Resources / references first paragraph suggestions



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RESOURCES / REFERENCES

FIRST PARAGRAPH SUGGESTIONS

(Styles of Opening)

Read through the styles of introduction and include one you like in you r opening paragraph. REMEMBER WHAT TO INCLUDE IN YOUR FIRST PARAGRAPH:

1. A recognizable style of opening

2. The topic and its importance

3. The specific issue and how it relates

4. The viewpoint or tone (positive, negative, or indifferent)

5. The 3 main points (or thesis)

6. Two or three thought transitions to help the flow



STYLES OF OPENING TO CAPTURE INTEREST & GRAB ATTENTION
1. Use a quote.

Ex. - “If you use it well, time is your friend. If you try to kill it, time becomes your enemy.”

2. State the problem clearly and whom it affects.

Ex. - The major problem of smoking is the cost of health care. It affects anyone who smokes and the public pays too.

3. Use an example. (Place appropriately in the first paragraph)

Ex. - Medical costs are very expensive. For example, the Jones family spent thousands on Uncle Bob’s hospital stay for lung cancer.

4. Offer and unusual or interesting fact.

Ex. - According to the ADA, most people who smoke have problems with their teeth by age 40.

5. Use a vivid, concrete description of a person, place, or object.

Ex. - John walks in with a sickly look, yellow teeth, and a hacking cough.

6. Present a current event related to your issue.

Ex. - Today, the Tobacco Industry is still offering billion to settle court cases.

7. Introduce a significant past event.

Ex. - Fifty years ago, smoking was part of the culture and was considered the cool thing to do.

8. Use the 5 senses for descriptive detail.

Ex. - He smelled of stale cigars. The old man’s skin was scaly and rough to the touch. His raspy voice and chronic cough told the story of his lifetime habit.

9. Use a metaphor, simile, or analogy.

Ex. - Friendship is the bridge that connects two strangers together.

10. State an assumption.

Ex. - Many people assume beauty is the only way to get ahead.

11. Ask a question.

Ex. - Why do so many teenagers pick up the habit of smoking?

12. Offer an alarming or surprising statistic.

Ex. - Alarmingly, 3 out of 4 teenager girls don’t view themselves as physically beautiful.




  1. Offer and exaggeration of a common statement.

Ex. - Beauty isn’t skin deep, it goes to the core and means everything.

  1. Show some action (performing a task, accident, etc.)

Ex. - The speeding car came to a sudden stop. However, without constraints, the package flew violently into the windshield.

  1. Define a term.

Ex. - Friendliness is defined as ready to be a friend, showing friendly feelings, supporting and helping.

  1. State What kind? Use a classification of division.

Ex. - In the media, long legs, pretty skin, small waist, and high cheekbones equals a beautiful woman. This is a type of beauty in the eyes or most Europeans.

  1. Describe how it is done. Reveal a process.

Ex. - Most women put on their faces one layer at a time. What do I mean? Foundation is first. Then concealers, blush, eyeliner, mascara, eye shadow, lip liner, and lipstick are applied.

  1. Show concern that all the facts are NOT KNOWN, however, state that THESE FACTS ARE EVIDENT.

Ex. – We don’t know if friends make you live longer. We don’t know if friends bring you happiness. However, we do know that having friends affects your personality.

  1. Relate and anecdote or joke. Depict a humorous situation.

Ex. – You’re so lonely, your brother had to put a pork chop around your neck just so the dog would play with you.

  1. Name the adversary, rival, or opposition.

Ex. - Sight along with human nature, is our enemy on the issue of beauty.

  1. Use dialogue in which the problem is clarified.

Ex. - “Hey, I have the same lunch box as you. So what’s your name?” shouted little Bobby. “Power Rangers rule, my name is Andy. What’s yours?” replied Andy. Bobby then roared, “I’m Bobby Babbitt.” They continued their conversation until the lunch was over.

  1. Use a few short sentences as a change or pace.

Ex. - He was alone. It was dark. He was afraid.

  1. Set the scene.

Ex. - Her room was warmed by the morning sun. It was almost 90 degrees, and it wasn’t even afternoon yet. Outside, the bees were working furiously to finish their day’s work. Then my life changed forever.

  1. Relate why your topic is important.

Ex. - Teenage pregnancy is a life changing event. More times than not, it is a downward spiral.

  1. Give some background information.

Ex. - The movement started in the 1950’s. Bob Jones was the founder. The first legislation supporting the philosophy passed in August, 1971.

  1. Tell a personal story.

Ex. - I always dreamed of becoming a teacher. My little brothers and sisters were my first students. Everyday there was a new lesson to present. The damp basement served as the “little red schoolhouse.”

  1. Find a common ground with the reader.

Ex. – As Americans, we can relate to the freedoms democracy brings.

BODY PARAGRAPHS

When writing a quality paper, the writer should attempt to add some depth and complexity to the topic or issue. The following methods can be used to go below the surface and get to the meat of the issue. EVEN ELEMENTARY STUDENTS CAN LEARN TO ADD COMPLEXITY.


Please read all the strategies before you decide. You can use many of these methods as you wish. Each paper had a different emphasis so you will use different styles. However, some of these techniques will become your favorites and you will use them more often.
ADDING COMPLEXITY AND DEPTH TO THE BODY PARAGRAPHS
Each paragraph should have:

An engaging topic sentence

Thought transitions for fluency (examples 17 to 19)

A clear example

Sub-points
AND
CHOOSE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING TO DEVELOP EACH PARAGRAPH


  • State some history or background on the paragraph’s main point

  • Predict the future effect based on the main point

  • Use contrasting examples (the opposite of your point)

  • Use a documented quote or statistic

  • Give a pro and con of the issue

  • Use data from other fields – economics, politics, law, education, etc.

  • Use a comparison – metaphor simile, or analogy

  • Clearly define your main point and its connection to the issue

  • Include a sequenced list of events or things to do

  • Offer a short- term implication or consequence

  • Offer a long- term implication or consequence

  • Ask yourself, who cares? and write the response

  • Ask yourself, so what?

  • Give an anecdote

  • Identify and evaluate the sources of information/ data

  • Reveal an underlying assumption

  • State a DIFFERENT problem relevant to the main point

  • Present another “less obvious” cause or effect related to the issue

  • Ask: How or Why?

  • Draw a conclusion.

  • Make an inference.

  • Interpret the meaning of the main point


THE CONCLUSION

When we come to a conclusion, we do so in some context. Many times, we have to make inferences based on evidence, data, and / or assumptions. When we communicate, we attempt to answer a question, solve a problem, or to reach some objective.


How do you state clear, justified, and reasonable conclusions?
A quality conclusion is much more than just the ending paragraph.
Every paper should have a strong ending. Read through and choose a style you like. REMEMBER – Make it clear that you are concluding your essay. USE AN OBVIOUS PHRASE – In closing, or In summation.
Basic Styles


  • Summarize all the key points stated in the essay.

  • Restate your main points in different words.

  • Restate the main points and give a thought / possibility to ponder.

  • State where we are now after all the discussion.

  • Explain what you know after all the discussion.

However, if you want a more mature ending you should use one of the advanced styles. Think about which style will work with your topic or issue. What did you do with the body of your paper? Where were you leading the reader? Which style would be appropriate to conclude your thoughts?




Advanced Styles – (it is assumed that a summary will be included)
Argue against, deny, or ridicule a belief, myth, or statement of fact

Offer a new / unique solution

Ask a deeper, probing question about the issue / problem

Make an educated, insightful prediction

Call for a response / action by a group or individual

Use an appropriate quotation to create closure

Be creative. Finish the essay with humor or exaggeration

Quote the leading expert or organization and his/her current views



Thought Transitions

For Fluency

To be used between thoughts, sentences, and paragraphs. A skilled writer will utilize the contents of these pages many times. On the following pages you will find words and phrases that could be used often. When you are stuck for a word or phrase – look over the list and choose an appropriate transition for your essay.


Important Note:

These transitions guide the reader through the essay and help the flow of the writing. Transitions are key words, cue words or signposts for the reader.




  1. TO SHOW A TIME or SEQUENCE




After

Next


Approximately

Before then

First of all

During


Suddenly

Earlier


As soon as

Continuously

Originally

At the onset

Primarily

Beforehand

All along

In the course of

Spontaneously

Finally


At the same time

Sometime before

Then

In a few minutes



Meanwhile

Later


Presently

Initially

Afterwards

Sequentially

Chronologically

Opening with

The secondary

Hitherto


Till now

In the interim

Subsequently

In the first place

Years ago

In the past

Last year

Next term

Currently

Beyond That

Eventually

Following

Yesterday

Without letup

Let’s set in motion

In progression

Heretofore

For the duration

In the aftermath

In the near future

Immediately after

Formerly


Amid this

Recently


Previously

Ultimately

Just before

Coming after

At a later date

In the end

From its inception

Prior to


In the course of

For this occasion

In an instant

For a time



2. TO COMPARE (same)




In comparison

In like manner

Likewise

Coupled with

Equally

This resembles



Identical to

Just the same

Agreeable

A constant is

In tune with
In similar fashion

Similarly

In the same vein

Synonymous with

Parallel to

Everything in common

Closely related to

This reflects

In the same way

In unison

Consistent with
Compared to

The same as

Equally important…

Akin to


In accordance

Representative of

Corresponding to

Identically

In the same way

In relation to

In harmony with
All are

As well as

…have in common

Coinciding with

As it were

Congruent with

Comparable to

On equal terms

Coincidentally

To some extent

This concurs with

3. TO CONTRAST or TO CONCEDE A POINT or A COUNTERING POINT


Conversely However Notwithstanding Rather than

In contrast Yet Even though Still

Instead Although This is opposed to Despite

On the other hand To the contrary But Nevertheless

Unlike Not only Whether or not In spite of

After all Nonetheless Though In my view, however,

What, though, if Now let’s explain I doubt Some question

Of course Otherwise Surely others In this way

Regardless I disagree In another way At odds with this

Contrarily Inversely Poles apart Another way

In opposition To counteract Incongruent A variation

In negation To refute The disharmony In conflict

A divergent idea A dissimilar An incompatible A different version

A disparate view A dissenting point Defiantly Antagonistically


4. TO SHOW CAUSE, EFFECT, or RESULTS
As a result Because of This is caused by This results in

Consequently On account of …is brought about …was responsible for

This derives from …is predicted on …can be ascribed to The impact is

Hence Therefore Considering the This gives rise to

If…Then Accordingly …made possible As long as

Thus Since Due to For this reason

Ergo In effect As might be expected Inasmuch

Whereas Then Subsequently Thereupon

It follows that So Attributing to Owing to

Thereby Chances are This entails In all likelihood

Necessarily This effect This implies Let’s forecast
5. CONTINUING THE THOUGHT – A SIMILAR STATEMENT TO FOLLOW
Also Moreover What’s more Jointly

As well as Too A supplement to On top of that

Besides Further Another point is Not to mention

Next In fact In conjunction with Apart from that

Furthermore Plus Let alone Beyond that

In addition Again Aside from Additionally


6. TO EMPHASIZE A POINT- STATEMENT OF CLARITY
Indeed In fact Foremost Truly now

Most importantly It’s vital It’s evident The exact

The crucial Surprisingly Clearly In truth

Obviously As you can see Surely Certainly

Honestly Undoubtedly Indubitably Beyond question

It’s imperative The eminent The prominent The urgent

It’s essential The unique view The critical point The key element

The overriding It’s paramount To be sure In reality

In particular To be specific Precisely Let’s define

7. TO SIMPLIFY or STATE ANOTHERWAY


In other words Simply In short In brief

In essence Therefore To sum up Thus

Hence That is to say In all likelihood It’s only

In a nutshell To be concise Putting in succinctly


8. TO INTRODUCE EXAMPLES or EXPLANATIONS
In support of this Namely As evidence In particular

As an illustration That is Inasmuch As we have seen

For example Perhaps After all As proof

For instance Consider Since For one thing


9. OPENING STATEMENTS
I believe that We affirm It was found that More than ever before

I assert She purports It seems that I question whether

It seems feasible It is imperative It is beneficial Let’s advocate for

I strongly feel The data suggests I maintain Let’s examine

Many claim From my view point The data indicates The theory is

To begin with It is my contention The papers state Harvard affirms

The test concludes The council Proposes He alleges The study reported
10. AFTER THE PROBLEM IS STATED
Granted Many times It’s assumed The premise is

In some cases Despite They postulated We surmised

Interestingly Nor The conjecture is Lets propose

Afterwards Especially After all Equally important

Most importantly In the view of forgoing Keep in mind

More than ever before


11. ENDING STATEMENTS
Finally In conclusion In summation In any case

To summarize Last of all To sum up For the reasons above

To conclude The result is As you can see As I have noted

The result of To close On the whole Eventually

Ultimately At last Sooner or later In the long run
12. USE FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS
Sadly Regrettably Angrily Unsuccessfully

Tragically Unfavorably With disgust Ominously



With hesitation Surprisingly With great joy Happily

With satisfaction Enthusiastically With fervor Cruelly

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