Assessing Educational Sanctions that Facilitate Student Learning with First-Time Alcohol Policy Violators



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Assessing Educational Sanctions that Facilitate Student Learning with First-Time Alcohol Policy Violators International Assessment and Retention Conference St. Louis, Missouri June 10, 2007

  • Dr. David Hoffman
  • Assistant Dean of Student Affairs and Director, Office of Citizenship and Community Standards
  • Truman State University

Agenda

  • Institutional Overview
    • Fast Facts
    • Context
  • Overview of Educational Sanctions
    • Educational Sanction Learning Outcomes
  • Educational Sanctions for First-time Alcohol Policy Violators
    • AlcoholEdu for Sanctions
    • Alcohol Discussion Group
    • Out-of-Class Experiences Planning Map Sanction Assignment
    • Alcohol Reflection Essay
    • Documenting Student Learning and Development
  • Experiential Activity: Evaluating an Alcohol Reflection Essay
  • Disseminating Results
  • Questions and Sharing:
    • Assessing student conduct learning and development outcomes on your campus

Truman State University

Quick Facts

  • Mission: Missouri’s highly selective public liberal arts and science university
    • Provide the quality of a private liberal arts education at a public institution cost
  • Location: Kirksville, Missouri
    • Rural community of 17,000 located:
    • 90 miles north of Columbia, MO
    • 150 miles northeast of Kansas City
    • 200 miles from St. Louis
    • 140 miles southeast from Des Moines, IA
  • Student to Faculty Ratio: 15:1

Truman State University: Quick Facts

  • On-campus Residents: approximately 3,000
  • Enrollment: approximately 6,000 total
    • 5,750 undergraduate
    • 250 graduate
    • 43% male/57%female
    • Average age 19
  • Greek Population: 1,520
    • 26% total
    • 20% women
    • 35% men
  • Campus Safety: Commissioned, armed police officers

Context

  • Truman has a long history of being a “dry” campus and alcohol is not permitted on campus for students, faculty, staff, or guests
  • Truman serves primarily traditional age, 18-22 year old students in a residential liberal arts setting
    • First-year students required to live on campus
      • Comprise about 50% of campus residents
      • Only about 25 local students that live at home
    • Other on-campus residents
      • Sophomores comprise 25%
      • Juniors and Seniors 25%

Context

  • Truman is a member of Missouri Partners in Prevention, a state-wide coalition of 12 four-year public higher education institutions committed to reducing underage student drinking and the misuse and abuse of alcohol
    • http://pip.truman.edu/
    • http://web.missouri.edu/~umcstudentlifemopip/
  • Comprehensive Campus Approach (based on recommendations of Higher Education Center)
    • Prevention Education
    • Harm Reduction
    • Environmental Management
    • Intervention

Context

  • Efforts of the campus-wide coalition as assessed by CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey and EBI Residence Life Survey have demonstrated:
    • Decrease in frequency and number of drinks consumed per occasion (CORE)
    • Decrease in high risk or “binge” drinking rates (CORE)
    • Decrease in number of underage drinkers (CORE)
    • Increase in resident students who report not drinking to 50% (EBI)
    • CORE: http://pip.truman.edu/survey_results.asp

Context

  • Alcohol policy enforcement is one prong of Truman’s campus-wide approach to addressing student alcohol misuse and abuse
  • Improved consistency in enforcing campus alcohol policy has resulted in increased conduct referrals during last six years from Residence Life and Campus Police to Conduct Office
  • The Office of Citizenship and Community Standards has a holistic educational philosophy in addressing student misconduct through the sanctioning process:
    • Environmental management-accountability for behavior
    • Prevention Education-enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes
    • Harm Reduction-enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes
    • Intervention-referral and accountability for behavior

2003-2006 Three-Year Alcohol Violation Statistics

  • Proscribed Conduct-Student Conduct Code
  • 2003-2004
  • 2004-2005
  • 2005-2006
  • Charged with Alcohol Violations
  • # of Offenses
  • % of Offenses
  • # of Offenses
  • % of Offenses
  • # of Offenses
  • % of Offenses
  • 10. Alcohol Violations
  • 106
  • 43.1%
  • 162
  • 41.5%
  • 184
  • 17.6%
  • 10.1 Public Intoxication
  • 34
  • 13.8%
  • 42
  • 10.8%
  • 63
  • 6.0%
  • 10.2 Manufacture, possession, distribution of alcoholic beverages
  • 71
  • 28.9%
  • 107
  • 27.4%
  • 115
  • 11.0%
  • 10.3 Operating a vehicle under the influence of alcohol
  • 1
  • 0.4%
  • 3
  • 0.8%
  • 4
  • 0.4%
  • 10.4 Furnishing Alcohol to under age students, intoxicated individuals, or students on University property.
  • 0
  • 0.0%
  • 10
  • 2.6%
  • 2
  • 0.2%

Overview of Educational Sanctions

  • Evolved from developmental sanctioning philosophy and guide
  • Developmental alcohol sanctions in place for six years
  • Influenced by Gary Pavela’s charge to learn from “positive psychology” and include more Socratic dialogue in sanctions
  • ASJA (Association for Student Judicial Affairs) listserv suggested using Harvard College Alcohol Study and having students focus on second-hand effects of alcohol

Overview of Educational Sanctions

  • Charged by SSAO to assess learning outcomes of departmental programs (sanctions)
  • Use Kitchener and King Reflective Judgment Model as a basis for alcohol reflection essays
  • Sanctions are assigned within the context of a comprehensive campus-wide approach to addressing student alcohol misuse and abuse

Educational Sanction Learning Outcomes

  • Provide/assure student baseline knowledge about alcohol
  • Provide opportunity for student to reflect on incident
  • Provide opportunity for student to take responsibility for behavior during incident
  • Provide opportunity for student to think about behaving differently in future based on incident and sanctions

Educational Sanctions for First-time Alcohol Policy Violators

  • Complete web-based AlcoholEdu for Sanctions course
    • $30 cost billed to student account
    • Allowed three weeks to complete first three chapters, two surveys, and exam
    • Allowed two weeks to complete Chapter 4 and Survey 3 after month interval from exam due date
  • Attend Alcohol Discussion Group offered by Counseling Center for conduct referrals
    • Offered once per month
    • 90-120 minute discussion group

Educational Sanctions for First-time Alcohol Policy Violators

  • Alcohol Reflection Essay
    • Essay 1 (Read Kingsley essay, reflect on Out-of-Class Experiences Planning Map assignment, and respond to prompts)-first-years
    • Essay 2 (Read Kingsley essay, read Harvard/Wechsler college alcohol study article, and respond to prompts)-sophomores
    • Essay 3 (Read Eesley essay, read Harvard/Wechsler college alcohol study article, and respond to prompts)-juniors/seniors

Additional Sanctions in Cases with Health or Safety Concerns

  • Parental notification in health and safety situations
    • BAC above .15, hospital ER visit, protective custody, driving while intoxicated
    • Student generally has 48 hours from hearing to inform parents and have them confirm with Conduct Officer
  • Assessment in severe intoxication or violence situations
    • Alcohol Innerview
    • Counseling Assessment
  • Residence hall relocation
  • Limitation on activities

AlcoholEdu for Sanctions

  • Special Features for Judicial Programs
    • Several important features of AlcoholEdu for Sanctions make it the most effective online tool available to meet the specific alcohol prevention needs of college judicial and disciplinary programs:
  • Screening Tool: AlcoholEdu for Sanctions integrates AUDIT (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), a tool developed by the World Health Organization, to help students assess their own drinking behavior. Though not a diagnostic intervention, the 10-question test presents automated feedback to students based on their responses, encouraging those with potential problems to seek support through a formal assessment by a trained health professional.

AlcoholEdu for Sanctions

  • Personalized Feedback: Based on proven motivational interviewing techniques, AlcoholEdu for Sanctions collects responses from students to questions about their behavior and provides information that helps them evaluate and reflect upon their past drinking choices.
  • Personal Journal: Students respond to open-ended questions about the kinds of choices and situations that often result in violations of alcohol policies in a confidential, personal journal. With year-long access through the AlcoholEdu for Sanctions Notebook portal, they can later review and reflect upon what they have written.

AlcoholEdu for Sanctions

  • Four-Chapter Format AlcoholEdu for Sanctions includes four chapters covering decision-making about drinking – from the way drinking affects college life to practical scenarios that illustrate the real circumstances in which drinking decisions will have to be made. The chapter contents include:
    • Shaping Our Decisions: Highlights to students the factors that influence their drinking decisions, including family and culture, social situations, media, and advertising.
    • Knowing the Facts: Introduces the science- and research-based facts, including the impact of alcohol on the body, the factors influencing BAC levels, its impact on risk-taking behaviors and decision-making, including drinking and driving, and the effects of various levels of BAC on learning and memory.

AlcoholEdu for Sanctions

    • When it Matters: Helps students design their own decision-making strategies, including handling parties, coping with peer pressure, understanding alcohol’s interactions with other drugs, finding a support network, and helping others address problems with alcohol.
    • Deciding for Yourself: Encourages students to integrate key content and decision-making strategies with their experiences with alcohol since the start of the program (approximately 30 days earlier).
  • The Course Also Features:
    • Surveys and knowledge tests. The course collects data on students’ alcohol-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at three points in time during the AlcoholEdu for Sanctions experience.

AlcoholEdu for Sanctions

    • Customized user experience. Customized course pathways – based on each student’s sex and drinking patterns – ensure students engage with the program in a meaningful and relevant way to help reduce negative consequences. The course also reassesses a student’s “readiness to change” later in the course and provides additional customization at that point.
    • Case-based learning and interactive exercises. A multi-series case study allows students to practice using realistic scenarios and develop skills that can be applied in their own lives. Interactive exercises are also included throughout the course to help reinforce key content.

AlcoholEdu for Sanctions

    • Evidence-based prevention strategies. The course incorporates evidence-based prevention strategies, including personalized feedback, motivational interviewing, expectancy theory, and normative feedback – strategies recommended by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).
    • Test out and opt out. The course acknowledges students’ previous learning, allowing them to “test out” of certain sections. Students can also “opt out” of certain, non-compulsory sections of the course. These options provide a satisfying, streamlined user experience.

AlcoholEdu for Sanctions

  • Course sequence
  • Outside The Classroom
    • http://www.outsidetheclassroom.com

AlcoholEdu for College Results 2004-2005

  • 98 students assigned to course
  • 88 students completed course
    • 3 students didn’t complete exam
    • 7 students didn’t complete course conclusion
  • 95 students completed exam
    • 91 met the required 75% passing score on the exam
    • Two students didn’t pass (73% and 74% scores)
    • Average score was 90.1%
    • High 100%; low 73%
  • Wealth of attitudinal and knowledge gain data provided in analysis by Outside the Classroom

AlcoholEdu for Sanctions Results 2005-2006

  • 99 students assigned to course
  • 75 students completed course
    • 2 students didn’t complete exam
    • 22 students didn’t complete course conclusion
  • 97 students completed
    • Average score on first attempt was 87.1%
    • High 100%,; low 65%
    • 13 students didn’t pass first-time and had to re-take the exam
  • 91 students completed exam with a passing score of 80 on the exam
    • Average score was 89%
    • High 100%; low 80%
  • Wealth of attitudinal and knowledge gain data provided in analysis by Outside the Classroom

Alcohol Discussion Group

  • Usually held once a month in the evening
  • Facilitated by University Counselor and Intern
  • Alcohol 101+ and AlcoholEdu materials serve as resource
  • Psycho-educational, mostly discussion based reflection group
  • Topics: responsible drinking, alcohol effects on the body, driving while intoxicated, setting drinking limits, etc.
  • Confidential, attendance verified
  • Students assigned sanction
    • 2004-2005: 87 students
    • 2005-2006: 64 students
    • 2006-2007: 60 students

Out-of-Class Experience Planning Map Sanction Assignment

Out-of-Class Experience Planning Map Sanction Assignment

  • First Year students
  • Completion of the Out-of-Class Planning Map Self-Assessment and Goal Setting Exercises by (Friday four weeks after hearing date) at 5 p.m.
    • You are required to review information on the Out-of-Class Experience Map which can be found at http://saffairs.truman.edu/planning_map/.
    • Please read and review the following sections: Understand the Purpose, Download the Map (Quadrants, Setting Goals, Examples, How to Get Involved, and How to Use the Map), Take the Self-Assessment, Experience the Benefits, and Questions for Students.

Out-of-Class Experience Planning Map Sanction Assignment

    • Please download and complete the Out-of-Class Planning Map Self-Assessment available at: http://saffairs.truman.edu/planning_map/self_assessment.htm.
    • After completing the self-assessment, download the Goal Sheet available at http://saffairs.truman.edu/planning_map/planning_map.htm. Please identify at least one long-term goal for each of the four quadrants and two out-of-class activities that you might engage in to accomplish each goal.
  • When you have completed the self-assessment and the goal sheet as instructed, seek out a member of the faculty or staff at Truman (your RCP or faculty advisor, hall director, coach, student affairs staff, etc.) to discuss your self-assessment and initial set of long-term goals.

Out-of-Class Experience Planning Map Sanction Assignment

  • Based on that discussion, revise your list of long-term goals and the out-of-class activities you have identified to assist you in achieving your goals.
  • Please submit by date copies of your self-assessment, your initial goals and out-of-class activities sheet, and your revised goals and out-of-class activities sheet.
  • Students assigned sanction:
    • 2004-2005: 64 students
    • 2005-2006: 76 students
    • 2006-2007: 33 students

Reflection Assignments for Alcohol Policy Violators

  • First assigned 2001-2002 by predecessor as Conduct Officer
  • Refined in 2002-2003 when I assumed role
  • Assessed beginning in 2003-2004 through 2005-2006 with an Alcohol Reflection Essay and a Harvard College Alcohol Study Article Review
    • Assignments refined a bit each year
    • First-year and sophomore students completed a reflection essay including reading Kingsley essay and completing Out-of-Class Experiences Planning Map
    • Juniors and seniors completed a reflection essay reading Eesley essay and completing separate Harvard College Alcohol Study Review
  • Revised to three essay assignment format in 2006-2007
  • Revised (shortened) evaluation form
  • Have used coalition members and conduct board members to evaluate

Alcohol Essay Evaluation 2004-2005 : Reflective Judgment

  • Dean of Student’s reviewed 84 usable reflection papers for reflective judgment based on Kitchener and King’s model
  • 69 (82%) demonstrated evidence of writer taking personal responsibility for actions
  • 59 (70%) indicated learning something from one or more of the educational sanctions
  • 55 (65%) indicated they would change their behavior based upon the experience

Alcohol Reflection Essay 1: First Year Students (FY07)

  • Assignment Directions:
    • Alcohol Reflection Essay 1 due date (after AlcoholEdu first date and Group) at 5:00 p.m. in the Office of Citizenship and Community Standards.
    • You are required to write a paper reflecting on what you have learned from this experience, your completion of AlcoholEdu for Sanctions, participation in the Alcohol Discussion Group, and completion of the Out-of-Class Planning Map assignment.
    • In addition, please read the essay by Jennifer Kingsley entitled “Academics are the Easy Part of College” available at: http://www.collegevalues.org/reflections.cfm?id=322&a=1 .
    • This paper should be three to five pages in length, 12-point font, Times New Roman, and double-spaced with standard margins.
    • This paper should utilize appropriate language, grammar, and spelling.
    • If the paper does not address these requirements it may be returned for revisions.

Alcohol Reflection Essay 1: First Year Students (FY07)

  • Reflection prompts:
    • Please write about what you have learned about your own decisions and behavior during this incident.
    • How do your values and ethics affect your decisions?
    • How does alcohol affect this decision-making ability for you?
    • What responsibility do you have for the effects of your drinking behavior on others, especially those in the Truman community?
    • How has your drinking behavior impacted others, especially those in the Truman community?
    • What are your thoughts on Ms. Kingsley’s statement “the most difficult, dilemma-filled component of college life is the social life.”

Alcohol Reflection Essay 2: Sophomore Students (FY07)

  • Assignment Directions
    • Alcohol Reflection Essay 2 due date (after AlcoholEdu for Sanctions first due date and Group) at 5:00 p.m. in the Office of Citizenship and Community Standards.
    • You are required to write a paper reflecting on what you have learned from this experience, your completion of AlcoholEdu for Sanctions, and participation in the Alcohol Discussion Group.
    • In addition, please read the essay by Jennifer Kingsley entitled “Academics are the Easy Part of College” available at: http://www.collegevalues.org/reflections.cfm?id=322&a=1 and the 2001 Harvard College Alcohol Study and Trends article by Henry Wechsler and others available at:

Alcohol Reflection Essay 2: Sophomore Students (FY07)

    • http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/Documents/trends/Trends.pdf.
    • This paper should be five to seven pages, 12-point font, Times New Roman, and double-spaced with standard margins.
    • This paper should utilize appropriate language, grammar, and spelling.
    • If the paper does not address the requirements it may be returned for revisions.

Alcohol Reflection Essay 2: Sophomore Students (FY07)

  • Reflection Prompts:
    • Please write about what you have learned about your own decisions and behavior during this incident.
    • How do your values and ethics affect your decisions?
    • How does alcohol affect this decision-making ability for you?
    • What are your thoughts on Ms. Kingsley’s statement “the most difficult, dilemma-filled component of college life is the social life?”

Alcohol Reflection Essay 2: Sophomore Students (FY07)

    • In reading the Harvard Study, please focus on what Wechsler and his colleagues describe as the secondary effects of binge drinking and alcohol abuse by college students. What responsibility do you have for the effects of your drinking behavior on others, especially those in the Truman community?
    • How has your drinking behavior impacted others, especially those in the Truman community?
    • Based on this review and your answers to the previous questions, do you believe you need to act differently in the future?
    • Why or why not?

Alcohol Reflection Essay 3: Junior/Senior Students (FY07)

  • Assignment Directions:
    • Reflection Paper due date (after AlcoholEdu for Sanctions first due date and Group) at 5:00 p.m. in the Office of Citizenship and Community Standards.
    • You are required to write a paper reflecting on what you have learned from this experience, your completion of AlcoholEdu for Sanctions, and participation in the Alcohol Discussion Group.
    • In addition, please read the essay by Chuck Eesley entitled “Figuring Out Life’s Most Important Questions” available at: http://www.collegevalues.org/reflections.cfm?id=676&a=1 and the 2001 Harvard College Alcohol Study and Trends article by Henry Wechsler and colleagues available at:

Alcohol Reflection Essay 3: Junior/Senior Students (FY07)

    • http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/Documents/trends/Trends.pdf
    • This paper should be five to seven pages, 12-point font, Times New Roman, and double-spaced with standard margins.
    • This paper should utilize appropriate language, grammar, and spelling.
    • If the paper does not address these requirements it may be returned for revisions.

Alcohol Reflection Essay 3: Junior/Senior Students (FY07)

  • Reflection Prompts:
    • Please answer the following questions: What legacy do you want to leave for this world?
    • What have you done to accomplish this?
    • How might your behavior in this incident be an obstacle to accomplishing your goals in this regard?
    • In reading the Harvard Study, please focus on what Wechsler and his colleagues describe as the secondary effects of binge drinking and alcohol abuse by college students.

Alcohol Reflection Essay 3: Junior/Senior Students (FY07)

    • What responsibility do you have for the effects of your drinking behavior on others, especially those in the Truman community?
    • How has your drinking behavior impacted others, especially those in the Truman community?
    • Based on this review and your answers to the previous questions, do you believe you need to act differently in the future?
    • Why or why not?

Alcohol Reflection Essays 2006-2007

  • Alcohol Reflection Essay 1 Assigned: 58
    • Completed as of June 3, 2007: 47
    • Fall 2006: 28 assigned; 27 completed
    • Spring 2007: 30 assigned; 20 completed
  • Alcohol Reflection Essay 2 Assigned: 13
    • Completed as of June 3, 2007 : 9
    • Fall 2006: 9 assigned; 6 completed
    • Spring 2007:4 assigned; 3 completed
  • Alcohol Reflection Essay 3 Assigned: 29
    • Completed as of June 3, 2007 : 24
    • Fall 2006: 22 assigned; 19 completed
    • Spring 2007: 7 assigned; 5 completed

Fall 2006 Alcohol Essay Sanction Evaluation

  • A sample of 51 out of 52 completed Alcohol Reflection Essays were evaluated from the Fall 2006 semester
    • Alcohol Reflection Essay 1: 27
    • Alcohol Reflection Essay 2: 6
    • Alcohol Reflection Essay 3: 19
  • Evaluations were conducted by six student members of University Conduct Board
  • Rater disagreements were resolved by a student worker in Office of Citizenship and Community Standards

Fall 2006 Alcohol Essay Sanction Evaluation

  • Theme
  • Yes
  • No
  • Not Discussed
  • A. AlcoholEdu for Sanctions
  • A.1 Student reported AlcoholEdu for sanctions was
  • 31
  • 12
  • 8
  • a positive experience
  • 60.8%
  • 23.5%
  • 15.7%
  • A.2 Student reported gaining useful knowledge and/or
  • 32
  • 11
  • 8
  • information from AlcoholEdu for Sanctions
  • 62.7%
  • 21.6%
  • 15.7%
  • A.3 Other themes:
  • 5
  • 38
  • 8
  •  
  • 9.8%
  • 74.5%
  • 15.7%

Fall 2006 Alcohol Essay Sanction Evaluation

  • B. Alcohol Discussion Group
  • B.1 Student reported the Alcohol Discussion Group
  • 20
  • 11
  • 20
  • was a positive experience
  • 39.2%
  • 21.6%
  • 39.2%
  • B.2 Student reported gaining useful knowledge and/or
  • 18
  • 13
  • 20
  • information from Alcohol Discussion Group
  • 35.3%
  • 25.5%
  • 39.2%
  • B.3 Other themes:
  • 4
  • 27
  • 20
  •  
  • 7.8%
  • 53.0%
  • 39.2%

Fall 2006 Alcohol Essay Sanction Evaluation

  • C. Reflective Judgment
  • C.1 Essay demonstrates student taking personal
  • 46
  • 5
  •  
  • responsibility for his/her actions/behavior during
  • 90.2%
  • 9.8%
  •  
  • incident
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • C.2 Essay demonstrates student gained useful
  • 41
  • 10
  •  
  • 80.4%
  • 19.6%
  •  
  • of the educational sanctions
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • C.3 Essay demonstrates that student indicates he/she
  • 42
  • 9
  •  
  • will change behavior based on incident
  • 82.4%
  • 17.6%
  •  

Fall 2006 Alcohol Essay Evaluation: Documenting Student Learning and Development

  • Compiled summary list of narrative themes documented by evaluators
  • Evaluation of the alcohol reflection essays demonstrate that approximately 75% of those discussing AlcoholEdu for Sanctions reported gaining useful knowledge and that it was a positive experience
  • Evaluation of the alcohol reflection essays demonstrate that approximately two-thirds of those discussing the Alcohol Discussion Group reported gaining useful knowledge and that it was a positive experience
  • The alcohol reflection essay demonstrate that over 80% of the sanctioned students achieved the learning reflection outcomes as assessed by the evaluators.

Experiential Activity

  • Rate an Alcohol Reflection Essay
  • Compare ratings with your partner
  • Discussion

Disseminating Results

  • Results of the assessment have been shared in the department’s annual report with the Senior Student Affairs Officer since 2003-2004.
  • The SSAO included the results from the department’s annual report in a bi-monthly report to University Board of Governors in August 2004.
  • The Board of Governors were intrigued by the assessment and asked that this assessment data continue to be collected and reported to them on an annual basis.

Disseminating Results

  • The summary data is available to the University community on the office website.
  • The data is shared annually with other Student Affairs directors as part of the office presentation of assessment data.
  • The outcome evaluation data has been significant in refining and/or retaining the reflection prompts, the alcohol discussion group, and AlcoholEdu for Sanctions

Discussion and Questions

  • Successful Educational Sanctions for Violators on your campus?
  • THANK YOU!!

David A. Hoffman, Ph.D.

  • Assistant Dean of Student Affairs and Director, Office of Citizenship and Community Standards
  • Truman State University
  • E-mail: dhoffman@truman.edu
  • Voice: 660.785.4111
  • Web: http://conduct.truman.edu

Resources

  • Web
    • Truman State University
  • http://www.truman.edu/
    • Office of Citizenship and Community Standards
  • http://conduct.truman.edu/
    • Partners in Prevention
  • http://pip.truman.edu/
    • Student Affairs
  • http://saffairs.truman.edu/
    • Out-of-Class Planning Map
    • http://.truman.edu/planning_map/
  • References
    • King, P. & Kitchener, K. (1994). Developing reflective judgment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    • Pavela, G. (2001, April 18). Student ethical development and “positive psychology,” Law and Policy Report, (13). (Retrieved June 4, 2007 http://www.asjaonline.org/en/art/?65 ).
    • Olshack, R. (2000). A guide for effective sanctioning: From theory to practice. Normal, IL: Illinois State University

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