8 Parts of Speech The Building Blocks of ela 8 Parts of Speech



Download 2.2 Mb.
Date07.06.2018
Size2.2 Mb.
#49971

8 Parts of Speech

  • The Building Blocks of ELA

8 Parts of Speech

  • Nouns
  • Pronouns
  • Adjectives
  • Verbs
  • Adverbs
  • Prepositions
  • Conjunctions
  • Interjections
  • The 3 “tions”

Nouns

  • Names a
  • Person
  • Place
  • Thing
  • Idea
  • Examples:
  • Mary, girl, neighbor
  • New York, town, city
  • food, school, house, fox
  • honesty, freedom, kindness

Nouns

  • Can be
  • Common
  • or
  • Proper*
  • Examples:
  • girl, boy, town, school, subject, state, country
  • Susan, Thomas, Tonawanda,
  • St. Amelia School, English, New York, United States of America,
  • * Proper nouns are ALWAYS CAPITALIZED!

Nouns

  • Can be
  • Concrete
  • (can be seen or touched)
  • or
  • Abstract
  • (cannot be seen or touched)
  • Examples:
  • desk, child, gumball
  • freedom, responsibility,
  • honesty, prejudice

Nouns

  • Can be compound
  • and written as:
  • Single word
  • Separate words
  • Hyphenated words
  • Examples:
  • homework, textbook, classmate, grandmother
  • pen pal, word processing, Maryann Smith, dining room
  • three-fourths, mother-in-law, sister-in-law, self-esteem

Pronouns

  • Take the place of a noun – acts as its substitute.
  • The noun being substituted by the pronoun is its ANTECEDENT.
  • (prefix “ante” means “before”; therefore, most antecedents come before their pronouns.)
  • Examples:
  • Susan said that she was sorry.
  • Thomas claimed the pencil belonged to him. Later he realized that it belonged to Mark.

Pronouns

  • Reflexive vs. Intensive
    • Pronouns that end in “self” or “selves”
    • Examples:
      • herself
      • himself
      • themselves
  • Intensive =
  • antecedent is next to the pronoun
  • Mary herself made the cake.
  • Reflexive =
  • Pronoun functions as direct object, indirect object, or object of a preposition.
  • Mary hurt herself. (D.O.)
  • Mary baked herself a cake. (I.O)
  • Mary studied by herself. (Obj. of Prep.)

Pronouns

  • Can be
  • Demonstrative
  • THIS
  • THAT
  • THESE
  • THOSE
  • Examples:
  • This is mine.
  • That is yours.
  • These are broken.
  • Those are sweet.
  • Use your finger to “demonstrate”!

Adjectives

  • Describe/Modify
  • Nouns
  • Pronouns
  • Answer Questions:
  • Which one?
  • What kind?
  • How many?
  • Can be
  • Proper
  • or
  • Common
  • As ARTICLES,
  • can be
  • Definite
  • or
  • Indefinite
  • Can be
  • Demonstrative:
  • This
  • That
  • These
  • Those
  • Look at that colorful balloon!

Adjectives

  • Answer Questions:
  • Which one?
  • What kind?
  • How many?
  • Examples:
  • Bring me the red sweater.
  • I am wearing a wool sweater.
  • I own six sweaters.

Adjectives

  • Can be
  • Demonstrative
  • THIS
  • THAT
  • THESE
  • THOSE
  • Examples:
  • This house is mine.
  • That house is yours.
  • These crayons are broken.
  • Those apples are sweet.
  • Use your finger to “demonstrate”!

Adjectives

  • Can be
  • Interrogative
  • and will prompt a
  • question:
      • Which
      • What
      • Whose
  • Examples:
    • Which books are yours?
    • What movie is your favorite?
    • Whose lunch is this?

Adjectives

  • Can be
  • Indefinite
  • (not clear exactly which ones or how many)
  • Every boy wears a tie.
  • We ate a few cookies.
  • Tom spent some time doing his chores.

Adjectives

  • Can be
  • Common
  • or
  • Proper*
  • Examples:
  • I am a good citizen.
  • I ate the delicious food.
  • I am an American citizen.
  • I ate the Chinese food.
  • * Proper adjectives are ALWAYS CAPITALIZED!

Adjective Articles

  • Can be
  • Definite
  • (the)
  • or
  • Indefinite
  • (a; an)
  • Examples:
  • Please bring me the apple from my desk.
  • Please pick up the pen from the floor.
  • Please bring me an apple from the bag.
  • Please choose a pen from the box.

Verbs

  • 3 types of verbs:
      • Action (a.k.a. Main Verb)
      • Linking (a.k.a. Main Verb)
      • Helping (introduces the main verb)

Verbs

  • The final verb in a sentence is the main verb (action or linking).
  • Verbs that introduce the main verb are the helping verbs.
  • I baked a cake. ACTION VERB
  • The cake was delicious. LINKING VERB
  • I did bake a delicious cake. 1 HELPING VERB + ACTION VERB
  • I should have been on time. 2 HELPING VERBS + LINKING VERB
  • I should have been eating by now. 3 HELPING VERBS + ACTION VERB

Action Verbs

  • Show action!
    • run
    • smile
    • study
    • read

Action Verbs

  • Transitive [AV  DO]
    • Verb action has a noun or pronoun receiver (a.k.a. direct object)
    • I ate an apple.
    • Susan wrote a great essay.
  • Intransitive
    • Verb action has no receiver (no direct object)
    • I ate earlier.
    • Susan wrote all night.

Common Linking Verbs

  • Show existence, being
    • am I am happy.
    • is He is a good student.
    • are They are here.
    • was The child was tired.
    • were We were in school.
    • be Please be on time.
    • being Please stop being rude.
    • been We have been here before.

Familiar Linking Verbs

  • Show existence, being
    • look You look great!
    • feel I feel sick.
    • taste The lemon tastes sour.
    • sound This song sounds familiar.
    • smell The garbage smells awful.
    • appear You appear angry.
    • become He became president.
    • seem They seem tired.
    • remain She remained calm.
  • Hint: if you can replace a verb with Am, Is, Are, Was, or Were, the verb is functioning as a LINKING VERB!

Linking Verbs [LV  PA / PN]

  • Linking verbs “link” the subject of the sentence with a noun or adjective (a.k.a. Predicate Noun or Predicate Adjective) that gives us information about the subject.
  • Examples:
    • I am a girl. (PN)
    • She was pretty. (PA)
    • I felt sick. (PA)*
    • This is my phone. (PN)
    • This tastes sour. (PA)*
    • The test is easy. (PA)
    • You look great! (PA)*
    • You are my hero. (PN)
  • *Hint: if you can replace a verb with Am, Is, Are, Was, or Were, the verb is functioning as a LINKING VERB!

Helping Verbs (a.k.a. Auxiliary Verbs)

  • Helping verbs combine with the main verb to form a verb phrase.
  • A sentence can contain up to 3 helping verbs for each main verb.
    • We have eaten these before.
    • I am driving a new car.
    • They should be sleeping by now.
    • We should have been studying all week.

Common Helping Verbs

  • am I am eating this.
  • is She is eating this.
  • are They are eating this.
  • was I was eating this.
  • were They were eating this.
  • be You should be eating this.
  • being It is being eaten by you.
  • been You could have been eating this.

Common Helping Verbs

  • have I have studied.
  • has She has studied.
  • had We had studied together.
  • did We did study for the test.
  • does He does study each night.
  • do I do study every night.

Familiar Helping Verbs

  • may You may eat now.
  • must You must eat now.
  • might He might eat now.
  • can We can eat now.
  • could They could eat now.
  • should I should eat now.
  • would We would eat now.
  • will She will eat now.

Adverbs

Adverbs

  • Answers questions:
    • When?
    • Where?
    • How?
    • To what extent?
    • Condition or reason
  • Examples
    • All our relatives gather yearly. (when)
    • This year we celebrated uptown. (where)
    • Joyously, we greeted one another. (how)
    • We were very happy to be together. (to what extent)

Adverbs

  • Many adverbs end in the suffix “ly”.
    • Formed by adding “ly” to adjectives
      • happy – happily
      • easy –easily
      • grateful –gratefully
    • Exceptions: these words which end in “ly” are usually adjectives:
      • friendly
      • lively
      • lovely
      • lonely
  • Some adverbs not ending in “ly”:
  • afterward near
  • already never
  • always not
  • anywhere now
  • away nowhere
  • below often
  • even outside
  • ever seldom
  • everywhere short
  • fast sometimes
  • forever somewhere
  • hard soon
  • here straight
  • home then
  • late there
  • long well
  • Remember: “NOT” is NOT a Verb! It’s an Adverb!!

Good vs. Well

  • “Good” and “bad” are adjectives. Use them before nouns or after Linking Verbs (as Predicate Adjectives).
  • I had a good day.
  • (good modifies the noun day).
  • My day was bad.
  • (bad is a Predicate Adjective which follows the Linking Verb was.)
  • “Well” and “badly” are adverbs. Use them to modify verbs.
  • I did well on my test.
  • I did badly on my test.
  • (well and badly modify the verbs did)
  • ** “Well” may also be used as an adjective to mean “healthy”.
  • You look well today.
  • (well is a Predicate Adjective which follows the Linking Verb look)

Prepositions

  • How many words can you relate to the mountain?
    • up the mountain
    • down the mountain
    • around the mountain
    • through the mountain
    • over the mountain
    • behind the mountain

Prepositions

  • MUST BE
  • in a prepositional phrase

Prepositional Phrases PP

  • Prepositional phrases consist of:
    • Preposition + Object of the Preposition
    • up the mountain
    • through the door
    • on the teacher’s desk

Prepositional Phrases PP

  • Preposition is the 1st word in a prepositional phrase
  • Object of the Preposition is the last word (noun or pronoun) in a prepositional phrase
    • up the mountain
    • through the door
    • under the desk
  • Remember: Prepositional phrases NEVER contain verbs!

Improper Prepositions

  • What is wrong with these sentences?
    • What channel are you on?
    • Whom are you going with?
  • Prepositions MUST BE in prepositional phrases!
      • You are on what channel?
      • You are going with whom?

Prepositions PP

  • Some prepositions cannot be easily related to the mountain, such as
    • of
    • with
    • about
    • from
    • as
  • Some prepositions are made up of 2 or more words, such as
    • according to
    • in between
    • in spite of
    • on top of
    • in addition to

Prepositions PP

  • Common Prepositions:
  • aboard before down of throughout
  • about behind during on to
  • above below except onto toward
  • across beneath for opposite under
  • after beside from out underneath
  • against besides in outside until
  • along between inside over up
  • among beyond into past upon
  • around but (except) like since with
  • as by near through within
  • at

Prepositions

  • Multi-word prepositions
  • according to because of in spite of
  • across from except for instead of
  • along with in front of on top of
  • aside from in place of on account of
  • in addition to

Coordinating Conjunctions

  • Coordinating Conjunctions
    • and
    • but
    • for
    • nor
    • or
    • so
    • yet
  • Examples:
  • The pens and pencils are here.
  • I like carrots but not lima beans.
  • I’m excited, for today is my birthday.
  • I didn’t like the movie, nor did she.
  • Are you eating pizza or hamburgers?
  • Mary wanted a new phone, so she saved her allowance money.
  • He works quickly yet carefully.
  • Conjunction Junction, what's your function?

Correlative Conjunctions

  • Correlative Conjunctions
    • Either ~ or
    • Neither ~ nor
    • Not only ~ but also
    • Both ~ and
    • Whether ~ or
  • Examples:
  • I’ll either walk or jog home.
  • Neither you nor I have blue eyes.
  • Not only do I like ELA, but I also like science class.
  • Leah earned an A in both math and religion.
  • We need to decide whether to leave or to stay.

Interjections!!!!!!!

  • Interjections typically indicate strong feelings or excitement.
    • Wow! We won!
    • Ouch! That pan is hot!
    • Yes! I got an A!
  • Some interjections are followed by commas, and indicate a mild feeling instead or a strong one.
    • Well, I better get started.
    • Oh, how I dread Mondays.
  • Ouch!
  • He yelled an interjection when the nurse gave him an injection!


Download 2.2 Mb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page