a. From the bipolar dominated world to a multipolar emerging market states, the world has proved to be a dynamic being. From the era of Panchsheel to Gujral doctrine to the current engagements viz. BIMSTEC et al, India has adapted to the needs of the time. But recent upheavals solicit a faster adaptation to the changes.
It is noteworthy that the goodwill gesture tendered towards the Panchsheel members is anachronistic in the present world order. The Panchsheel members viz. Yugoslavia and USSR have disintegrated into smaller nations each having its unique set of assets and problems.
With the status of being largest democracies in S Asia India needs to reinvent its foreign policy. In the wake of changing wants and needs of the “Asian Tigers” India requires to rejig its strategy for this resource rich geostrategic region.
The burgeoning economies of S. Asia are proving to be a tight rope walk for India in the recent past. Hence while utilizing various multinational dialogues to constructively engage the South Asian neighbours India needs to make a fresh start by quitting its inflexibility and establish itself as a regional political force.
b. Indian foreign policy is based on the ” Panchasheel agreement ” advocated by Nehru. India attained independence at a time when there is a height of the cold war. India propounded ” Non-alignment ” as its principle in foreign policy. Many newly born countries of Asia and Africa followed the path of Non-alignment. But, in the later periods Indian foreign policy has to change according to changes at the global level. But, Indian foreign policy has been that of strategic but hesitant, safe playing and not strong enough to establish India as a regional political force. To begin with, although there has been improvement in resolving the border issue, the skirmishes from time to time along the POK have emerged as a blockade for ensuring a peaceful solution. Further, the Indi-china war of 1962 can be attributed to the lack of decision making at the critical time. Though long-standing border issue have reached its zenith through the signing of Border Cooperation Agreement, the aggressiveness of china to occupy Indian territories and distance India from its neighbours through ” String of pearls ” operation needs special attention. In case of Bangladesh, India helped to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan. Since then, India played a key role in helping as a neighbour country. But, the Farrakka issue, the exchange of enclaves and the Teesta water agreement are blockades for effective bilateral relationship. The recent decision of India abstaining from voting at UNHRC meet in Geneva, is a sudden shift of strategy from the earlier ones. India, must take examples of Vietnam and south Africa in maintaining friendly relations even with enemies once upon a time, and must revisit its foreign policy. This will go a long way in enhancing the image of India in its neighbourhood, not as a big brother but as a supportive neighbour.
c. India advocate of peaceful and friendly relations has always tried to keep good relation with its South Asian neighbour. Since its independence India has supported the cause of independence of its neighbours and provided security to Maldives and Bangladesh. India keeping aside its own benefit has shared water with Bangladesh and Pakistan. Even after wars India has tried to keep amicable reaction with its neighbours as Pakistan by initiating peace talks and public interaction. Helping Afghanistan in rooting out Taliban is step to safety for India. It has kept very comfortable environment for Nepalese to harness economic and educational opportunities and on the other hand helping Bhutan’s economy to grow faster. Being deviated from its Gujaral Doctrine India has voted earlier against Sri Lanka to compel it for probe in alleged repression of Tamil people but in 2014 by abstaining from voting India has made relation better with Sri Lanka. The moves of India since independence certainly make it friend than “Big Brother” but in critical cases India needs to deviate from its straight defined path as done in war, support to Bangladesh independence, voting against Sri Lanka in UNHRC. Its helping nature has not stopped a few nations from intriguing against it whereas some nations are always in favor if India. Hence India needs to evaluate different approach to neighbors to maintain its supremacy and safety.
2. Discuss the importance of creating a strong manufacturing-based middle class in India. Why do you think India has failed in creating a strong skilled labor force in manufacturing sector? Examine.
a. Manufacturing sector has got the capacity to absorb large number of unemployed people, more so in case of developing countries like India with such a large population. But, unfortunately, the growth in this important sector remained sluggish over the years.
There is a trend of people shifting from agricultural and allied activities to manufacturing sector due to unprofitable business in the former.This renders manufacturing crucial for India’s development and employment objectives and makes manufacturing extremely important for India, where agriculture constitutes a minor share of GDP, but accounts for a disproportionately large share in employment. Also, India has entered in service sector without giving manufacturing its due attention and it resulted in a type of “jobless growth” due to lack of forward-backward linkages between the sectors.These factors underlines need for creating strong manufacturing based middle class in india.
There may be various reasons ascribed for India failing to create a strong skilled force in manufacturing sector. Some of them are as follows:
1) Poor performance of National Skill Development Initiative in India.
2) Policy paralysis, i.e, Less government attention being given to imparting vocational training.
3) Failure of capacity building of institutions for planning, quality assurance and involvement of stake holders..
4) Lack of effective convergence between school education, various skill development efforts of government and between government and Private Sector initiative.
5) Inability in creating the required institutional mechanism for research development, quality assurance, examinations & certification, affiliations and accreditation.
6) slow pace in increasing capacity & capability of existing system to ensure equitable access to all.
b. Manufacturing sector in india contribute to 15% of the GDP and 50% of the country’s export.It has employed 70 million people and studies has estimated that every job created in manufacturing has a multiplier effect, creating 2–3 jobs in the services sector. The importance of creating a strong manufacturing based middle class lies in the fact that 1. it has much larger job creating potential as compared to service sector. 2.Development of robust manufacturing sector will bridge the gap between the highly paying specialised service sector job and meagerly paying agricultural sector thus reducing the income inequality. 3.service sector requires specialisation and higher education which has higher opportunity cost whereas manufacturing sector needs skills which can be developed with nominal education and exclusive skill training. 4.Currently Indian economy is largely domestic demand driven.For the long term growth prespective,it should be supplemented with a export driven manufacturing sector which will also contribute to curb CAD and dwindling foreign reserves. 5.India’s skill base and overwhelming rural economic base provide the conducive condition to develop a manufacturing sector based on cheap,light goods and food processing. But India has failured to create a strong skilled labour force in manufacturing sector due to following reasons. 1.Capital intensive production was promoted rather the labour intensive production. 2.many manufacturing goods were reserved for SME sector but skewed incentive system promoted the SME sector to remain small rather than expand.It reduces its economy of scale and render it uncompetitive in external and domestic market. 3.various procedural impediments and bureaucreatice inefficency has also prevented the development of strong manufacturing base. 4.Lack of basic infrastructure such as power,road also acted as disincentive. 5.Poor technological base and stringent labour laws has also hampered the growth. Although Government has taken many measures to promote manufacturing sector such as National Manufacturing policy,development of industrial corridor etc but still for a strong manufacturing based middle class to emerged much more has to be done.
c. Manufacturing sector in India is deficient as compare to service sector. If we see our development since independence than we can conclude that India haven’t given suitable attention to manufacturing sector. India’s manufacturing sector contributes almost 16 % in India’s GDP. It has a vast potential which can be harnessed by middle class. Middle class in India primarily depends on service sector which is 50% contributor in our GDP. We must facilitate manufacturing sector (now GOI has started NIMZ policy which should be started earlier) so that it could attract Indian middle class youth which have a potential to become a skilled labor force. Middle class who is having a high potential of purchasing power can contribute in the social development indicators like education, health. Strong manufacturing based middle class will be helpful in the development of country. India has failed in creating a strong skilled labor force in manufacturing sector because- 1) In early year of policy making importance of manufacturing sector was neglected. 2) Our earlier five year plans emphasized on the agriculture sector and later emphasis was on service sector. 3) Our education system didn’t pay attention on this sector 4) Apprenticeship which is a major skill learning technique in western world was not given importance. 5) Lack of heavy machineries, high technology in the initial period is also a reason. Therefore we can say that India must focus on manufacturing sector development (like skilled labour, manufacturing zone) which is a prime indicator of development of any country.
3. What measures has India taken so far to combat climate change effects? Examine.
a. India has started more proactive engagement on climate change both internationally and at home. India’s investment in climate change has been ramping up. There are number of initiatives undertaken as part of India’s larger National Action Plan on Climate Change which outlines a number of steps to simultaneously advance India’s development and climate change-related objectives. It focuses on eight missions:
1. National Solar Mission: A target to install 20 gigawatts (GW) of solar capacity by 2020 and 200 GW by 2050. It also includes the establishment of a solar research center, increased international collaboration and strengthening of domestic manufacturing capacity.
2. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency: It recommends specific energy consumption decreases in large energy-consuming industries, financing for public–private partnerships to reduce energy consumption andreduced taxes on energy-efficient appliances.
3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: It aims at promoting energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning along with waste management and recycling.
4. National Water Mission: It sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency.
5. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: To prevent melting of the Himalayan glaciers and to protect biodiversity in the region.
6. Green India Mission: Aims at afforestation and expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of India’s territory.
7. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture: Through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices.
8. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: The plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund and increased international collaboration.
Despite a common goal of global climate stabilization, each country has a different responsibility to address the problem. The major responsibility is that of the developed countries, and they should carry out credible action in order to mitigate climate change.
b. The impact of climate change is a tremendous risk to the security and well-being of countries. It directly affects livelihoods, reduces food-grain production, destroys homes and raises food prices. India is a party to United Nation framework on climate change convention (UNFCC). To combat climate change and its effect in future, India has taken many steps as-
1) National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) and state APCC is being implemented,
2) 30 “solar cities” have been planned to reduce at least 10 % dependence on conventional energy,
3) 8 National missions under NAPCC on Solar, Water, Himalayan ecosystem, Sustainable habitat, Sustainable agriculture, ‘Green India’, Enhanced energy efficiency, Strategic knowledge for climate change have been started,
4) India hosted ‘Rio +20’ in 2012,
5) The Government has a domestic mitigation goal of reducing emissions intensity of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 20-25% by 2020 in comparison with 2005 level,
6) Encouraging Indian industry to participate in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) program,
7) Launch of Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA),
8) Inclusion of Forestry within MGNREGA to increase forest area coverage,
9) Fuel efficiency norms has been tightened,
10)INSAT-3D – the meteorological Satellite with advanced weather monitoring has been launched to close monitoring on Climate Change,
11) National environment policy, 2006 has been implemented,
12) Renewable Energy Procurement Obligation (RPO)
13) ‘Climate Change Action Program (CCAP)’ – a new umbrella Scheme has been approved by the Planning Commission for implementation during the 12th Five year Plan.
Proper Implementation of these programs and steps to control the rise in temperature is necessary for India to avoid extreme weather events such as last year’s flash floods in Uttarakhand and cyclone Phailin in Odisha.
c. India is faced with the challenge of sustaining its rapid economic growth while dealing with the glob¬al threat of climate change.
Recognizing that climate change is a global challenge, India engaged actively in multilateral negotiations in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, in a positive, constructive and for¬ward-looking manner and is also part Kyoto protocol.
India also took some domestic measures like National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC) The plan identifies eight core national missions .
The government has a domestic mitigation goal of reducing emissions intensity of gross domestic product by 20-25% by 2020 in comparison with 2005 level
National policy of bio fuels to promote cultivation, production and use of bio fuel for transport and other applications.
It also took some measures in GHG Mitigation in Power Generation like encouraging supercritical and ultra-supercritical plants, natural gas based power plants, efficient transmission and distribution , biomass based power generation technologies, wind power, small scale dams and also launch of Indian satellite to monitor GHG.
India also took so many legislative decision like forest conservation act, air (prevention and control of pollution) act, water (prevention and control of pollution)act ,environment protection act, national, environmental tribunal act
But all these measures is not sufficient due to our growing energy need, and in further increase in our economic growth India will be facing more problems in near future due to most of Indian lives directly linked to the nature.
4. Comment on the nature and consequences of China’s economic model and governance system under the existing political leadership. Do you think such a model suits India? Critically comment.
a. The Chinese model of governanace is not the socialism of the past as envisaged by Diaoping or as practiced by Russia . It is however a form of state corporate capitalism where political elite (Princelings) control the economy through subsidiaries.
Similarly their political system consists of Princeling rule , closed door meetings, dramatised elections and unpunished corruption at the cost of the poor. Their political system is seen as a means to achieve greater ends even at the cost of widespread repression , human rights violations and state sponsored censure.
China has become the toast of the world in terms of economic growth , technological advancement and military prowess. However in my opinion this model is antithetical to India.
It is true we suffer from a policy paralysis , bureaucratic nexus and red tapism which has resulted in slowing down of economy. However even with these impediments we have been the second fastest growing economy and have pulled out second largest number of people languishing in poverty.
Our political system envisiaging fundamental rights , holy principles of justice, liberty and equality should never be sacrificed at the altars of development and quixotic economic progress . Will of the people shall always be of paramount importance and growth and greatness shall be achieved within the democratic parameters .
b. China has modified and brought some prudent shanges into its economic model ,after the failure of the pure socialist model was made evident by the collapse of the USSR and other est european sicialist states.It has now embraced a capitalist model economy,with a communist political and social control.The communist party of china draws large,long term plans,and exercises absolute authority in decision making.
Such a comprehensive embrace of the market economy has yielded high returns to china.It has been the largest growing economy for the past two decades.The swiftness of decisons taken,a conducive busness and entreprenial environment that a committed party leadership is able to secure,with least regard for dissent or democratic deliberation,indeed works well for capitalist growth.however,inspite of impressive rise in living standards,and its emergence as an important power,china’s model has also created some long term consequences.Growing inequality between rural and urban areas,intolerance for dissent and exclusive control of the CCP has ensured that China remains vulnerable to vioelnt protests.
Such a model definitley ill suits India.Both India’s democratic culture and its diversity make any such proposal a far fetched one.Due diligence to regional,ethnic,religious and social factors are key to India’s stability and progress so far,and for the foreseeable future.Even with a welfarist approach,socio-economic inequalities in India are increasing.An authoritarian and dogmatic adminstrative structure will only end up being more exploitative and alienating.This very alienation and uneven economic development is exploited by Maoists in the red corridor.Various disruptive and ideologically motivated groups have been trying to utilise different aspirations and more narrow loyalties of religion,language,ethnicity atc.Only a democratic,inclusive set up can even hope to ameliorate their feeling and demands and make them part of the larger national narrative
5. “Separation of powers is indispensable because under the Constitution, power divides itself so that reason can rule.” In the light of recent tussle between various organs of the state, critically comment on the statement.
a. “Separation of powers is indispensable because under the Constitution, power divides itself so that reason can rule.” In the light of recent tussle between various organs of the state, critically comment on the statement.
The theory of separation of powers between the three organs of the Government is considered as the basic structure of Constitution where each organ acts independently of one other. As absolute power corrupts absolutely, the organs ensure checks and balances by preventing the concentration of power under single authority and protecting individual liberty.
But the separation is not watertight as there is overlapping in their functioning which is evident from the recent tussle between various organs.
• Judiciary and Legislature
SC has held that Parliament had no legislative competence to enact Section 8(4) of RPA underlining the increasing criminalization of politics. But Cabinet through ordinance attempted to protect convicted MPs and MLAs from facing immediate disqualification negating the SC order. The unilateral judicial solution undermines the importance of solutions based on compromise and consensus. SC judgment in declaring Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code as unconstitutional has belittled the right of LGBT to live with dignity instead of protecting them.
• Judiciary and Executive
The judicial solutions have curtailed the exclusive power of executives evident from SC judgement on establishing Civil Service Board, fixing tenure of civil servants, etc aimed to protect officers from wrongful pressure from their superiors, political masters. SC in Shatrughan Chauhan Case has overstepped the exclusive constitutional power of clemency of President providing humane treatment of convict. But the SC’s order to BCCI chief to step down is criticized to be an act of judicial overreach.
• Legislature and Executive
Though the separation is partial between legislature and executives in parliamentary democracy yet the vested interest of electoral politicking by providing reservations to backward community like Jat, TN government’s decision to release prisoners, etc. might provide short term electoral victory but has long term eroding consequences.
Thus the organs need to function separately for the smooth functioning of the sovereignty but narrow objectives of selfish interests and individual authority should not overpower the national interests.
b. The constitution of India drew from constitutions of several establishing and established democracies of the world at the time. Constituent Assembly envisaged a constitution that would serve the purpose, need and prosperity of largest and most diverse democracy of world with utmost pragmatism. History had taught them a hard lesson, which prompted them to separate power among various public institutions.
But this idea of separation of power has a flipside too. At times it has lead to confusion, conflict and confrontation. Seizure of democracy and democratic rights during emergency is one example. Also executive has accused judiciary of unwanted and unwarranted activism, which they allege, establishes a dangerous precedent.
Judiciary termed RPA Art. 8 (4) ultra vires. Parliament almost revoked it with legislation. Similarly court has given judgment on caste based political rallies. The case of clemency plea , in which petitioner was suffering due to indecisive executive, is another case to that. It is being debated that this non-allegiance to authoritative limits is undemocratic.
But this is not true. Democracy is a place where different opinion should emnate, enlighten and enforce itself. Separation of power provides public institutions an ideal platform to practice it. No singular institution can claim monopoly. In this light , despite few hiccups, separation of power has been guiding force for democracy in India.