Bibliography Primary Sources

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Primary Sources

The Deaf and Dumb and Blind Deaf-Mute, with Interesting Facts and Anecdotes; A Short History of the MacKay Institution; An Easy Method of Teaching Deaf-Mutes at Home; The Audiophone, Etc. N.p., 1880. Internet Archive. Web. 1 Jan. 2015. .
This was an archive that provided a number of different relevant documents regarding the manualism v. oralism debate. It included primary books, articles, letters and other documents from the time period representing the different view points. It was helpful in understanding the positions that leaders from each camp took by seeing the original context from which they arose. 
Gallaudet, Thomas. Sermon, On the Duties and Advantages of Affording Instruction to the Deaf and Dumb. Disability History Museum,, accessed 1/3/15
This book written by Gallaudet himself summarizes the primary reasons for educating the deaf (namely to convert the "heathens to Christianity") along with the basic approach toward education (manualism or sign language). 
Library of Congress. Lib of Congress, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. .
This is a collection of letters, speeches and other documents from, to, and by Alexander Graham Bell, and many involving Gallaudet as well.
Primary Source Image Table. Discover the Inventor in You. Governors State University, 1 Dec. 2004. Web. 9 Dec. 2014. .
This is a collection of primary photographs, documents and quotes (mostly about Alexander Graham Bell). It shows a mixture of deaf education and miscellaneous inventions that represents AGB's life.
"Report of the Proceedings of the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf." 1880. Digital file.
Embedded on the "Turning Points" page, this is the original document recording the resolutions written at the Milan Congress in 1880. It officially began the fall of manualism and an era of oralism. When looking through the document, one can clearly read the discussion of firing deaf teachers, prohibiting sign language and learning to lip read.


Secondary Sources

"Alexander Graham Bell." Reference for Business. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2014. .
This website provided a solid foundation on getting to know Alexander Graham Bell better as a visionary and a leader. It gave important information on his family life and upbringing as well as many key and relevant events of his lifetime. Information from the website was useful for the creation of the timeline on his page under the "Oralism" tab. 
Alphabet in American Sign Language. Lifeprint. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 May 2015. .
This is a well-known website for learning sign language. It provides this image of each letter of the alphabet in American Sign Language. It is one of the first lessons students have when beginning to learn the language and is a glimpse into the life of communicating with your hands. 
"American Sign Language." National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). N.p., Feb. 2014. Web. 19 May 2015. .
This page is linked to the picture of the ASL alphabet, on the "Manualism" page. It answers frequently asked questions and is available for those who lack basic knowledge of American Sign Language. 
American Sign Language Teachers Association. American Sign Language Teachers Association, n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2015. .
This American Sign Language Teachers Association illustrates Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet's post-Milan Conference legacy to "perpetuate, preserve, and promote" ASL. 
The ASL Alphabet | ASL - American Sign Language - ABCs. YouTube. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2015. .
This video is used on the "Manualism" page as an example of the simplest form of ASL. It gives the reader a real man signing the alphabet, with hand shapes shown above. Presented in the form of a video, this adds a personal element that brings the sign language off the page and into your hand naturally imitating the different letters.
Baynton, Douglas. "The Oral vs. Sign Debate." National Public Radio. NPR, 1997. Web. 1 Jan. 2015. .
This program nicely summarized the key features of the oral vs manual debate as well as provided the historical backdrop against which the debate took place. It was helpful in understanding this context. 
Baynton, Douglas C. Forbidden Signs: American Culture and the Campaign Against Sign Language. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996. Print.
This book focuses on the movement, led by Alexander Graham Bell, to suppress sign language. It brings this issue into context by bringing in fundamental themes of American culture and identity. This was very helpful in understanding both motivation and drive of Bell as well as the movement he led. 
Bergley, Jean L., ed. History through Deaf Eyes. Gallaudet University, n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2015. .
Through Gallaudet University, this website provides many vivid images of the deaf community and history of its evolution. Many articles regarding several different events in history that have affected and shaped the deaf community. It was the source of several quotes. 
Berke, Jamie. "Deaf History - Milan 1880." Defness.About. About, 15 Dec. 2014. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. .
This illustrated the importance of the Milan congress and the effect that this conference had on deaf education throughout the world. This specific article gave more detail and statistics than anywhere else.
Chaikof, Rachel. "Alexander Graham Bell: A Legend in the History of Deafness." Cochlear Implant Online. Ed. Rachel Chaikof. Rachel Chaikof, 29 Aug. 2008. Web. 9 Dec. 2014. .
This illustrates the direct connection from Alexander Graham Bell and his research into sound transmission (that culminated in the invention of the telephone) and the development of cochlear implant technology. 
"Civil Rights Movement." US History. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2015. .
This page is linked to "Civil Rights Era". It adds a more in depth discussion on the background of the Civil Rights Era, delving into details beyond historical context. 
Cleve, Van and Crouch, Barry. A Place of Their Own: creating the Deaf Community in America. Washington D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1989.
This book focuses on the deaf community during the nineteenth century and how, mainly through dedicated schools, deaf people began to develop a common language and a sense of community. It was helpful to understand the establishment and organization of deaf schools. 
"Cochlear Implants." National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2015. .
This page is linked to the diagram showing how the cochlear implant works, on the "Legacy" page. It goes into some logistics that may help comprehend the topic better.


Disability History Museum Staff. "Rev. Thomas Gallaudet." Disability History Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2014. .

This provided background information about the life of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and the extraordinary role he played in galvanizing deaf education in America. 
"Education." National Public Radio. NPR, n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2015. .

The program provided information and context about the link between disabilities and the civil rights movement.

"Educational Approaches." Penn State Personal Web Server. Pennsylvania State University, n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2015. .
This website listed and explained various options when approaching the problem of how to educate a deaf student. 
Gallaudet University. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2015. .
This page is linked to the historic photo of Gallaudet University's campus, on the "Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet" page. Landing at the home page of the university, it not only shows the obvious advancement since it's original campus but also gives the reader the opportunity to explore and find other interesting opportunities involving deaf life. 
Greenwald, Brian H., Ph.D. "Alexander Graham Bell and His Role in Oral Education." Disability History Museum. Straight Ahead Pictures, n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2014. .
This provided an overview on Alexander Graham Bell's impact on the oralism movement. 
Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technology. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. .
This provided many details and quotes about the Milan congress that were helpful in understanding how and why it was so important. 
Kins, Casey. "Alexander Graham Bell: Friend or Foe?" If My Hands Could Speak. N.p., 30 Mar. 2012. Web. 10 Oct. 2014. .
The author of this blog has written extensively about the need to preserve sign language and in so doing she rebuts many of the oralism arguments that Alexander Graham Bell made. 
Lane, Harlan. When the Mind Hears: A History of the Deaf. New York: Random House, 1984.
This book is a rich historical exploration into the question of how the deaf should be educated with signs or through speech and concludes with a strong argument for educating the deaf through signing. 
Lapiak, Jolanta. "Sign Language History: 19th Century." Handspeak. Handspeak, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. .
This provided a very useful history of sign language and was helpful specifically in developing the timelines and timelines. 
The Listen-Up Web. N.p., 28 Dec. 2014. Web. 1 Jan. 2015. .
This is an excellent example of an organization that still supports Bell's more traditional ideas about oralism rather than Gallaudet's more modern views.
Moores, Donald F. Educating the Deaf: Psychology, Principals, and Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.
This book is seen by many as the standard and authoritative text about deaf education. It summarizes the background and context of the oralism v. manualism debate. 
Padden, Carol and Humphries, Tom. Deaf in America: Voices from a Culture, Cambridge. Harvard University Press, 1988.
Written from the perspective of the deaf (both authors are deaf), this book gives an inside look at the life and culture of the deaf community and the richness of American Sign Language.
"The Second Great Awakening and the Age of Reform." Teach US History. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2015. .
This page is linked to "The Second Great Awakening". It adds a more in depth discussion on the background of the Second Great Awakening, delving into details beyond historical context. 
"Signing, Alexander Graham Bell and the NAD." Through Deaf Eyes. WETA, Mar. 2007. Web. 10 Oct. 2014. .
This is a wonderful website going through the history of Alexander Graham Bell and history of sign language. 
Through Deaf Eyes. Dir. Lawrence R. Hott and Diane Garey. 2007. PBS, 2007. DVD.
This is a well made documentary, produced by PBS, exploring the general history of deafness. It covers the evolution of their language, education and quality of life throughout several important time periods. This film not only gives a good understanding on the general struggles that deaf people have endured but uses many interviews and first hand pictures to accompany the narration.
Winefield, Richard. Never the Twain Shall Meet: Bell, Gallaudet, and the Communications Debate. Washington D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1987.
This book focuses on the battle of oralism versus manualism in the nineteenth century. It explores the backgrounds of Alexander Graham Bell and Edward Miner Gallaudet and how their views were shaped by the societies in which they lived. 

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