how Athens used the Delian League to make itself the greatest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars.
45. Compare how the Greeks used geography to their advantage in fighting the Persians at Thermopylae and Salamis.
46. What role did Alexander the Great play in Macedonia’s conquest and rule of Greece?
47. What is Hellenistic culture and how did it get that name?
48. How did Greek sculpture and painting differ from the art of earlier civilizations?
49. Explain the relationship between birth, rights, and freedom in ancient Greek society.
50. Compare and contrast the lives of women in Athens and Sparta.
51. Explain the role that helots played in Sparta’s development into a military state.
52. How were Spartan women affected by Sparta’s military culture and society?
53. Compare and contrast the main duties of citizenship in Athens and Sparta.
Essay: Select one essay question to answer in complete detail with complete sentences.
54. Describe the importance of the gods and religion in ancient Greek culture.
55. Why was the Trojan War legend important in ancient Greek culture and history?
56. How and why did values and attitudes in Spartan culture differ from the values and attitudes of Athenians? How did those differences affect the society and government that developed in each place?
Chapter 10 & 11 Ancient Greece Study Guide 7th Grade Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Rivalry between Athens and Sparta for power in Greece
2. The battle broke Persian naval power in the region.
3. Sparta, members of the Peloponnesian League, and members of the Delian League
4. The Peloponnesian War
5. Thebes and Athens
7. MT Olympus
9. Erastosthenes and Aristotle
11. Its control of the Delian League
12. Sparta feared Athens’ democratic form of government
13. Athens was forced to give up its democratic form of government
14. They thought that learning why past events took place would help make them wise.
15. Its mt ranges
17. only male citizens
18. Spartan women
20. military power
21. to produce and raise strong boys to be soldiers
22. the council of elders
25. Greece’s mountains left little good soil for farming, so the Greeks searched overseas for sources of food.
27. by seizing them through conquest
28. a poor tenant farmer
29. Spartan women could sell their property
32. had most of their important decisions made for them
SHORT ANSWER 43. A huge Persian army was advancing down the Greek peninsula toward Athens. A small Spartan force blocked a narrow mountain pass at Thermopylae. The Spartan defenders held off the Persians for days. When the Persians finally reached Athens, they found it nearly empty because the Athenians had fled. Although the Persians destroyed the city, the Athenians had escaped capture and defeat.
44. Athens ran the league as if it were its own empire. Dominating the city-states that bordered the Aegean Sea helped Athens protect its grain supply from the Black Sea. It used money contributed by other league members to strengthen its navy. It moved the league’s treasury from the island of Delos to Athens and used the money to construct the Parthenon.
45. At Thermopylae, a small Greek force was able to block the narrow mountain pass to delay the advance of the huge Persian army. The Greeks applied the same strategy in the naval battle at Salamis. The Persians had three times a many ships as the Greeks. But the Greeks used the narrowness of the Strait of Salamis to help them overcome their disadvantage in numbers.
46. Alexander was the son of King Philip of Macedonia. When Philip invaded Greece with his army, Alexander led the cavalry. After Philip died, some city-states tried to regain their independence. Alexander became king and kept Greece under Macedonian control by crushing the revolts.
47. Hellenistic culture is a mix of Greek culture with the culture of regions conquered by Alexander the Great. Hellenistic means Greek-like. The Greeks called themselves Hellenes, which is where the term Hellenistic comes from.
48. Greek art was realistic. Greek sculptors gradually developed a style that was inspired by the proportions of the human body. Their statues were much more realistic than any other sculpture in the ancient world. Greek painting was also realistic. Painters created an impression of depth and perspective in their work.
49. A person’s birth determined whether or not he or she was a citizen of the city-state. Only adult males born in the city-state were citizens. Females and “foreigners”—people born in another city-state or outside of Greece—were free (except for slaves), but they could not vote and they had fewer rights than citizens.
50. In both city-states, women took care of the household, made clothing for the family and managed any slaves. Poor women worked outdoors or sold goods in the market. But in Athens, women from rich families were expected to stay home while men took part in public life. In Sparta, women enjoyed more rights and freedoms. Spartan girls were educated and trained in sports like boys were.
51. The helots outnumbered the Spartans. The work the Spartans forced them to do gave Spartan men the time and freedom to train for military service and become professional soldiers. When the helots revolted, Spartans put down the revolt but they lived in fear of more unrest. To strengthen its control over the helots, Sparta became a military state.
52. Spartan women were raised to be strong and fit so that they could have healthy babies who would grow into good solders. They also had a good deal of freedom and responsibility because their husbands were away so much in army camps. This made them more independent than women in other city-states.
53. In Athens, the main duty of citizenship was public service. That meant participating in the assembly and serving on juries. In Sparta, the main duty of citizenship was military service. That meant being fit and well disciplined, and obeying orders.
ESSAY 54. Possible answer: Religion played a huge part in Greek life. The Greeks worshipped many gods. They believed the gods controlled much of their world. For example, Zeus was the god of the sky and rain. Poseidon was the god of the sea. The goddess Demeter oversaw farming. The Greeks also believed that the gods could help them or harm them. For example, Poseidon could make seas stormy if he was angry. Zeus could throw lightening if he was displeased. Hera, his wife, protected households, and Athena would help in times of war.
To please the gods, the Greeks honored them in many ways. Each city had a patron deity and built temples to that god or goddess. People made offerings at these temples and asked for favors such as good crops or good health. Families also had shrines to their favorite deities in their homes.
The Greeks also celebrated the gods at religious festivals. At some festivals they held athletic events to honor the gods. One of these events was the Olympic games. The Greeks also celebrated and honored the gods in their art and literature. Sculptors made huge statues of the gods and goddesses. Homer’s epic poems reflected the Greeks’ belief that the gods controlled human lives. Greek drama developed from performances honoring the god Dionysus. The human involvement with the gods was a common theme of Greek tragedy and mythology.
55. Possible answer: When the Mycenaean civilization was destroyed by Dorian invaders, Greek culture declined and Greek civilization entered a “dark age” when people lost the ability to read and write. During this time, Greeks migrated to a region of Asia Minor called Ionia. There they passed down stories of the old Greek civilization under the Mycenaeans. One subject of these stories was the Trojan War. According to the legend, the Mycenaeans waged and won a long war with Troy, a city in Asia Minor. A poet named Homer wrote a poem called the Iliad about this war. He also wrote a poem called the Odyssey about the journey home of a Trojan War hero. Passing down such great stories helped keep memories of the old Mycenaean culture alive through the dark age. Children learned them by heart and the values of bravery, strength, and honor they expressed became part of the ancient Greeks’ identity. So the legend of the Trojan War helped to preserve early Greek culture and also helped to shape the later culture of ancient Greece.
56. Possible answer: The importance of discipline and military power in Spartan culture produced a highly trained army of fit men who were better at following orders than they were at thinking for themselves. One result was that Spartans feared individual differences and change. They valued people who fit in, not those who stood out.
Athenians were not attracted to the Spartans’ harsh lifestyle and discipline. Beauty, luxury, and a good life were more important to Athenians. They valued individual expression and new ideas. This made them more open to change. The effect on government was that in Athens, democracy developed over time while in Sparta, oligarchy continued and society changed very little.