Teacher Planning Arends Chapter 3

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Teacher Planning Arends Chapter 3

  • People who plan
  • are just afraid to drift.
  • - S. Wright

Why teachers plan (benefits)

  • To:
    • Choose content (what to teach)
    • Improve student achievement
    • Provide a sense of direction (for both teacher & students)
    • Eliminate most behavior problems

Research identified one major negative consequence of teacher planning:

  • Less sensitive to student ideas (and needs)
    • Pursued own lesson goals rather than responding to student needs, thoughts, etc.
  • Do plan, but just be aware of this

Reflective Teaching – teachers’ practice of ongoing analytical thought about their teaching & its effects on students’ learning & well-being

  • Why? Continue doing what’s working & change what’s not
  • Ongoing process that never really stops
  • Teacher continually asks questions such as:
    • How can I better meet my students’ needs?
    • How could I increase student involvement?
    • What can I do differently to ensure all students succeed?
  • Opposite? Same thing year after year, effective or not.
  • Excellent teachers adopt this attitude: “If a student isn’t learning, I’m doing something wrong & need to adjust.”

Five TIME SPANS of teacher planning

  • Daily
  • Weekly
  • Unit
  • Term
  • Yearly
  • Note: In Intro to Teaching, our focus will be on writing a daily lesson plan.

Why must teachers pay attention to time when planning?

  • Two main reasons:
  • Time devoted to instruction is directly related to student achievement.
      • Must plan for maximum time spent teaching/learning.
  • It’s limited & can’t be wasted.
      • School year & school day unchanged but much content added.

Academic Learning Time – amount of time student spends engaged in academic task at which successful

  • First, does this mean we don’t challenge them?
  • ALT - aspect of time most closely related to learning
  • Less than 1/3. Why?
      • Poor planning
      • Poor classroom management
      • Inefficient teaching methods
  • Gotta more effectively use the time we have!

Instructional objective – describes teacher’s intent for student growth & change (learning)

  • Top of your daily lesson plan
    • Sub could quickly read it & know your intent for lesson
  • We’ll learn & use 2 types
    • Behavioral objective (Mager)
      • Does NOT address just “behavior”; anything student does (COULD address a behavior…)
    • General objective (Gronlund)

Behavioral objective - instructional objective that is measurable & is best used with skills or knowledge that can be broken down into sequential steps or distinct elements

  • Examples of skills/knowledge that break down into:
    • Sequential steps – various math functions, write research paper, throw football
    • Distinct elements - 3 branches of government, components of behavioral objective
  • To make it measurable, include these 3 components
    • S = student behavior – what the student will learn or be able to do by end of this lesson (not necessarily how they “behave”)
    • T = testing situation - conditions or circumstances under which skill observed or expected to occur
    • P = performance criteria - how well

Write out as one (1) sentence!!! (no table/grid) “Given a map with 2 peninsulas & 1 gulf, students will label the peninsulas & gulf with 100% accuracy within 3 minutes.” “Given a dictionary & a list of 5 words, students will find each word and write its definition for at least 4 of the 5 words within 10 minutes.”

  • Testing Situation
  • Student Behavior
  • Performance Criteria
  • 1. Given a map with 2 peninsulas & 1 gulf,
  • students will label the peninsulas & gulf
  • with 100% accuracy within 3 minutes.
  • 2. Given a dictionary and a list of 5 words,
  • students will find each word & write its definition
  • for at least 4 of the 5 words within 10 minutes.

More requirements for objectives:

  • Objective tells what student will do, not what teacher will do. “…students will…”, not “I will teach…”
  • State objectives in positive terms.
  • Instead of, “will not write run-on sentences” try, “will separate independent clauses with a period or semi- colon”
  • Use specific “student behavior”, not “conclusion”
    • Use action verbs
    • Must pass the Stranger Test – a stranger could read objective & interpret it same way as you

S = “Student behavior”, not “Conclusion”

  • Below is list of “student behaviors” from objectives. Assess if behavior is truly a “specific student behavior” or a “conclusion”. If a conclusion, rewrite.
  • Example: …students will understand the difference between a student behavior & a conclusion…
    • This is a conclusion -- “understand” could be interpreted differently.
    • Rewrite: “…students will label specific student behaviors & conclusions & will rewrite conclusions as specific student behaviors….”
  • Let’s try a couple together. Specific student behavior or conclusion?
  • …will print their first names using lower case letters and first letter capitalized…
  • …will listen to the lecture on the solar system…

…will learn the 9 times table…

  • …will learn the 9 times table…
  • …will write the 3 branches of the federal government…
  • …will know the sign language alphabet…
  • …will verbally state the correct score, stating server score first & receiver score second…
  • …will understand the outcome of the Civil War…

Testing Situation (conditions)

  • What might be appropriate testing situations for the following? (What activity would you design to assess whether or not students had mastered this skill or knowledge?) Terminology often used includes (but not limited to) “Given…”, “When asked…”, “Using…”.
  • Let’s do a couple together:
    • Location & names of 7 continents
      • “Given a __________________________________________”
    • Scoring in bowling

Forming contractions

    • Forming contractions
    • Days of the week in Spanish
    • Changing oil in a car
    • Typing/keyboarding
    • Researching topic on internet

Performance Criteria

  • How might teachers identify criteria of successful performance? Often in % or accuracy, speed or time, correct skill performance, within a certain number of attempts, etc.
  • Let’s try some together:
    • …will write the 3 branches of the federal government with 100% accuracy within 1 minute.
    • …will sign the entire ASL alphabet with 100% accuracy within 30 seconds on the 1st or 2nd attempt
  • Now, pick some skills & write performance criteria for them.

Identify Components of a Behavioral Objective Directions: Each of following could be component of a behavioral objective. In blank, write initials for proper component. S = Student Behavior T = Testing Situation (conditions) P = Performance criteria (how well)

  • ____ 1. will write their first and last names in cursive
  • ____ 2. will say the alphabet
  • ____ 3. given examples of the correct style
  • ____ 4. with 95% accuracy
  • ____ 5. will boil water
  • ____ 6. given scissors
  • ____ 7. independently
  • ____ 8. will state home address & phone number
  • ____ 9. using a ruler
  • ____ 10. with no errors
  • ____ 11. when asked by the teacher
  • ____ 12. given 3 choices
  • ____ 13. in proper sequence
  • ____ 14. given a 10 problem worksheet
  • Let’s write a few behavioral objectives together:
  • Now with partner, select skill; write objective together.
  • Share w/another pair that is finished.
    • Critique each other’s objective; make sure it states:
      • Student behavior – what student will do
      • Testing situation – the conditions or circumstances
      • Performance criteria – how well
    • Make sure it is measurable.
    • Specific student behaviors, not conclusions. (Stranger Test)
    • Positive, not negative, terms.
    • All in 1 sentence.
  • Now, on your own. Select a skill & write behavioral objective.
    • When finished, find another student who is finished & critique each other’s objective; make sure it clearly states:
      • Student behavior – what student will do
      • Testing situation – the conditions or circumstances
      • Performance criteria – how well
    • Make sure it is measurable.
    • Specific student behaviors, not conclusions. (Stranger Test)
    • Positive, not negative, terms.
    • All in 1 sentence.

Optional independent practice/homework

  • Think of skills or knowledge you will teach in the future, and practice writing behavioral objectives for them.
  • Bring to class for Doug or classmates to critique.

Criticism of Mager’s “behavioral objective” style of instructional objectives:

  • Used exclusively, behavioral objective style leaves out many important goals of education.
  • Tendency to focus on minute details and lose sight of big idea.
  • More complex cognitive (thinking) processes are not readily observable or measurable.
  • So,…

…a more general approach to writing instructional objectives was developed.

  • General Objective - instructional objective that:
    • Addresses skills & concepts more difficult to measure but are still critical to students’ learning.
  • So, use for more abstract skills & concepts
  • Comprised of 2 components
      • An overall objective, and
      • Subobjectives that provide specific steps toward attaining the overall objective
        • T (testing situation) and P (performance criteria) components from Beh. Obj. not required, but try to word in specific student behaviors, not conclusions
    • Note: Include as many subobjectives as necessary.

Example from text:

  • Overall objective: Student understands and appreciates diversity of people in American society.
    • Subobjective 1: Student can define diversity.
    • Subobjective 2: Student can tell/write instances of how diverse persons/groups have enriched American life.
    • Subobjective 3: Student can analyze in writing how maintaining appreciation for diversity is a fragile & difficult goal to achieve.

Another example:

  • Overall Objective: Students will demonstrate respectful behavior while working in small groups.
    • SO #1: Students will establish eye contact with the speaker.
    • SO #2: Students will refrain from talking while another student is talking.
    • SO #3: Students will give feedback (both positive & negative) to group members in a positive & respectful manner.
    • SO #4: Students will wait their turn to speak and/or will interrupt politely (when appropriate).

Example from former Intro to Teaching student:

  • Overall Objective: Students will improve “helping” skills when playing the role of peer tutor in math partner activities.
    • SO #1: Students will check or monitor each problem of peer’s work.
    • SO #2: Students will offer specific, positive suggestions for improvement when incorrect performance is observed.
    • SO #3: Students will give specific praise or specific feedback on correct performance.
  • Let’s write 1 together.
    • Overall Objective: “Students will recognize art in their daily lives and will overcome any fears or stereotypes regarding art.”
      • Subobjective #1:
      • Subobjective #2:
  • Now, alone or with partner, write general objective for “demonstrate teamwork”. Include both Overall Obj & supporting subobjectives (at least 2).
  • If finished, think of another abstract skill or concept, and write general obj for it.

Another general approach:

  • Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
    • Looks at “way students think”, not just content
    • For this course, will NOT write this type
  • However, important to understand Bloom so that we:
    • Make sure students’ thinking progresses from basic to abstract
      • Facts before understanding
      • Understanding before application
      • Apply before evaluate, analyze or create
  • If all we teach is factual…
  • Or, if we ask students to apply without facts/understanding…
  • Helps us develop both lower-order thinking skills (LOTS) & higher-order thinking skills (HOTS)


  • Lower-order thinking skills
    • Remember
  • Higher-order thinking skills
    • All others (understand, apply, evaluate, analyze, create)
  • Bloom’s Taxonomy is two-dimensional:
  • Knowledge dimension (different types of knowledge)
    • Factual knowledge – basic elements
    • Conceptual knowledge – interrelationships among basic elements
    • Procedural knowledge – knowing “how” to do something
    • Metacognitive knowledge – knowledge about one’s own cognition (how one thinks & learns) and when to use conceptual & procedural knowledge
  • Cognitive process dimension (type of thinking required)
    • Rememberretrieve, recognize, recall
    • Understand – construct meaning, interpret, classify, summarize, compare explain
    • Apply – carry out, use, implement
    • Analyze – break into parts & determine how they relate (differentiate, organize)
    • Evaluate – make judgments or critique based on criteria
    • Create - put elements together to form a new pattern (generate, plan, produce)

In these objectives, identify category of knowledge & cognitive process (use previous slide as guide)

  • Students will recall the 3 components of a behavioral objective.
  • Students will explain the causes of important 18th century events in France.
  • Students will use effective strategies for answering essay test questions.
  • Students will write a lesson plan for a direct instruction lesson.
  • With partner or alone, look at objectives you wrote earlier:
    • Identify type of knowledge & cognitive process required for each.
    • Be prepared to share with class.

Bloom classifies objectives across 3 domains (The 3 Hs):

  • Bloom classifies objectives across 3 domains (The 3 Hs):
      • Cognitive – mental; thinking (head)
      • Psychomotor – not just PE; handwriting, typing, lab work, cutting, pasting (hands/body)
      • Affective – emotional responses, such as valuing, making commitment to, demonstrating passion for, demonstrating diligence (heart)

Determining domain – cognitive, psychomotor, or affective

  • Cutting & pasting -
  • Developing mnemonic -
  • Demonstrate positive self-esteem –
  • Identifying key points in Battle of Gettysburg –
  • Demonstrate teamwork & cooperative behavior during cooperative (small group) learning activity –
  • Use QWERTY style in typing document -
  • Let’s determine domain for objectives you wrote:

Again, we will only use Mager’s & Gronlund’s approaches; however…

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