Transparencies: 79-84 & 90-93 #79



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Transparencies: 79-84 & 90-93

  • Transparencies: 79-84 & 90-93

#79

  • #79
  • During the winter, outside temperatures are often extremely cold. Most people try to avoid extremely cold temperatures.
  • Most people try to keep warm. They keep warm by wearing several layers of clothing.
  • Synthetic materials protect and maintain body heat. They are effective.
  • An uncovered head results in heat loss. It can result in the loss of one-half of your body’s heat production.
  • Convection is a form of heat loss. It occurs when drafts draw off warm air from the body.

1 Most people try to avoid extremely cold outside temperatures during the winter.

  • 1 Most people try to avoid extremely cold outside temperatures during the winter.
  • 2 Most people try to keep warm by wearing several layers of clothing.
  • 3 Effective synthetic materials protect and maintain body heat.
  • 4 An uncovered head can result in the loss of one-half of your body’s heat production.
  • 5 Convection, a form of heat loss, occurs when drafts draw off warm air from the body.

#80

  • #80
  • 1 I’ve always played baseball and soccer. I started playing at age five.
  • 2 My soccer coach played on his college team and was also the captain. His name is Coach Erwin.
  • 3 My baseball team played in the district championship game and won. This happened last summer.
  • 4 Soccer players get good exercise. Players get exercise by running after the ball.
  • 5 Some baseball players do not get much exercise. They spend time sitting on a bench.

1 Starting at age five, I’ve always played

  • 1 Starting at age five, I’ve always played
  • baseball and soccer.
  • 2 Coach Erwin, my soccer coach, played on
  • his college team and was also the captain.
  • 3 Last summer, my baseball team played in
  • the district championship game and won.
  • 4 Running after the ball, soccer players get
  • good exercise.
  • 5 Sitting on a bench, some baseball players
  • do not get much exercise.

#81

  • #81
  • 1 Every year eleven million U.S. residents have wounds sewn up. They are treated in emergency rooms.
  • 2 My brother got fifteen stitches in his leg. It happened last year after he had a biking accident.
  • 3 There is a new procedure called wound gluing. It could eliminate the need for stitches in one third of all wounds.
  • 4 Wound gluing is a safe and attractive alternative to stitches. It takes one quarter of the time that stitches take.
  • 5 Patients seem to like wound gluing. They report significantly less pain during the process.

1 Every year eleven million U.S. residents

  • 1 Every year eleven million U.S. residents
  • have wounds sewn up in emergency rooms.
  • 2 Last year, my brother got fifteen stitches in
  • his leg after he had a biking accident.
  • 3 Anew procedure called wound gluing
  • could eliminate the need for stitches in one
  • third of all wounds.
  • 4 Taking one quarter of the time that stitches
  • take, wound gluing is a safe and attractive
  • alternative to stitches.
  • 5 Reporting significantly less pain during the
  • process, patients seem to like wound gluing.

#82

  • #82
  • 1 Zebra mussels are one of the newest environmental challenges facing this country. They were accidentally carried to the Great Lakes by a European tanker.
  • 2 Zebra mussels are inch-long shellfish. They have delicate
  • striped shells.
  • 3 The shellfish form dense colonies. They clog water mains andfactory cooling systems.
  • 4 The prolific mussels reproduce rapidly. They have few predators.
  • 5 Zebra mussels create debris. They create it along the shorelines of the Great Lakes.

1 Zebra mussels, one of the newest environmental

  • 1 Zebra mussels, one of the newest environmental
  • challenges facing this country, were accidentally carried to the Great Lakes by a European tanker.
  • 2 Zebra mussels, inch-long shellfish, have delicate striped shells.
  • 3 The shellfish form dense colonies, clogging water mains and factory cooling systems.
  • 4 The prolific mussels reproduce rapidly and have few predators.
  • 5 Zebra mussels create debris along the shorelines of the Great Lakes.

#83

  • #83
  • 1 U.S. residents make up about 5 percent of the world’s
  • population. They own almost half of the world’s cars.
  • 2 U.S. residents drive an average of eleven thousand miles. They do this each year.
  • 3 Errands and recreational travel make up the majority of miles traveled. They make up about 70 percent of the total mileage.
  • 4 Vacation travel makes up less. It accounts for only 8 percent of the total mileage.
  • 5 Commuting to work is popular. It accounts for 22 percent of the total mileage.

1 Owning almost half of the world’s cars, U.S. residents make up about 5 percent of the world’s population.

  • 1 Owning almost half of the world’s cars, U.S. residents make up about 5 percent of the world’s population.
  • 2 U.S. residents drive an average of eleven thousand miles a year.
  • 3 Errands and recreational travel make up the majority of miles traveled, about 70 percent of the total mileage.
  • 4 Vacation travel makes up less, accounting for only 8 percent of the total mileage.
  • 5 Commuting to work is popular, accounting for 22 percent of the total mileage.

#84

  • #84
  • 1 I will pursue a career in marketing. I take business classes.
    • A The speaker will pursue a marketing career as a result of taking business classes.
    • B The speaker will complete business classes and then pursue a marketing career.
    • C The speaker will choose to pursue a marketing career on the condition that he or she takes business classes.

#1

  • #1
  • A I will pursue a marketing career because
  • I take business classes.
  • B I will pursue a marketing career after I
  • take business classes.
  • C I will pursue a marketing career if I take
  • business classes.

2 He will plan a graduation party. His friends are in town.

  • 2 He will plan a graduation party. His friends are in town.
    • A Since his friends are in town, he will plan a party.
    • B He is not sure he will plan a graduation party.
    • C His friends will be in town, and then he will plan a party.

#2

  • #2
  • A. He will plan a graduation party because
  • his friends are in town.
  • B. He will plan a graduation party if his
  • friends are in town.
  • C. He will plan a graduation party after his
  • friends are in town.

1 Hormonal changes cause teenagers’ clocks to shift ahead. They fall asleep later at night. They need to sleep later in the morning.

  • 1 Hormonal changes cause teenagers’ clocks to shift ahead. They fall asleep later at night. They need to sleep later in the morning.
  • 2 Most teenagers get about seven hours of sleep.
  • This isn’t enough. Their growing bodies need more sleep.
  • 3 Teenagers reach their peak period of alertness around 3 P.M. High school classes start early in the morning. Most high school classes are finished before 3 P.M.

1 Because hormonal changes cause teenagers’ clocks to shift ahead, they fall asleep later at night and need to sleep later in the morning.

  • 1 Because hormonal changes cause teenagers’ clocks to shift ahead, they fall asleep later at night and need to sleep later in the morning.
  • Teenagers sleep later at night and need to sleep later in the morning due to hormone changes that cause their clocks to shift ahead.
  • 2 Although most teenagers get about seven hours of sleep, this isn’t enough for their growing bodies.
  • The seven hours of sleep most teenagers get isn’t enough for their growing bodies.
  • 3 In spite of teenagers reaching their peak period of alertness around 3 P.M., high
  • school classes start early in the morning and are finished before 3 P.M.
  • High school classes start early in the morning and finish before 3 P.M., when teenagers are at their peak period of alertness.

1. Many food products contain large amounts of salt.

  • 1. Many food products contain large amounts of salt.
  • Some food products contain large amounts of sugar.
  • Recent studies show that Americans consume too much sugar.
  • 2. Soft drinks are a source of added sugar.
  • Soft drinks are the biggest source of added sugar.
  • Soft drinks make up one third of all added sugar in the average U.S. diet.
  • 3. Teenagers drink soda.
  • Teenagers drink milk.
  • Teenagers drink twice as much soda as milk.

1 Although recent studies show that Americans consume too much sugar, many food products also contain large amounts of salt.

  • 1 Although recent studies show that Americans consume too much sugar, many food products also contain large amounts of salt.
  • Some food products contain large amounts of salt as well as large amounts of sugar, but recent studies show that Americans consume too much sugar.
  • 2 Soft drinks, the biggest source of added sugar, make up nearly one third of all added sugar in the average U.S. diet.
  • The biggest source of added sugar, soft drinks make up nearly one third of all added sugar in the average U.S. diet.
  • 3 Teenagers drink soda and milk, but they drink twice as much soda as milk.
  • Although teenagers drink both soda and milk, they drink twice as much soda as milk.

1 Chimpanzees demonstrate cultural differences.

  • 1 Chimpanzees demonstrate cultural differences.
  • These differences vary from community to community.
  • These differences cannot be explained as adaptations.
  • 2 Chimps in different communities have different grooming habits.
  • Different chimp communities have distinct courtship rituals.
  • Primatologists have identified thirty-nine distinct behaviors.
  • 3 Most animal behaviors are inherited.
  • Some animal behaviors are learned.
  • The thirty-nine behaviors identified by primatologists are
  • learned.

1. Chimpanzees demonstrate cultural differences that vary from community to community

  • 1. Chimpanzees demonstrate cultural differences that vary from community to community
  • and cannot be explained as adaptations.
  • Cultural differences and learned behaviors of chimpanzees vary from community to community; these differences cannot be explained as adaptations.
  • 2. Primatologists have identified thirty-nine distinct behaviors in chimp communities,
  • including differences in grooming habits and courtship rituals.
  • Different chimp communities have different grooming habits and courtship rituals; in fact, primatologists have identified thirty-nine distinct behaviors.
  • 3. Although most animal behaviors are inherited, the thirty-nine behaviors identified by primatologists are learned.
  • The thirty-nine behaviors identified by primatologists are learned, but most animal
  • behaviors are inherited.

1.

  • 1.
  • Planning a new home requires imagination.
  • Design and structure are factors.
  • Exterior materials and landscaping must be considered.
  • 2.
  • Designing a new home’s interior spaces is important.
  • Family members and lifestyle needs usually dictate the number
  • and size of rooms.
  • New homes and room sizes are typically larger than those built
  • just a decade ago.
  • 3.
  • Newer homes often provide more windows and natural light.
  • Paneled dens and media rooms offer privacy.
  • Higher ceilings are more common.

1 Planning a new home requires imagination since design, exterior materials, landscaping, and structure are factors.

  • 1 Planning a new home requires imagination since design, exterior materials, landscaping, and structure are factors.
  • Because design, exterior materials, landscaping, and structure are factors, planning a new home requires imagination.
  • 2 Family members and lifestyle needs usually dictate the number and size of rooms when designing a new home’s interior spaces although new homes and rooms are typically larger than those built just a decade ago.
  • New homes and room sizes are typically larger than those built just a decade ago; however, when designing a new home’s interior spaces, family members and lifestyle needs usually dictate the number and size of rooms.
  • 3 Newer homes often provide more windows, natural light, and higher ceilings although paneled dens and media rooms offer privacy.
  • In spite of paneled dens and media rooms that offer privacy, newer homes often provide more windows, natural light, and higher ceilings.

1. As a newcomer on the job, the clerk took advice from more experienced workers.

  • 1. As a newcomer on the job, the clerk took advice from more experienced workers.
  • 2. During the controversy, the mayor received a flood of complaints.
  • 3. During the debate, a small quarrel broke out between some members of the rival teams.
  • 4. To his embarrassment, he arrived in a suit when the other guests were wearing jeans.
  • A. altercation B. chagrin C. deluge D. novice

1. novice

  • 1. novice
  • The young pitcher was a novice compared to the rest of the team.
  • Additional synonyms:
  • beginner, amateur
  • deluge
  • Though only drizzle was predicted, a deluge of rain hit the city.
  • Additional synonyms:
  • torrent, abundance
  • altercation
  • After the altercation on the field, the players who were involved were suspended.
  • Additional synonyms:
  • squabble, dispute
  • chagrin
  • He overslept and missed the bus, to his chagrin.
  • Additional synonyms:
  • mortification, vexation
  • converge
  • diverge
  • antidote
  • anecdote
  • congenital
  • congenial

1 A To converge is to come together. A student’s drawing might show two lines becoming one line.

  • 1 A To converge is to come together. A student’s drawing might show two lines becoming one line.
  • Example sentence: The two streams converge and become a mighty river.
  • 1 B To diverge is to separate. A student’s drawing show one line becoming two lines.
  • Example sentence: The road diverged into two smaller roads.
  • 2 A An antidote is a remedy to counteract a poison. A student’s drawing might show a superhero drinking a potion.
  • Example sentence: Hoping to regain his powers, the superhero drank the antidote.
  • 2 B An anecdote is a short, entertaining account of some event. A student’s drawing might show a person telling a story to others.

Example sentence: Angelina told us an anecdote that had us crying with laughter.

  • Example sentence: Angelina told us an anecdote that had us crying with laughter.
  • 3 A Congenital means “existing at or before birth.” A student’s drawing might show a baby.
  • Example sentence: The child was born with a congenital heart defect.
  • 3 B Congenial means “warm and friendly.” A student’s drawing might show a person with a big smile.
  • Example sentence: The host made sure
  • that his party had a congenial atmosphere.

abominable beneficent comprehensive

  • abominable beneficent comprehensive
  • grandiose heinous affable inane
  • inclusive impressive vacuous
  • 1. We made big plans for the future.
  • 2. The head of the welcoming committee is a very good individual.
  • 3. Cruelty to animals is truly bad.
  • 4. The doctor’s examination will be thorough.
  • 5. The child’s silly behavior did not impress his friends.

1 grandiose, impressive

  • 1 grandiose, impressive
  • The grandiose hotel was beautifully decorated.
  • 2 beneficent, affable
  • A good receptionist must be efficient as well as affable.
  • 3 abominable, heinous
  • Water did not help to relieve the abominable taste of the food.
  • 4 comprehensive, inclusive
  • At the end of the semester, you will take a comprehensive exam.
  • 5 inane, vacuous
  • I did not enjoy the movie because it was inane.

A. dissolute B. tepid C. vulnerable

  • A. dissolute B. tepid C. vulnerable
  • 1. lacking moral restraint
  • 2. lukewarm or half-hearted
  • 3. easily hurt
  • Words That Express Weakness

A. adamant B. imperious C. resilient

  • A. adamant B. imperious C. resilient
  • Words That Express Strength
  • bossy and demanding
  • able to bounce back from misfortune
  • stubbornly firm in one’s beliefs or purpose

1. The teacher asked me to (A cite, B site) examples to support my analysis of the story.

  • 1. The teacher asked me to (A cite, B site) examples to support my analysis of the story.
  • 2. The scientist had to (A assay, B essay) the fabric to see what chemicals it contained.
  • 3. Do the governor’s past actions (A evoke, B invoke) the voters’ trust?
  • 4. The prosecutor has to (A appraise, B apprise) the defense of all prosecution witnesses.
  • 5. The poet’s (A idle, B idyll) described a peaceful scene.

A. abate B. antagonize C. beleaguer D. scrutinize

  • A. abate B. antagonize C. beleaguer D. scrutinize
  • 1. The sheriff and his deputies were able to surround the outlaws hiding in the barn.
  • 2. Will the storm grow stronger, or will it subside soon?
  • 3. Examine the document carefully before you sign it.
  • 4. He is already angry, so I would be careful not to rile him further.

auspicious despicable felicitous preposterous ludicrous

  • auspicious despicable felicitous preposterous ludicrous
  • repugnant stoic sallow pallid impassive
  • 1. The birth of a family’s first child is a very nice occasion.
  • 2. I could not finish the book because I found it too senseless.
  • 3. He is a horrid person who offends nearly everyone.
  • 4. Her sickly complexion was a clue that she was not feeling
  • well.
  • 5. Kristen maintained an unfeeling expression when she was
  • declared the winner.

1. We heard everyone’s opinion and tried to reach a (A census, B consensus).

  • 1. We heard everyone’s opinion and tried to reach a (A census, B consensus).
  • 2. The (A connotation, B denotation) of a word is its basic
  • dictionary definition.
  • 3. Will the value of the property increase or (A deprecate,
  • B depreciate) over time?
  • 4. When you pronounce the word ”accordion,“ you (A accentuate, B extenuate) the second syllable.
  • 5. Ever the skeptic, Jo gave the magician an (A incredible,
  • B incredulous) look as he pulled a rabbit from a hat.

A amends B contrition C repentant

  • A amends B contrition C repentant
  • Words That Suggest Regret

A. ferocity B. forte C. vigor

  • A. ferocity B. forte C. vigor
  • Words That Suggest Strength or Power
  • 1. a person’s strongest talent or field
  • 2. fierceness or intensity
  • 3. active growth or force

1. The (A auspicious, B suspicious) weather meant we were going to have a great day.

  • 1. The (A auspicious, B suspicious) weather meant we were going to have a great day.
  • 2. He thinks he can lie with (A impunity, B impurity) since no one else was present.
  • 3. Before the settlers arrived, the (A indigenous, B indignant) population was fairly small.
  • 4. Some herbs are helpful, some are (A inoculate, B innocuous), and some are harmful.
  • 5. The smoke was (A insidious, B invidious); by the time we saw it, it was nearly too late.

1. He ran after his dad.

  • 1. He ran after his dad.
  •  
  • 2. Jennie wanted her doll for bedtime.
  •  
  • 3. The rabbit hopped into its hole.
  •  
  • 4. They will help you with your work themselves.
  •  
  • 5. The teacher gave us homework every day, and she made our lives miserable.

Indefinite pronouns are pronouns that do not point out specifically. They point out generally. They include such words as another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, many, neither, nobody, none, no one, one, other, others, some, somebody, and someone.

  • Indefinite pronouns are pronouns that do not point out specifically. They point out generally. They include such words as another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, many, neither, nobody, none, no one, one, other, others, some, somebody, and someone.

1. Everybody loves someone sometime.

  • 1. Everybody loves someone sometime.
  •  
  • 2. Both of the students should hand in everything they have completed.
  •  
  • 3. I didn't see anyone I knew.
  •  
  • 4. If no one helps others, nothing gets done.
  •  
  • 5. Somebody said that one should touch neither of them.

Instructions: Re-write the following sentences and place commas where they are needed.

  • Instructions: Re-write the following sentences and place commas where they are needed.
  •  
  • 1. I met Count Dracula Sr. the famous ghoul.
  •  
  • 2. The letter was sent to Sir Thomas Mason Esq.
  •  
  • 3. Did you see Reed Fitzgerald Jr. starring in that television show?
  •  
  • 4. Mr. Sam Adams Sr. and Michael Gold Jr. race cars for a living.
  •  
  • 5. Andrew Paskett Esq. was featured in the latest magazine issue.

Use commas to separate a series of three or more words. Example: I dropped my pencil, papers, and books. (The comma before the conjunction and is optional, but I prefer using it.)

  • Use commas to separate a series of three or more words. Example: I dropped my pencil, papers, and books. (The comma before the conjunction and is optional, but I prefer using it.)
  • Use no commas between two or more words usually thought of as being one item. Example: We ate hamburgers, pork and beans, and potato chips.
  • Use no commas in a series when all items are joined by or, and, or nor. Example: You dance and sing and play well.

1. I have seen many gold silver and copper mines.

  • 1. I have seen many gold silver and copper mines.
  •  
  • 2. People in the United States can travel by air rail or water.
  •  
  • 3. The girl waved leaned over and fell into the pool.
  •  
  • 4. My wife likes a meal of a glass of grape juice a fresh salad and spaghetti and meat balls.
  •  
  • 5. At the resort we can hike and swim and ski all we want.

Use commas to separate a series of three or more phrases. Example: He ran down the hall, out the door, and into the yard. (The comma before the conjunction and is optional, but I prefer using it.)

  • Use commas to separate a series of three or more phrases. Example: He ran down the hall, out the door, and into the yard. (The comma before the conjunction and is optional, but I prefer using it.)
  • Use no commas in a series when all items are joined by or, and, or nor.

1. The rain splashed against the house onto the sidewalk and into the street.

  • 1. The rain splashed against the house onto the sidewalk and into the street.
  •  
  • 2. Through the trees around the cabin and down the valley roared the wind.
  •  
  • 3. College is to gain knowledge to make new friends and to prepare for a career.
  •  
  • 4. The cat climbed up the tree and out on a limb and finally onto the roof.
  •  
  • 5. Munching on an apple listening to a recording and sitting on the couch Martha looked very happy.

Use commas to separate a series of three or more short clauses. Example: I am working, he is sleeping, and she is singing. (The comma before the conjunction and is optional, but I prefer using it.)

  • Use commas to separate a series of three or more short clauses. Example: I am working, he is sleeping, and she is singing. (The comma before the conjunction and is optional, but I prefer using it.)
  • Use no commas in a series when all items are joined by or, and, or nor.

1. They are eating we are drinking and you are starving.

  • 1. They are eating we are drinking and you are starving.
  •  
  • 2. The music began the lights dimmed and the curtains opened.
  •  
  • 3. My sister has left home my brother is at school and my mother is baking bread.
  •  
  • 4. Jim fished Jeff hiked and I loafed the whole campout.
  •  
  • 5. You correct he proofreads but I edit material.

Use a comma or commas to set off words or phrases used as nouns of address (nominatives of address).

  • Use a comma or commas to set off words or phrases used as nouns of address (nominatives of address).
  • Example: 
  • Joe, get over here. Get over here, Joe. Young man, get over here.

1. Did you Susan see him at the meetings?

  • 1. Did you Susan see him at the meetings?
  •  
  • 2. I will call you in the morning Steve.
  •  
  • 3. Well Fred it was a pleasure to see you again.
  •  
  • 4. Jeanne I don't know what is going on.
  •  
  • 5. You should Bill know the answer to that one.

Use a comma wherever necessary for clarity to prevent misreading.

  • Use a comma wherever necessary for clarity to prevent misreading.
  • Example:
  • Beneath, the water sparkled brilliantly. (clear)
  • Beneath the water sparkled brilliantly. (Confusing)

 1. To write one must spend much time revising and proofreading.

  •  1. To write one must spend much time revising and proofreading.
  •  
  • 2. After washing the boy left for the game.
  •  
  • 3. Although a real diamond mine is rather small.
  •  
  • 4. Inside the store contained many beautiful statues.
  •  
  • 5. When eating a person should use good manners.


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