V7064 society state and humanity

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BA 1st year Philosophy elective course
Spring-Summer Terms 2010
Course outline and reading list

Lecturer: Andrew Chitty, a.e.chitty@sussex.ac.uk, tel. (67)8296, room B241

Office hours: Tuesdays 11.30-12.30, Wednesdays 2.00-3.00

Seminar tutor: Chris O’Kane, co41@sussex.ac.uk

Office hours: t.b.a.

Seminar tutor: Sam Reznek, s.reznek@sussex.ac.uk

Office hours: t.b.a.

Programme Coordinator: Robbie Robb, s.l.robb@sussex.ac.uk, 01273 877378, room A7

Course description

The course surveys some fundamental answers to the question ‘what is a human being?’ together with the conceptions of society and of the state, and of the best kind of society or state, through the work of the historical figures that have advanced them. Its aim is to give you a basic understanding of the range of ways in which the ideas of humanity, society and state have been conceptualised in Western thought, and the ways that ideas of human nature have been used to justify different kinds of society or state.

The themes of the course can be summarised by asking how each of the figures (or groups of figures) that we will be studying answers the following questions, and how their answers fit together.

– What is a human being? What are the essential characteristics of humans? What distinguishes them from other animals? Are humans essentially social beings or could we be human in the absence of society?

– What is society? What is the ‘glue’ that holds a society together and makes it more than just a collection of individual human beings thrown together? What is the best kind of society?

– What is the state? What, if any, is its ‘purpose’? What is the best kind of state?

The page at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/philosophy/syllabus/current/5676.html gives the official course description and expected learning outcomes.

Teaching method

One 50-minute lecture and one 50-minute seminar per week. In addition to the lectures and seminars, you should be doing 6 hours reading each week for this course.

Structure of the course

Lectures will be on Wednesdays and seminars on the same topic the following day.

There will be no lecture on Wednesday of week 6. The seminar on Thursday of week 6 will be used for recapitulating the main themes of the course so far and any issues that have come up in writing your essays.

Non-contributory coursework

You will be asked to write an essay (maximum length 1000 words), on a topic from Part 1 of the course, which is to be submitted via the Study Direct site by the end of Wednesday of week 6 (17 February). This is a non-contributory essay, i.e. the mark given for it will not contribute to the assessment for the course. The essays will be returned within three weeks of receipt. Essay questions are given under topics 1-4 in the reading list.


The course is divided into three parts, each of four weeks. It is assessed by an unseen exam in the Summer Term covering Parts 2 and 3 of the course. Section A of the exam will cover Part 2 and Section B will cover Part 3.

The generic assessment criteria for the School of Humanities are available at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/hums/1-5-25-2-1.html.

Please note that the authoritative source for formal assessment requirements is Sussex Direct. Go to ‘View my study pages’, then ‘Course results’, then to this course. The Philosophy BA assessment page at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/philosophy/1-3-13.html provides further information on the assessment of Philosophy courses, which is designed to co-ordinate with the requirements provided via Sussex Direct. Please do not rely solely on tutors’ information about assessment, as such information is not authoritative and may occasionally be mistaken.


The University’s definition of plagiarism is:

“Plagiarism is the use, without acknowledgement, of the intellectual work of other people, and the act of representing the ideas or discoveries of another as one’s own in written work submitted for assessment. To copy sentences, phrases or even striking expressions without acknowledgement of the source (either by inadequate citation or failure to indicate verbatim quotations), is plagiarism; to paraphrase without acknowledgement is likewise plagiarism. Where such copying or paraphrase has occurred the mere mention of the source in the bibliography shall not be deemed sufficient acknowledgement; each such instance must be referred specifically to its source. Verbatim quotations must be either in inverted commas, or indented, and directly acknowledged.”

There is a fuller discussion at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/academicoffice/1-4-1-2-1.html. Please consult this page and others on the University’s plagiarism site so as to make sure that you do not commit plagiarism in an essay or dissertation, as doing so can have serious consequences.

References and bibliography

Citations and bibliographical details in essays and dissertations should follow the guidelines at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/philosophy/1-3-12-9.html.

Student feedback

A sheet will be circulated for informal feedback mid-way through the course, and we will tell you in the following session how we will respond to the results. A student evaluation questionnaire will be completed at the end of the course.

Books for purchase

Please try to buy copies of the books by the three or four figures in the course that you are most interested in. Copies of the Study Pack will be available to purchase if you wish

Study Direct

The Study Direct site for this course is an essential resource. You can access it from https://studydirect.sussex.ac.uk/my.

Online resources

The Philosophy Department’s philosophy internet resources page at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/philosophy/1-3-10.html is the quickest route to accessing philosophy articles and books online.


Each session of the course will be based on two or three essential readings, which will be in the region of 50 pages long. You should read the main readings, which will be included in the Study Pack for the course, and at least one other item on the reading list before the seminar. To write an essay on a topic you should read, say, another two or three items, as well as obtaining a hard copy of the primary text for reference.

In advance of the seminar, please write down one or two questions that you have about the essential readings and bring them with you.

Seminar tutors may recommend readings in addition to the reading list.

General reading

On theories of human nature:
Shapiro, I. (1998) ‘Human nature’, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Loptson, P. (2001) Theories of Human Nature, 2nd ed.
Trigg, R. (1988) Ideas of Human Nature: An Historical Introduction, 2nd ed. 1999
Stevenson, L. and Haberman, D.L. (1998) Ten Theories of Human Nature, 3rd ed. 2004
Palmer, D. (1999) Visions of Human Nature: An Introduction

On society and state:
Campbell, T. (1981) Seven Theories of Human Society
Redhead, B. ed. (1984) Plato to Nato: Studies in Political Thought (also published as Political Thought from Plato to Nato)
Miller, D. ed. (1987) The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought
Hampsher-Monk, I. (1992) A History of Modern Political Thought
Wolin, S. (1960) Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political Thought
Berki, R.N. (1977) The History of Political Thought: A Short Introduction
McClelland, J.S. (1996) A History of Western Political Thought
Plamenatz, J. (1963) Man and Society, 2 vols., new ed. in 3 vols. 1991

On gender in these thinkers:
Okin, S.M. (1979) Women in Western Political Thought
Saxonhouse, A. (1985) Women in the History of Political Thought: Ancient Greece to Machiavelli
Coole, D.H. (1988) Women in Political Theory: From Ancient Misogyny to Contemporary Feminism, 2nd ed. 1993
Carver, T. (2005) Men in Political Theory

The ‘Very Short Introduction’ series by Oxford University Press (e.g. Rousseau: A Very Short Introduction) and the ‘Cambridge Companion’ series by Cambridge University Press (e.g. The Cambridge Companion to Rousseau) are very useful if you are planning to write an essay or prepare an exam question on a particular thinker.

Audio books

Audio books of some of the texts used in the course are available at http://librivox.org.


1. Aristotle on the good for human beings and the virtues

The good for human beings, eudaimonia (happiness/flourishing), the function argument, the virtues, justice, friendship, homonoia (unanimity/concord), political friendship.

Essential reading:
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, trans. W.D. Ross, books 1, 2.1 (on human nature, the good life, and the virtues), 5.1-5.2, 5.5-5.7 (on justice), 8.1-8.13 (on friendship)

Additional texts:
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, book 9.1, 9.4, 9.6 (on friendship)
Aristotle, Politics, book 2.4 (on justice)

Johnston, I. (1997) Lecture on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics [especially sections A-H]
Kraut, R. (2007) ‘Aristotle’s ethics’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 1, 3, 9
Irwin, T.H. (2003) ‘Aristotle’, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 21, 22, 25

The good for human beings and the ‘function’ argument:
Korsgaard, C.M. (2008) The Constitution of Agency, ch. 4 ‘Aristotle’s function argument’
Broadie, S. (1994) Ethics with Aristotle, chs. 1-2
Nagel, T. (1972) ‘Aristotle on eudaimonia’, Phronesis 17, reprinted in Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle’s Ethics

Irwin, T. (1990) Aristotle’s First Principles, ch. 20 ‘Justice’
Miller, F.D. Jr. (1995) Nature, Justice and Rights in Aristotle’s Politics, ch. 3 ‘Justice’
Burns, T. (1998) ‘Aristotle and natural law’, History of Political Thought 19(2)

Friendship, homonoia (unanimity/concord) and political community:
Cooper, J. (1977) ‘Aristotle on the forms of friendship’, Review of Metaphysics 30(4)
http://sfx.lib.sussex.ac.uk:3210/sfxlcl3/az [paste ‘Review of Metaphysics’ into the box, follow the links and go to vol. 30 no. 4]
Klonoski R. (1996) ‘Homonoia in Aristotle’s ethics and politics’, History of Political Thought 17(3)
Fortenbaugh, W.W. (1975) ‘Aristotle’s analysis of friendship: function and analogy, resemblance, and focal meaning’, Phronesis 20(1)

Roger Crisp on Aristotle’s Ethics, Interviews with Oxonians
Nigel Warburton, Aristotle – Nicomachean Ethics, Philosophy: The Classics
Myles Burnyeat on Aristotle on happiness, Philosophy Bites

Essay questions:
1. Assess Aristotle’s ‘function’ argument in Nicomachean Ethics 1.7.
2. For Aristotle, is justice a matter of conforming to absolute principles or of obeying the law of one’s country?
3. Can Aristotle’s idea of ‘political friendship’ between fellow citizens who may be complete strangers, in Nicomachean Ethics books 8 and 9, be reconciled with his basic account of friendship?

2. Aristotle on the state

Man as a political animal, the telos of the state, the state as existing by nature, political rule, the types of constitution, the best constitution.

Essential reading:
Aristotle, Politics, trans. B. Jowett, book 1.1-1.7 (on the nature of the state), book 3 (on citizenship, political rule, and the types of constitution), book 4.1-4.12 (on the best and second-best constitution)

Additional text:
Aristotle, Politics, book 7.1, 7.13-7.15 (on the best constitution)

Moschella, M. (2000) ‘Aristotle’s Politics study guide’, Gradesaver
Miller, F. (2002) ‘Aristotle’s Politics’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Irwin, T. (1990) Aristotle’s First Principles, ch. 19 ‘The State’

Human nature and the state:
Adkins, A.W. (1984) ‘The connection between Aristotle’s ethics and politics’, Political Theory 12(1)
Mulgan, R.G. (1974) ‘Aristotle’s doctrine that man is a political animal’, Hermes 102(3)
Nederman, C.J. (1994) ‘The puzzle of the political animal: nature and artifice in Aristotle’s political theory’, Review of Politics 56(2)
Everson, S. (1988) ‘Aristotle on the foundations of the state’, Political Studies 36(1)

The best constitution:
Miller, F.D. Jr. (1995) Nature, Justice and Rights in Aristotle’s Politics, ch. 6.1 (pp. 191-3)
Alexander L.A. (2000) ‘ The best regimes of Aristotle’s Politics’, History of Political Thought 21(2)

Aristotle on women and slaves:
Annas, J. (1995) The Morality of Happiness, ch. 4 ‘Aristotle: nature and mere nature’
Mulgan, R.G. (1994) ‘Aristotle and the political role of women’, History of Political Thought 15(2)
Stauffer, D.J. (2008) ‘Aristotle’s account of the subjection of women’, Journal of Politics 70(4)
Frank, J. (2004) ‘Citizens, slaves and foreigners: Aristotle on human nature’, American Political Science Review 98

Aristotle’s Politics – a perfect society?, In Our Time

Essay questions:
1. Evaluate Aristotle’s view that to realise their nature humans need to live in a polis.
2. Is there any connection between Aristotle’s account the nature of the polis in Politics book 1 and his views about the best constitution for a polis in books 3, 4 and 7?
3. Are Aristotle’s views on slavery and women compatible with his basic conception of a human being?

3. Hobbes

Human nature, desire, glory, the state of nature, the war of all against all, the right of nature, the laws of nature, the social contract, the sovereign, representation, political obligation.

Essential reading:
Hobbes, Thomas [1651] Leviathan, Introduction (first paragraph), chs. 10 (except for last four paragraphs), 11 (first two paragraphs), 13, 14, 15 (first eight paragraphs), 16, 17, Review and conclusion (paragraphs 5-6)

White, R. (2006) ‘Leviathan study guide’, Gradesaver
Lloyd, S.A. and Sreedhar, S. (2008) ‘Hobbes’s moral and political philosophy’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 1-8
Sorell, T. (2002) ‘Hobbes, Thomas (1588-1679)’, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 5-8

The state of nature and the state of war:
Kuhn, S. (2007) ‘Prisoner’s dilemma’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, introduction and section 1
Kavka, G.S. (1983) ‘Hobbes’s war of all against all’, Ethics 93(2)

Political obligation:
Nagel, T. (1959) ‘Hobbes’s concept of obligation’, The Philosophical Review 68(1)

Representation and the state as a ‘person’:
Copp, D. (1980) ‘Hobbes on artificial persons and collective actions’, The Philosophical Review 89(4)
Runciman, D. (2006) ‘ Hobbes’s theory of representation: anti-democratic or proto-democratic?’
Brown, K. (1980) ‘Thomas Hobbes and the title-page of “Leviathan”‘, Philosophy 55(213)

Hobbes on women:
Slomp, G. (1994) ‘Hobbes and the equality of women’, Political Studies 42(3)

Quentin Skinner on Hobbes on the State, Philosophy Bites
Thomas Hobbes, In Our Time
Nigel Warburton, Hobbes – Leviathan, Philosophy: The Classics

Essay questions:
1. What is it about human psychology that makes a state necessary, for Hobbes?
2. Does Hobbes’s view of the state imply that it should be democratic?
3. Write a criticism of Hobbes’s account of the state from Aristotle’s point of view.

4. Hume

Human partiality, sympathy, moral sentiments, natural virtues, artificial virtues, the emergence of justice, the emergence of the state, the motivation for political obedience.

Essential reading:
Hume, David [1739-40] A Treatise of Human Nature, 2.1.7 (paragraph 3); 2.1.11 (first six paragraphs); 2.2.5 (paragraph 15); 3.1.2 (first three paragraphs); book 3.2.2-8; 3.3.1 (first 12 paragraphs); 3.3.6 (first paragraph)

Additional text:
Hume, David [1751] Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, appendix 3 ‘Some further considerations with regard to justice’

Cohon, R. (2004) ‘Hume’s moral philosophy’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 7-11
Garrett, D. (2005) ‘Hume, David (1711–76)’, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 11-12
Fieser, J. (2006) ‘David Hume (1711-1776) moral theory’, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 2-3

Sympathy and moral sentiments:
Hardin, R. (2007) David Hume: Moral and Political Theorist, ch. 2 ‘Moral psychology’
Vitz, R. (2004) ‘Sympathy and benevolence in Hume’s moral psychology’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 42(3), section 1 ‘Sympathy and benevolence in the Treatise’

The emergence of justice, property and the state:
Baier, A. (1988) ‘Hume’s account of social artifice: its origins and originality’, Ethics 98(4)
http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.sussex.ac.uk/stable/2380896 [corrected]
Cottle, C.E. (1979) ‘Justice as an artificial virtue in Hume’s Treatise’, Journal of the History of Ideas 40(3)
Yellin, M.E. (2000) ‘Indirect utility, justice, and equality in the political thought of David Hume’, Critical Review 14(4), section 1 ‘The interest account of artificial virtues’
Hardin, R. (2007) David Hume: Moral and Political Theorist, chs. 3-5

Anarchist responses to Hobbes and Hume:

Taylor, M. (1987) The Possibility of Cooperation, ch. 7
Kropotkin, P. [1902] Mutual Aid, chapters 3 and 4

Peter Millican on Hume’s Significance, Philosophy Bites

Essay questions:
1. What assumptions about human nature does Hume use to explain the emergence of a sense of justice in humans? Is his explanation plausible?
2. What makes human beings establish and obey states, according to Hume? Could he be right?
3. How could an anarchist respond to Hume’s justification of the state?


5. Rousseau on the history of human society

Humans in the state of nature, amour de soi, human plasticity, nascent human society, amour-propre, the moral self, the division of labour, social dependence, the false contract, the lesson of the Discourse on Inequality.

Essential reading:
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques [1755] Discourse on the Origin of Inequality(also known as the ‘Second Discourse’), trans. Ian Johnston, parts 1, 2, note 15 (beginning ‘We must not confuse ...’)

Dent. N. (1998) ‘Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)’, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 1-2
Delaney , J.J. (2006) ‘Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)’, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 3b
Skillen, A. (1985) ‘Rousseau and the fall of social man’, Philosophy 60

Human nature and amour-propre:
Horowitz, A. (1990) ‘“Laws and customs thrust us back into infancy”: Rousseau’s historical anthropology’, Review of Politics 52(2) (sections 2-4 of this article)
Dent, N.J.H. (1998) ‘Rousseau on amour-propre I’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Sup. Vol. 72
O’Hagan, T. (1999) ‘Rousseau on amour-propre II’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Sup. Vol. 72

The political implications of the Discourse on Inequality:
MacAdam, J.I. (1972) ‘The Discourse on Inequality and the Social Contract’, Philosophy, reprinted in J. Lively and A. Reeve (eds.) Modern Political Theory from Hobbes to Marx
Scott, J.T. (1992) ‘The theodicy of the Second Discourse: the “pure state of nature” and Rousseau’s political thought’, American Political Science Review 86(3)
Rasmussen, D. (2004) ‘Rousseau’s unhappy vision of commercial society’

Melissa Lane on Rousseau on civilization, Philosophy Bites

6. Rousseau on the legitimate state

Humans as free, the necessity of consent, the illegitimacy of a contract of slavery, the social contract, the general will, the transformation in human beings, the legislator, amour-propre in The Social Contract.

Essential reading:
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques [1755] ‘Discourse on Political Economy’, trans. G.D.H. Cole, first half (up to “…that the people is to perish for their own.”), in collections of Rousseau’s works or political works
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques [1762] The Social Contract, trans. G.D.H. Cole, book 1, book 2 chs. 1-7, book 4 chs. 1-2

Chitty, A. (2003) ‘An Introduction to Kant’s Political Philosophy, via Rousseau’, sections 2-3
Smith, A.J. (2006) ‘The Social Contract study guide’
Dent. N. (1998) ‘Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)’, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 4
Delaney , J.J. (2006) ‘Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)’, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 3c, 4

The general will:
Barry, B. (1964) ‘The public interest’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Sup. Vol. 38, reprinted in A. Quinton (ed.) Political Philosophy
Jones, W.T. (1987) ‘Rousseau’s general will and the problem of consent’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 25
Runciman, W.G. and Sen, A. (1965) ‘Games, justice and the general will’, Mind 74 (section 1 of the article, pp. 554-558)
Barnard, F.M. (1984) ‘Will and political rationality in Rousseau’, Political Studies 32, reprinted in J. Lively and A. Reeve (eds.) Modern Political Theory from Hobbes to Marx 1989
Ripstein, A. (1994) ‘Universal and general wills: Hegel and Rousseau’, Political Theory 22(3) (section 1 of this article)

Rousseau and Hobbes:
Steinberger, P.J. (2008) ‘Hobbes, Rousseau and the modern conception of the state’, Journal of Politics 70

The Social Contract, In Our Time
Nigel Warburton, Rousseau – Social Contract, Philosophy: The Classics

7. Fichte

The self-positing I, the idea of free interaction, the necessity of a check, the summons, mutual recognition, the relation of right, spheres of freedom.

Essential reading:
Fichte, J.G. [1794] The Science of Knowledge, trans. P. Heath and A. Lachs, part 1, section 1, subsections 6-9
Fichte, J.G. [1794] Some Lectures Concerning the Scholar’s Vocation, first and second lectures, in Fichte, Early Philosophical Writings, ed. D. Breazeale
Fichte, J.G. [1796] Foundations of Natural Right (also known as the ‘Science of Right’), ed. F. Neuhouser, Part 1, First main division: deduction of the concept of right (pp. 18-52)

Breazeale, D. (2006) ‘Johann Gottlieb Fichte’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 4.1, 4.4
Bowman, C. (2006) ‘ Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)’, section 2d ‘ Foundations of the Entire Wissenschaftslehre’

The I and the not-I:
Wood, A. (1999) ‘The ‘I’ as principle of practical philosophy’, in S. Sedgwick (ed.) The Reception of Kant’s Critical Philosophy: Fichte Schelling and Hegel (the first two sections of the article: ‘From transcendental critique to critical system of transcendental philosophy’ and ‘What is the I?’)

Recognition and the deduction of right:
Inwood, M. (1992) A Hegel Dictionary, entry on ‘recognition and acknowledgement’ (first page)
Shell, S. (1992) ‘“A determined stand”: freedom and security in Fichte’s Science of Right’, Polity 25(1) (section 1 of this article)
Chitty, A. (2007) ‘Identity with the other in Hegel’s dialectic of recognition’ (pp. 3-8 of this article), via Study Direct site
Gardner, S. (2005) ‘Sartre, intersubjectivity, and German Idealism’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 43 (pp. 337-40 of this article)

8. Hegel on mutual recognition and spirit

Self-consciousness, the struggle for recognition, the master-servant relation, the unhappy consciousness, universal self-consciousness, spirit.

Essential reading:
Hegel, G.W.F. [1807] Phenomenology of Spirit, trans. A.V. Miller, §§177-210, 347-352
Hegel, G.W.F. [1809] The Philosophical Propadeutic, trans. A.V. Miller, section on ‘Phenomenology for the middle class’ (also known as the ‘1809 Doctrine of Consciousness’), §§22-39

Redding, P. (2006) ‘ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 3.1
Horstmann, R.P. (2004) ‘ Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770-1831)’, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 5

The struggle for recognition and the master-servant relation:
Houlgate, S. (2003) ‘G. W. F. Hegel: The Phenomenology of Spirit’, in R. Solomon and D. Sherman (eds.) The Blackwell Guide to Continental Philosophy
Kojève, A. [1947] Introduction to the Reading of Hegel, pp. 3-30, ‘In place of an introduction’

Universal self-consciousness and spirit:
Chitty, A. (1998) ‘Recognition and social relations of production’, Historical Materialism 2(1) (section 3 of the article; this is on Hegel’s account of universal self-consciousness in the Philosophy of Mind)
Pippin, R.B. (2000) ‘What is the question for which Hegel’s theory of recognition is the answer?’, European Journal of Philosophy 8(2)
Solomon, R.C. (1970) ‘Hegel’s concept of “Geist”‘, Review of Metaphysics 23, reprinted in MacIntyre (ed.) Hegel: A Collection of Critical Essays


9. Hegel on the state

History as the development of spirit and freedom, political philosophy as retrospective, right as the actualisation of freedom, ethical life, the state, the locus of sovereignty.

Essential reading:
Hegel G.W.F. [1830-31] Philosophy of History, tr. J. Sibree, Introduction, part III, section II ‘Essential destiny of reason’, subsections 1 and 3, pp. 16-20, 37-40. This material is also at approx. pp. 20-24, 50-53 of Reason in History trans. L. Hartman, or pp. 19-23, 39-42 of Introduction to the Philosophy of History trans. L. Rauch.
Hegel, G.W.F. [1807] Philosophy of Right, Preface (first 8 paragraph, up to ‘…happiness of being reason at all’, and last 14 paragraphs, beginning ‘Hence it is for science a piece of good fortune …, §§1-7, 29-30, 142-149, 257-267, 273-279

Additional texts:
Hegel, G.W.F. [1820s] Lectures on the History of Philosophy, Volume 3, Medieval and Modern Philosophy, sections on Hobbes, Rousseau
http://tinyurl.com/a5p65l and http://tinyurl.com/9hwgge

Redding, P. (2006) ‘ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 3.3
Horstmann, R.P. (2004) ‘Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770-1831)’, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 8

Philosophy of history:
Chitty, A. (1997) ‘The direction of contemporary capitalism and the practical relevance of theory’, Review of International Political Economy 4:3 (pp. 440-442 of this article)

The free will, recognition and the state:
Patten, A. (2002) Hegel’s Idea of Freedom, ch. 2 ‘freedom as rational self-determination’
Patten, A. (2001) ‘Social contract theory and the concept of recognition in Hegel’s political philosophy’, in R.R. Williams (ed.) Beyond Liberalism and Communitarianism: Studies in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right
Maletz, D.J. (1989) ‘Hegel on right as actualized will’, Political Theory 17(1)
Chitty, A. (1998) ‘Recognition and social relations of production’, Historical Materialism 2 (section 4)
Democracy and monarchy in Hegel
Tunick, M. (1991) ‘Hegel’s justification of hereditary monarchy’, History of Political Thought 12(3)

10. Marx on species-being and alienation

Species-being, labour, alienation, capital as alienated labour, communism.

Essential reading:
Marx, Karl [1844] Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, sections on ‘Estranged labour’ and ‘Private property and communism’, in Marx and Engels, Collected Works, vol. 3 (also available in Karl Marx, Early Writings, ed. L. Colletti)
Marx, Karl [1844] Comments on James Mill (excluding the long set of quotes from Mill three quarters of the way through the text), in Marx and Engels, Collected Works, vol. 3 (also available in Karl Marx, Early Writings, ed. L. Colletti)

Species being:
Nasser, A.G. (1975) ‘Marx’s ethical anthropology’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 35(4) (section 1 of this article)
Mahowald, M.B. (1973) ‘Marx’s “Gemeinschaft”: another interpretation’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33 (section 1 of this article)
Chitty, A. (1997) ‘First person plural ontology and praxis’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 97(1)

Wolff, J. (1992) ‘Playthings of alien forces: Karl Marx and the rejection of the market economy’, Cogito 6(1) reprinted in N. Warburton (ed.) Philosophy: Basic Readings
Schmitt, R. (1996) ‘Marx’s concept of alienation’, Topoi, 15(2)
Löwith, K. (1954) ‘Man’s self-alienation in the early writings of Marx’, Social Research 21, reprinted in Jessop and Malcolm-Brown (eds.) Karl Marx’s Social and Political Thought: Critical Assessments

McLellan, D. (1969) ‘Marx’s view of the unalienated society’, Review of Politics 31(4)
Ollman, B. (1977) ‘Marx’s vision of communism: a reconstruction’, Critique: A Journal of Socialist Theory 8

Jonathan Wolff on Marx on alienation, Philosophy Bites

11. Marx on history and humanity

Humans as self-producing, social relations of production, productive forces, capital as social relations, the historicity of human nature, Marx as modernist.

Essential reading:
Marx, K. [1845] ‘Theses on Feuerbach’
Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich [1845-46] The German Ideology, ch. 1 ‘Feuerbach’, sections A, B, D, Progress Publishers, 1968 (or ed. C.J. Arthur, Lawrence & Wishart, 1970)
Marx, Karl [1847] Wage-labour and Capital, section on ‘The nature and growth of capital’, first two pages (ending ‘... without the capital suffering the slightest alteration’), in Marx and Engels, Collected Works, vol. 9, pp. 211-212 or in editions of Marx’s selected works

Additional texts:
Marx, K. and Engels, F. [1848] The Communist Manifesto, in editions of Marx’s selected works
Marx ‘Preface’ to the Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (also known as the ‘1859 Preface’), in editions of Marx’s selected works

Humanity and history:
Tucker, R.C. (1968) ‘Marx and the end of history’, Diogenes 16(64)

Modernism in Marx:
McIvor, M. (2009) ‘Marx’s philosophical modernism: post-Kantian foundations of historical materialism’, in A. Chitty and M. McIvor (eds) Karl Marx and Contemporary Philosophy
Cannon, B. (2005) ‘Retrieving the normative content of Marxism: from a transhistorical to a modern conception of self-constitution’, Historical Materialism 13(3)

Productivism in Marx:

Baudrillard, J. [1973] The Mirror of Production, tr. 1975

Karl Marx, In Our Time

12. John Rawls

The basic structure of society, the original position, the principles of justice, reflective equilibrium, the ‘Kantian interpretation’, persons as free and equal.

Essential reading:
Rawls, J. (1972) A Theory of Justice, §§1-4, 9, 11, 40, 76 (last three paragraphs, pp. 502-4, beginning “In arguing for …”), 85 (the paragraph on pp. 564-5, beginning “Earlier when introducing …’), 86 (the paragraph on pp. 574-5, beginning “One special feature ...”)

Additional texts:
Rawls, J. (1980) ‘Kantian constructivism in moral theory: the Dewey lectures 1980’, Journal of Philosophy 77(9), Lecture on ‘Representation of freedom and equality’, sections 3-5 (pp. 543-552)
Rawls, J. (1985) ‘Justice as fairness: political not metaphysical’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 14

D’Agostino, F. (2003) ‘Original position’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Wenar, L. (2008) ‘John Rawls’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 4

The original position and humans as free and equal:
Mulhall, S. and Swift, A. (1992) Liberals and Communitarians: An Introduction, 2nd ed. 1996, Introduction, section on ‘The basics of justice and fairness’ (pp. 3-9)
Freeman, S. (2008) ‘Original position’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 8
Nagel, T. (1973) ‘Rawls on justice’, Philosophical Review 82(2), reprinted in N. Daniels (ed.) Reading Rawls

Raymond Geuss on real politics, Philosophy Bites

Andrew Chitty

8 January 2010
(With minor corrections 14 January 2010)

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