Library guide on Chicago referencin



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Library guide on Chicago referencin

Introduction 4

Choosing a reference style 4

What is referencing? 4

Why reference? 4

When to reference? 4

Plagiarism 5

RMIT University definition of plagiarism 5

What constitutes plagiarism? 5

What is the penalty for plagiarism? 5

In-text references: examples 7

Footnotes: examples 7

First note 7

Subsequent notes 7

Referencing same work consecutively 7

Bibliography: examples 7

Abbreviations: examples 8

Points to remember 10

Books: examples 10

Book - one author 10

Book - second or subsequent edition 11

Book - two or three authors 11

Book - four or more authors 11

Edited book 12

Book - no author 12

Book - association or institution 13

First footnote 13

Edited book chapter 13

E-book from the internet 15

Journal articles: examples 15

Journal article 15

e-journal article in PDF from a database 17

e-journal article in PDF from a website 17

e-journal article in HTML from a website 17

Newspaper articles: examples 18

Newspaper article – With author 18

Newspaper article - no author 19

Newspaper article from a database 19

Conference papers: examples 19

Published paper 19

Unpublished paper 20

Dictionaries and encyclopedias: examples 20

Theses: examples 21

Thesis 21

Electronic thesis 22

Web and e-mail: examples 22

Websites 22

Website documents 23

E-mail messages 23

Bibliography 23


Introduction 3

Choosing a reference style 3

What is referencing? 3

Why reference? 3

When to reference? 3

Plagiarism 4

RMIT University definition of plagiarism 4

What constitutes plagiarism? 4

What is the penalty for plagiarism? 4

In-text references: examples 5

Footnotes: examples 5

First note 5

Subsequent notes 5

Referencing same work consecutively 5

Bibliography: examples 5

Abbreviations: examples 6

Points to remember 7

Books: examples 7

Book - one author 7

Book - second or subsequent edition 8

Book - two or three authors 8

Book - four or more authors 8

Edited book 9

Book - no author 9

Book - association or institution 10

First footnote 10

Edited book chapter 10

E-book from the internet 11

Journal articles: examples 11

Journal article 11

e-journal article in PDF from a database 12

e-journal article in PDF from a website 12

e-journal article in HTML from a website 12

Newspaper articles: examples 13

Newspaper article – With author 13

Newspaper article - no author 13

Newspaper article from a database 14

Conference papers: examples 14

Published paper 14

Unpublished paper 15

Dictionaries and encyclopedias: examples 15

Theses: examples 15

Thesis 15

Electronic thesis 16

Web and e-mail: examples 16

Websites 16

Website documents 17

E-mail messages 17

Bibliography 17



Introduction


The Chicago style of referencing has been developed by the University of Chicago. There have been several editions of the Chicago Manual of Style, the aim of which is to aid authors in the preparation of manuscripts.

The Notes-Bibliography style is one of two different types of referencing outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition. Numbers in the text of an academic paper refer to bibliographic citations in footnotes or endnotes. In the examples given here, footnoting is illustrated.

This document is meant only as a guide. It is important that you check with your School as to what they require for referencing. You may be penalised for not conforming to your School’s requirements.

The following information and examples are based on:

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Choosing a reference style


The style (i.e. order in which the details of a reference are cited) may vary depending on the requirements of your department, lecturer or supervisor. Some Schools produce their own guidelines for citing references. Check with your School whether they have a preferred Referencing Style.

What is referencing?


Referencing an information source used in an academic work means to employ a standardised method of acknowledging that source. The full details of the source must be given. All information used in your assignment, thesis, etc., whether published, or unpublished, must be referenced.

Why reference?


When writing a piece of academic work (ie. essay, thesis, etc.) you are required to acknowledge the sources of information that you have used:

  • to prove that your work has a substantial, factual basis

  • to show the research you've done to reach your conclusions

  • to allow your readers to identify and retrieve the references for their own use

Information obtained from the Internet is covered by copyright law. For this reason it is important to cite Internet references just as you would cite print references. Many style guide producers have extended the system used for print resources and applied this to electronic resources. A date of access is very useful as Internet resources change rapidly.

When to reference?


You must reference all sources used in a particular work whether you are:

  • directly copying the words of another author (quoting), or

  • putting their ideas into your own words (paraphrasing)

If you do not acknowledge these sources, then you are plagiarising their work. Plagiarism is defined as the taking, using, and passing off as your own, the ideas or words of another. It is a very serious academic offence, and may result in your work being failed automatically. There is more information on this subject in Copyright, plagiarism and fair use http://www.rmit.edu.au/library/info-trek/copyright.

Plagiarism

RMIT University definition of plagiarism


RMIT has an assessment charter, which elaborates key responsibilities common to all staff and students in relation to assessment and defines the University’s policy on plagiarism. Plagiarism is defined as stealing somebody’s intellectual property (IP) by presenting their work, thoughts or ideas as though they are your own. It is cheating. It is a serious academic offence and can lead to expulsion from RMIT.

Plagiarism can take many forms - written, graphic and visual forms, and includes use of electronic data and material used in oral presentations. Plagiarism may even occur unintentionally, such as when the origin of the material used is not properly cited.


What constitutes plagiarism?


Under the charter, you may be accused of plagiarism if you do any of the following:

  • Copy sentences or paragraphs word-for-word from any source, whether published or unpublished (including, but not limited to books, journals, reports, theses, websites, conference papers, course notes, etc.) without proper citation.

  • Closely paraphrase sentences, paragraphs, ideas or themes without proper citation.

  • Piece together text from one or more sources and add only linking sentences without proper citation.

  • Copy or submit whole or parts of computer files without acknowledging their source.

  • Copy designs or works of art and submit them as your original work.

  • Copy a whole or any part of another student’s work.

  • Submit work as your own that someone else has done for you.

Enabling Plagiarism is the act of assisting or allowing another person to plagiarise your own work (RMIT 2003). It is also a serious academic offence. More detail on what constitutes plagiarism is found in the January 2003 Policy: Plagiarism (PDF, 332Kb, 3p) http://mams.rmit.edu.au/1oavdg0bdd1.pdf.

What is the penalty for plagiarism?


Plagiarism is not permitted in RMIT University. Any use of another person’s work or ideas must be acknowledged. If you fail to do this, you may be charged with academic misconduct and face a penalty under RMIT Regulations 6.1.1 – Student Discipline (PDF, 186Kb, 12p) http://mams.rmit.edu.au/j4lb68xx36oj1.pdf.

Penalties for plagiarism include:



  • recording of a failure for the assignment or course

  • cancellation of any or all results

  • suspension from the program

  • expulsion from the program.

Acknowledgement: The information in this section on Plagiarism has been supplied from the RMIT Business, “Written Reports and Essays: Guidelines for Referencing and Presentation”, http://mams.rmit.edu.au/s9sx559hurvc.rtf (accessed October 24, 2007), 27.



In-text references: examples


Each in-text reference is given a consecutive number. The numbered marker in-text is a superscript (raised) number and these should be placed at the end of a sentence, or any punctuation. These numbers refer the reader to a full-sized number at the foot of the page (a footnote).

"Ultimately we will learn more about some of the celebrated events in Australian history if we turn to the old almanacs and their tables of the moon."1


Footnotes: examples


A footnote is where you would first identify in full the source of information that supports the point being made, thereafter use a shortened form. A bibliography may be consulted for further clarification if needed.

  • The main elements in a footnote citation are separated by commas

  • The first line of text in a footnote is indented two spaces from the margin

  • The authors name is not inverted, and is written in full

  • Publishing details of books are enclosed in brackets

  • Journal article titles, book chapter titles are enclosed in double quotation marks

First note


1. Geoffrey Blainey, Black Kettle and Full Moon: Daily Life in a Vanished Australia (Penguin/Viking:Melbourne, 2003), 7.

Subsequent notes


The short form of the citation already given should include enough information to remind readers of the full title or to lead them to the entry in the bibliography. The most common form consists of the author’s surname, a shortened title (if more than four words) and page number(s) (if applicable).

7. Blainey, Black Kettle, 9.


Referencing same work consecutively


If citing the same work again (consecutively) in a footnote, use the abbreviation ibid. It replaces the identical information. Note that ibid. must never be used if a preceding footnote refers to more than one citation.

2. ibid., 20.

3. ibid.

Bibliography: examples


A bibliography appears at the end of an essay or thesis. It is a single list arranged alphabetically by the author’s surname, or if no author or editor, by the title or a significant keyword. The bibliography should include all works cited and works consulted.

  • The name of the first author is inverted, so that family name appears first

  • The elements, or sections, of the citation are separated by full stops, not commas

  • Publishing details for books are not enclosed in brackets

  • If the entry consists of more than one line of text, the following lines of that entry are indented by two spaces

  • The name of an institution or corporation as author should not be inverted. If it begins with The, this is usually omitted. These should be alphabetised, by the first word in the name

Citations with only one author precede multiple author entries, beginning with the same family name. When the work cited has between two and ten authors use an and before the last author. In cases where a work has eleven or more authors, only the first seven should be listed followed by et al.

For successive entries by the same author(s), after the first citation, use a 3-em dash, followed by a period or comma. The 3-em dash can also be used for institutional or corporate authors.



  • Squire. Larry R. “The Hippocampus and the Neuropsychology of Memory.” In Neurobiology of the

Hippocampus, edited by W Seifert, 491-511. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

  • ________. Memory and Brain. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

This is also the case for the same two or more authors etc, provided they are listed in the same order as the previous citation:

  • Marty, Martin E. and R. Scott Appleby. The Glory and the Power: The Fundamentalist Challenge

to the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.

  • _______, eds. Fundamentalisms Comprehended. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Abbreviations: examples


Some acceptable abbreviations when citing references in footnotes and/or a bibliography are:

chap.

chapter

comp./comps.

compiler(s), compiled by

ed./eds.

editor(s), edition, edited by

2nd ed.

second edition

et al.

And others

n.d.

no date

no./nos.

number(s)

pt.

part

rev.

revised, revised by, revision, review

ser.

series

supp. or suppl.

supplement

s.v.

sub verbo – “under the word”

trans.

translator(s), translated by.

vol.

volume



Points to remember


Some things to note with the notes-bibliography style:

  • the first line of text in a footnote should be indented two spaces from the margin

  • if a bibliography citation extends over more than one line, each line after the first should be indented two spaces

  • the main elements of a citation in footnotes are separated by commas, while in a bibliography, they are separated by periods (full stops)

  • when citing a book, the place, publisher and year of publication are enclosed in parentheses in a footnote, but not in a bibliography

  • the name of the first author in each citation in a bibliography is inverted

  • for works by or edited by between four to ten persons, all names are usually listed in a bibliography, while in footnotes, only the first is included, followed by et al.

  • for works with eleven or more authors, editors etc, only the first seven should be included in a bibliography

  • italicise book titles, journal titles, conference titles

  • the titles of book chapters and journal articles are enclosed in double quotation marks

  • when citing a work available electronically, include the URL at the end of the citation. An access date in parentheses may also be required

  • newspaper articles, websites, personal communication and well-known dictionaries or encyclopedias are cited in the footnotes, not in a bibliography

  • not all written work may require a bibliography, because of the nature of footnotes. However, it can serve a number of purposes, including giving an overview of all the sources cited, so it is advisable.

Books: examples

Book - one author


First footnote

Author Name Surname, Title of Book - in italics (Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of

publication), page number.

1. Joseph Migga Kizza, Computer Network Security and Cyberethics (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2002), 35.



Subsequent footnote

Author Surname, Title of Book – in italics and shortened if more than four words, page number.

5. Kizza, Computer Network Security, 39.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name. Title of Book - in italics. Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of

publication.

Kizza, Joseph Migga. Computer Network Security and Cyberethics. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2002.


Book - second or subsequent edition


When an edition other than the first is cited, the number or description of the edition follows the title in the first footnote listing and bibliography.

First footnote

Author Name Surname, Title of Book - in italics, number ed. (Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication), page number.

3. Alan Fenna, Australian Public Policy, 2nd ed. (Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Education Australia, 2004), 42.

Subsequent footnote

Author Surname, Title of Book – in italics and shortened if more than four words, page number.

5. Fenna, Australian Public Policy, 47.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name. Title of Book - in italics. Number ed. Place of publication: Name of publisher,

Year of publication.

Fenna, Alan. Australian Public Policy. 2nd ed. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Education Australia,

2004.

Book - two or three authors


In a bibliography, if a citation has multiple authors, these must be separated by commas and an and would also precede the last author’s name.

First footnote

Author Name Surname, and Author Name Surname, Title of Book - in italics (Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication), page number.

7. Ken Coates and Carin Holroyd, Japan and the Internet Revolution (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), 15.

Subsequent footnote

Author Surname and Author Surname, Title of Book – in italics and shortened if more than four words, page number.

9. Coates and Holroyd, Japan and the Internet, 19.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name, and Author Name Surname. Title of Book - in italics. Place of publication: Name

of publisher, Year of publication.

Coates, Ken, and Carin Holroyd. Japan and the Internet Revolution. New York: Palgrave, 2003.


Book - four or more authors


First footnote

Author Name Surname et al., Title of Book - in italics (Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication), page number.

11. David Besanko et al., Economics of Strategy, 3rd ed. (New York: J. Wiley, 2003), 23.

Subsequent footnote

Author Surname et al., Title of Book – in italics and shortened if more than four words, page number.

13. Besanko et al., Economics of Strategy, 37.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name, Author Name Surname, Author Name Surname, and Author Name Surname.



Title of Book - in italics. Place of publication: Name of Publisher, Year of publication.

Besanko, David, David Dranove, Mark Shanley, and Scott Schaefer. Economics of Strategy. 3rd ed.

New York: J. Wiley, 2003.

Edited book


In cases of edited, compiled or translated works, use the accepted abbreviations following the name, preceded by a comma, in both the first footnote listing and the bibliography. Omit in a shortened citation.

First footnote

Editor Name Surname, ed., Title of Book - in italics (Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication), page number.

1. Margit Misangyi Watts, ed., Technology: Taking the Distance out of Learning (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003), 73.

Subsequent footnote

Editor surname, Title of Book - in italics and shortened if more than 4 words, page number.

4. Watts, Technology, 96.

Bibliography

Editor Surname, Name, ed. Title of Book - in italics. Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of

publication.

Watts, Margit Misangyi, ed. Technology: Taking the Distance out of Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-

Bass, 2003.

Book - no author


First footnote

Title of Book - in italics (Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication), page number.

16. Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers, 5th ed. (Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1996), sec. 9.57.



Subsequent footnote

Title of Book - in italics and shortened, page number.

20. Style Manual, sec. 9.59.



Bibliography

Title of Book - in italics. Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication.

Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers. 5th ed. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing

Service, 1996.


Book - association or institution

First footnote


Name of Organisation, Title of Book - in italics (Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication), page number.

21. National Gallery of Australia, The Eye of the Storm: Eight Contemporary Indigenous Artists, 2nd ed. (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 1997), 15.



Subsequent footnote

Name of Organisation - shortened if appropriate, Title of Book - in italics and shortened, page number.

27. National Gallery of Australia, Eye of the Storm, 19.

Bibliography

Name of Organisation. Title of Book - in italics. Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of

publication.

National Gallery of Australia. The Eye of the Storm: Eight Contemporary Indigenous Artists. 2nd ed.

Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 1997.

Edited book chapter


First footnote

Author(s) of chapter - Name Surname, "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book - in italics, ed. Editor Name Surname, page number (Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication).

3. Anne Carr and Douglas J. Schuurman, “Religion and Feminism: A Reformist Christian Analysis”, in Religion, Feminism and the Family, ed. Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuen, 11 (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996).

Subsequent footnote

Author(s) of chapter Surname, "Title of Chapter - shortened," page number.

6. Carr and Schuurman, "Religion and Feminism," 26.

Bibliography

Author (s) of chapter Surname, Name, and Name Surname. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book - in italics, edited by Editor Name

Surname, page range. Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication.

Carr, Anne, and Douglas J. Schuurman. “Religion and Feminism: A Reformist Christian Analysis”. In



Religion, Feminism and the Family, edited by Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuen, 11-32.

Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.




E-book from the internet


First footnote

Author(s) of chapter - Name Surname, "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book - in italics, ed. Editor Name Surname (Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication), website URL (access date).

3. J. Sirosh, R. Miikkulainen, and J.A. Bednar, “Self-Organization of Orientation Maps, Lateral Connections, and Dynamic Fields in the Primary Visual Cortex,” in Lateral Interactions in the Cortex: Structure and Function, ed. J. Sirosh, R. Mikkulainen, and Y. Chloe (Austin TX: UTCS Neural Networks Research Group, 1996), http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/nn/web-pubs/htmlbook96/ (accessed August 27, 2001).

Subsequent footnote

Author Surname, Author Surname, and Author Surname, “Title of Chapter – shortened.”

7. Sirosh, Mikkulainen, and Bednar, “Self-Organization of Orientation Maps”.

Bibliography

Author(s) of chapter - Surname, Name. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book - in italics, ed. Editor Name Surname. Place of publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication. Website URL (access date).

Sirosh, J., R. Miikkulainen, and A Bednar. “Self-Organization of Orientation Maps, Lateral Connections,

and Dynamic Fields in the Primary Visual Cortex.” In Lateral Interactions in the Cortex: Structure and



Function, ed. J. Sirosh, R. Mikkulainen, and Y. Chloe. Austin TX: UTCS Neural Networks Research

Group, 1996. http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/nn/web-pubs/htmlbook96/ (accessed August 27, 2001).


Journal articles: examples

Journal article


First footnote

Author Name Surname and Author Name Surname, "Title of Article," Title of Journal - in italics volume number, no. issue number (Year of publication): page number.

1. Mihir Parikh and Sameer Verma, "Utilizing Internet Technologies to Support Learning: An Empirical Analysis," International Journal of Information Management 22, no. 1 (2002): 31.

Subsequent footnote

Author surname, "Title of article – shortened," page number.

4. Parikh and Verma, "Utilizing Internet Technologies," 43.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name, and Author Name Surname. "Title of Article.” Title of Journal - in italics volume

number, no. issue number (Year of publication): page range of article.

Parikh, Mihir, and Sameer Verma. "Utilizing Internet Technologies to Support Learning: An Empirical

Analysis." International Journal of Information Management 22, no. 1 (2002): 27-46.



e-journal article in PDF from a database


First footnote

Author Name Surname, "Title of Article," Title of Journal - in italics volume number, no. issue number (Year of publication): page number, URL of database.

5. Jeff Bennett, "Environmental Values and Water Policy," Australian Geographical Studies 41, no. 3 (2003): 239, http://www.catchword.com/.

Subsequent footnote

Author surname, "Title of article – shortened," page number.

7. Bennett, "Environmental Values," 247.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name. "Title of Article.” Title of Journal - in italics volume number, no. issue number

(Year of publication): page range. URL of database.

Bennett, Jeff. "Environmental Values and Water Policy." Australian Geographical Studies 41, no. 3

(2003): 237-250. http://www.catchword.com/.

e-journal article in PDF from a website


First footnote

Author Name Surname, "Title of Article," Title of Journal - in italics volume number, no. issue number (Year of publication): page number, URL of website (access date if required).

9. Tim Sprod, "Philosophy, Young People and Well-being," Youth Studies Australia 18, no. 2 (1999): 13, http://www.acys.utas.edu.au/ysa/articles/ysa_pdfs/ysa-v18n2pp12-16.pdf (accessed October 10, 2007).

Subsequent footnote

Author surname, "Title of article – shortened," page number.

11. Sprod, "Philosophy, Young People," 15.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name. "Title of Article.” Title of Journal - in italics volume number, no. issue number

(Year of publication): page range of article. URL of database (access date).

Sprod, Tim. "Philosophy, Young People and Well-being." Youth Studies Australia 18, no. 2 (1999): 12-

16. http://www.acys.utas.edu.au/ysa/articles/ysa_pdfs/ysa-v18n2pp12-16.pdf (accessed October 10

2007).

e-journal article in HTML from a website


Where the original pagination of a journal article is not available, which is the case for a HTML version, include a descriptive locator (such as a subheading) in double quotation marks, in the first footnote citation (but not the bibliography), to allow readers to find the reference being made.

First footnote

Author Name Surname, "Title of Article," Title of Journal - in italics volume number, no. issue number (Year of publication), under “locator,” URL .

15. Deborah Valentine, "Access to Higher Education: A Challenge to Social Work Educators," Journal of Social Work Education 40, no. 2 (2004), under "Effects and Consequences," http://www.cswe.org/publications/jswe/04-2editorial.htm.

Subsequent footnote

Author surname, "Title of article – shortened."

18. Valentine, "Access to Higher Education."

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name. "Title of Article.” Title of Journal - in italics volume number, no. issue number

(Year of publication). URL.

Valentine, Deborah. "Access to Higher Education: A Challenge to Social Work Educators." Journal of



Social Work Education 40, no.2 (2004). http://www.cswe.org/publications/jswe/04-2editorial.htm.

Newspaper articles: examples


When citing a newspaper article, if an initial ‘The’ is included in the newspaper title, this is omitted. A city name should be added in parentheses alongside the official title, if this is not already clear.

Because there may be various editions on any given day and items may be moved or eliminated, page numbers are best omitted. Instead it may be useful to add what edition it is. Also, if the newspaper has several sections, the section number or name may be included.


Newspaper article – With author


First footnote

Author Name Surname, "Title of Article," Newspaper name - in italics (City of publication), Month day, Year of publication, edition.

1. Stephen Cauchi, "World's Green Markers on the Brink," Age (Melbourne), October 16, 2004, first edition.

Subsequent footnote

Author surname, "Title of article – shortened”.

4. Cauchi, "World's Green Markers".

Bibliography

Note: Newspapers are most commonly cited in footnotes only. If for some reason a bibliographic entry were included, it would the follow the format below.

Author Surname, Name. "Title of Article." Newspaper name - in italics (City of publication), Month day,

Year of publication, edition number.

Cauchi, Stephen. "World's Green Markers on the Brink." Age (Melbourne), October 16, 2004, first

edition.

Newspaper article - no author


Where a newspaper article has no author, the name of the newspaper stands in place of the author.

First footnote

Newspaper name – in italics, “Title of Article”, Month day, Year of publication.

11. New York Times, “In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor,” July 30, 2002.



Subsequent footnote

Newspaper name – in italics, “Title of article – shortened”.

14. New York Times, "In Texas".



Bibliography

Newspaper name – in italics, “Title of Article”, Month day, Year of publication.

New York Times, “In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor,” July 30, 2002.

Newspaper article from a database


Citations to newspaper articles accessed from a database follow the same form as for print, with the addition of the URL of the entry point to the database. An access date can also be included at the end of the citation.

First footnote

Author Name Surname, "Title of Article," Newspaper name - in italics (City of publication), Month day, Year of publication, edition number, section, URL.

6. Henry Gee, "A Breed Apart," Age (Melbourne), October 29, 2004, first edition, A3. http://global.factiva.com.

Subsequent footnote

Author surname, "Title of article – shortened."

9. Gee, “A Breed Apart.”

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name. "Title of Article." Newspaper name - in italics (City of publication), Month day,

Year of publication, edition number, section. URL.

Gee, Henry. "A Breed Apart." Age (Melbourne). October 29, 2004, first edition, A3.

http://global.factiva.com.

Conference papers: examples

Published paper


First footnote

Author Name Surname, "Title of Paper," in Conference Proceedings name - in italics (Place of publication: Name of Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

1. Mick Common, "The Role of Economics in Natural Heritage Decision Making," in Heritage Economics: Challenges for Heritage Conservation and Sustainable Development in the 21st Century: Proceedings of the International Society for Ecological Economics Conference, Canberra, 4 July 2000 (Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission, 2001), 22.

Subsequent footnote

Author surname, "Title of conference paper – shortened," page number.

4. Common, "Role of Economics," 25.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name. "Title of Paper." In Conference Proceedings name - in italics. Place of

publication: Name of publisher, Year of publication.

Common, Mick. "The Role of Economics in Natural Heritage Decision Making." In Heritage Economics:



Challenges for Heritage Conservation and Sustainable Development in the 21st Century: Proceedings

of the International Society for Ecological Economics Conference, Canberra, 4 July 2000. Canberra:

Australian Heritage Commission, 2001.


Unpublished paper


First footnote

Author Name Surname, "Title of Paper" (paper presented to, Location, Month Day, Year).

6. Anna Byas, "Family Law: Old Shadows and New Directions" (paper presented to the 8th Australian Institute of Family Studies Conference, Melbourne, February 12-14, 2003).

Subsequent footnote

Author surname, "Title of conference paper – shortened."

8. Byas, “Family Law”.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name. "Title of Paper." Paper presented to, Location, Month Day, Year.

Byas, Anna. "Family Law: Old Shadows and New Directions." Paper presented to the 8th Australian

Institute of Family Studies Conference, Melbourne, February 12-14, 2003.


Dictionaries and encyclopedias: examples


References to well-known dictionaries and encyclopedias are normally cited only in footnotes. The facts of publication are often omitted, but the edition (if it is not the first) must be included. Other reference works may be cited with their publication details. When referencing a work arranged alphabetically cite the item (not the volume or page number) preceded by s.v. (the Latin sub verbo, meaning “under the word”).

Footnote

Title of encyclopedia – in italics, number ed., s.v. “Title of entry.”

1. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. "Salvation."



Title of encyclopedia – in italics, number. ed., edited by (Place: Publisher, Year of publication), s.v. “Title of entry.”

1. International encyclopedia of business and management, 2nd ed., ed. Malcolm Warner (London: Thomson Learning, c2002), s.v. "Educational Marketing."


Theses: examples

Thesis


First footnote

Author Name Surname, "Title of Thesis" (Award/type of thesis, Name of academic institution under whose auspices study was taken, Year of preparation), page number.

1. Jennifer Margaret Cameron, “Achieving Self-Renewal: A Grounded Theory of Recovery from Postnatal Depression " (masters thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne, 2002), 38.

Subsequent footnote

Author Surname, "Title of Thesis - shortened," page number.

5. Cameron, “Achieving Self-Renewal,” 38.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name. "Title of Thesis." Award/type of thesis, Name of academic institution under

whose auspices study was taken, Year of preparation.

Cameron, Jennifer Margaret. “Achieving Self-Renewal: A Grounded Theory of Recovery from Postnatal

Depression.” Masters thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne, 2002.

Electronic thesis


First footnote

Author Name Surname, "Title of thesis” (Award/Type of thesis, Name of academic institution under whose auspices study was taken, Year of preparation), page number. URL.

1. Timothy Robert Kurz, "A Psychology of Environmentally Sustainable Behaviour" (PhD thesis, Murdoch University, Perth, 2003), 9. http://www.lib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20040428.152013.

Subsequent footnote

Author surname, "Title of thesis – shortened," page number.

5. Kurz, "Psychology," 13.

Bibliography

Author Name Surname, "Title of thesis.” Award/Type of thesis, Name of academic institution under

whose auspices study was taken, Year of preparation. URL.

Kurz, Timothy Robert. "A Psychology of Environmentally Sustainable Behaviour." PhD thesis, Murdoch University, Perth, 2003. http://www.lib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20040428.152013.


Web and e-mail: examples

Websites


Website references are usually only cited in notes, rarely in the bibliography.

First footnote

Agency author of content, "Title of Page," Owner of the site, URL (date of access).

1. Therapeutic Goods Administration, "Recalls & Alerts," Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra, http://www.tga.gov.au/recalls/index.htm (accessed December 13, 2004).

Subsequent footnote

Agency author, "Title of Page – shortened.”

5. Therapeutic Goods Administration, “Recalls & Alerts.”

Bibliography

Agency author of content. "Title of Page." Owner of the site. URL.

Therapeutic Goods Administration. "Recalls & Alerts." Department of Health and Ageing. Canberra.

http://www.tga.gov.au/.


Website documents


First footnote

Author Name Surname, "Title of Document / page," Owner of the site, URL (date of access).

1. Bruce McGregor, "History of Creek Activism," Friends of Merri Creek, http://home.vicnet.net.au/~fomc/ (accessed December 12, 2004).

Subsequent footnote

Author surname, "Title of Document/page – shortened.”

4. McGregor, “History of Creek Activism”.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Name. "Title of Document / page." Owner of site. URL.

McGregor, Bruce. "History of Creek Activism." Friends of Merri Creek. http://home.vicnet.net.au/~fomc/.

E-mail messages


References to conversations, letters, e-mail messages received by the author are usually only given in text or a footnote. They are rarely listed in a bibliography. Email addresses should be omitted.

Footnote

Name of sender, e-mail message to name of recipient, Month day, Year.

2. Constance Conlon, e-mail message to author, April 17, 2000.

Acknowledgement: RMIT University Library gratefully acknowledges Monash University Library’s permission to reproduce their examples in this guide.

Bibliography


Monash University Library. “Chicago (Notes-Bibliography) Style Examples.” Monash University Library.

http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/chicago.html (accessed November 28, 2007).

RMIT Business. “Written Reports and Essays: Guidelines for Referencing and Presentation in RMIT

Business.” RMIT University. http://mams.rmit.edu.au/s9sx559hurvc.rtf (accessed October 23, 2007).



The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

© RMIT University Library
This guide was last updated by KM on 6 May 2008

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