Preliminary biographical essay of louisa alexander porter

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Cynthia Milonas Cummings

MAY 24, 1991


“History is a pack of tricks we play on the dead.”

— Voltaire

“SUN Aug. 16, 1888: 2/6 — Deaths — Porter Died at Clarksville, Georgia, August 5th. at the residence of Mrs. J.F. Gilmer, Mrs. Anthony Forter, of Savannah.” (1) This pefunctory obituary does not begin to do jLtstIce to the memory of Louisa Frednika Alexander Porter. One can never be sure if the facinating accounts of days gone by — stories we devour with r’el ish in the pages of time—honored digests and other various pediodicals have not been twisted, lust a little, to make for livelier reading: or in the case of Louisa Porter, have been watered down by a heavy dose of family honor and humility, resulting in the virtual eradication of a piece of Savannah’s history hidden in the life of a woman of yesteryear.

At first glance, the story of Louisa Porter appears to be commomplece. Her life appears to be similar to that of any other women of the planter class who was reared in the antebellum South. This initial impression is further evidenced when one reads the following outline of her life.

(i) Louisa Fredrika Alexander, daughter of Dr. Adam Alexander of Inverness, Scotland and Louisa rredrika Schmidt of

Stuttgart, Germany is born in Liberty County, Georgia on July

10, 1824.

(ii) She is the second child and only daughter. Her brother being Adam Leopold Alexander was also born in Liberty County, Georgia on January 29, 1803.

(iii) In 1812, Louisa Fredrika Alexander’s father, Dr.

Adam Alexander, dies.

(iv) In 1824, Louisa Fredrika Alexander marries a banker Anthony Porter of Savannah.
(v) In marriage, Louisa Alexander Porter settles in Savannah and lives the life of a charitable Christian woman.
(vi) On October 1, 1846, Louisa Alexander Porter’s mother, Louisa Fredrika Schmidt Alexander, dies.
(vii) Louisa Alexander Porter’s aunt, florothea Christea Schmidt Van Veveren, niece, Miss A. V. Alexander and grand—niece, Louisa Porter Gilmer move into the Anthony Porter home in Savannah.
(viii) Louisa Alexander Porter’s activities are chronicled in local newspapers where she is now refered to as “Mrs. Porter” — the wife of a prominent banker.

(ix) Louisa Alexander Porter dies in Clarksville, Georgia at the home of her niece, Mrs. J.F. Gilmer, (Louisa Fredrika Alexander Gilmer — daughter of Adam Leopold Alexande).

(x) The heirs of Louisa Alexander Porter establish the Louisa Porter Home for Girls.

Yet, this profile of Louisa Fredrika Alexander Porter is deceptive. The research on her life was interesting to say the least. Moreover, the discovery of what at first appeared to be conflicting geneological accoLints of immediate and extended family activities, became the rule not the exception.

The time period in which she lived deserves consideration. Louisa Alexander Porter was born one year before the slave trade ended in the United States and died two years prior to the closing of the American frontier. In her lifetime, Louisa Alexander Porter experienced the happenings of a country emerging from its infancy; and her unrelentless support to the community of Savannah not only inspired others to do the same, but reflected the changings of a nation.

Dr. and Mrs. Alexander

‘History is the essence of innumeral Biographies.”

— Thomas Carlyle

Louisa Alexander’s father, Dr. Adam Alexander, was born on March 3, 1858 in Inverness, Scotland. (2) He was an ambitious man and in time made his mark in the United States as a prominent physician as well as landowner in the town of Sunbury in Liberty County Georgia. Apparently orphaned at a young age, Adam Alexander was taken in by two maiden aunts named Jamison. He was eventually sent to study medicine at the University of Edinburg, (3) and as of 1910 Adam Alexander’s diploma was said to still be in possession of the Alexander family. (4)

According to family letters, Dr. Alexander came to the United States in 1776 and served in the United States Army as a surgeon during the Revolutionary War. (5) If one believes this family legend to be true, then the assumption can be made that Adam Alexander came to the New World almost immediately after matriculation from medical school . Perhaps both of his maiden aunts had passed on; and the young man having no one left in his homeland crossed the sea in search for adventure. If that was the case, adventure is what young Adam received. While tending to wounded, Dr. Alexander was briefly taken prisoner by the British at the Beige of Savannah, (6) and later released on parole to attend to a wounded British officer. (7)

At some point after the Seige of Savannah, Adam Alexander married one Esther Lawson Harvis, daughter of John Lawson ESQ., (8) and began to develop a solid reputation in southeast Georgia. Yet, all was not happy at home and within a few years, Adam Alexander and Esther Harvis divorced. However, due to a prenuptial agreement, Dr. Alexander was heir to lands in both Sunbury, Georgia (lots 65 and 66), and four hundred acres of east Florida real estate which were previously developed and rented to the public by John Lawson.(9)

Within two years of his first wife’s death, Dr. Adam Alexander began to diversify. He further expanded his avocation of real estate and contracted to buy slaves to support his new

holdings. (10) This enabled him to further his reputation as a wealthy, well educated, Revoltionary War hero who was a suitable beau for any young girl . That girl would be Louisa Fredrika Schmidt.

Louisa Alexander’s mother, Louise Fredrika Schmidt was born in Stuttgart, Germany on March 23, 1777. (11) In 1789, she immigrated from Amsterdam to Savannah, Goergia with: her mother, Christine Liorothea (Kinzelbach) Schmidt, one brother, Christian Leopold, and two sisters, Christine Dorothea, and Sibilla Charlotte. (12) Louisa Fredrika’s other brother. Heinrich (George Henry) remained in Germany to serve with distiction in the Saxon army. Her father, Egyduis Heinrich Schmidt, immigrated to the United States several years prior to

sending for his family. This is an interesting story and proceeds as follows...

Egydius Schmidt, a prominent graduate of the University of

Lepsic, was an owner of trading ships in Amsterdam and the West

Indies. However, having lost his hardware (perhaps in an ocean

storm), in 1784, Egydius Schmidt made plans to move to the

United States. (13) In the winter of 1795, Edydius arrived in

Charleston, South Carolina and moved in with a man named Moloch who was a fellow immigrant “of nobel origin.” Edydius then began to estabi ish himself as a cotton merchant and began to make preparations for his family’s arrival.


In the winter of 1789, EdygiLts sent for his family and arranged for a consort to accompany them. However, the companion was to leave on one vessel and Louisa Fredrika and the remainder of the Schmidt family was to leave on another directly following. The problems began when the consort’s ship set sail . The ship that was carrying the Schmidt family was caught in an ice storm, and their journey was delayed for three to five months. Unfortunately, there was no way that the travelling companion could be informed that the second vessel had to turn back because of foul weather. Thus, when the man arrived in Charleston, he informed the waiting Egydius Schmidt that his family had departed, and must have been killed at sea.

(15) One can only picture the shock Egydius Schmidt received when his family did arrive safely months later. Now reunited,

the Schmidts spent a very brief time in South Carolina before moving to Sunbury, Georgia — a thriving town with a safe harbor and considered a rival to Savannah. (16)

Louisa Fredrika was a charming young woman and made quite an impression during her limited stay in Charleston. According to an Alexander family myth. Egydius’s friend Moloch had fallen in love with Louisa Fredrika and followed the family to Georgia. Yet, despite Moloch’s persistance (he had bricks imported from Europe to build a house) and her father’s approval , Louisa Fredrika refused to marry the nobel . However, being a dutiful daughter, she promised her father that she would not marry anyone else during his lifetime. (17)

By this point in time, Louisa was taken with fir. Adam Alexander who was now renound for his expertise in the relatively new field of smallpox vaccinations; (18) and shortly after her father’s death — on March 10, 1602 the two were married. (19)

By January 29, 1803, Dr. and Mrs. Alexander had their first child, Adam Leopold. Louisa (Schmidt) Alexander naming the child after both her husband and in memory of her brother Christian Leopold who was studying medicine in Philadelphia and died in in the yellow fever epidemic of 1789.(20) Four years later, on June 9, 1807 a second child was born and named after the strong willed Saxon — Louisa Fredrika Alexander. (21)

“Historical Data on average people and everyday situations are hard to find.”

Cochran and Hofstader

Louisa Alexander’s early years were eventful , though I doubt she remembered them. One year after her birth, James Madison was elected president of the United States, and the “war hawks” of our nation were rapidly moving toward a second confrontation with Great Britain. In 1812, Madison SLirrendered to the “war hawks” and it is bel ieved like thousands of other men across the country, Dr. Alexander served (as a surgeon to our troopsY in the United States Army. (22

It is not known how Dr. Alexander died on March 3, 1812. (23) However, being that Dr. Alexander’s last will and testament has yet to be found, one can deduct that he did not die of a lengthy illness. Moreover, since the estate of Dr. Alexander was not settled until the year of 1824, it is possible that Adam Alexander’s holdings were contested by family members from his previous marriage. c24)

This was trying time for young Louisa Alexander, her brother Adam Leopold and their widowed mother who was only thirty—five years old. Louisa (Schmidt) Alexander’s father and

two brothers had died in the late nineteenth century. Her mother passed on two months prior to the death of Dr. Alexander; and her sister Charlotte (Carlotta) died in September of 1813, (25) A person can not help to initially think that the forecast for the future of the Alexander home was bleak; and Mrs. Adam Alexander must have for a period believed herself to be quite alone in the world.

However, that was not the case. Louisa (Schmidt) Alexander’s sister, Dorothea (Schmidt) Yeveren is believed to have been living in the Savannah environs. (She was later buried in Laurel Grove Cemetery). Dorothea had either settled in Savannah with her husband, or lived in a nearby town and relocated at a later date.) (26) So, one can only assume that Dorothea gave her sister, niece and nephew moral support.

Of more importance is the indication that Dr. Alexander’s real estate investments were supporting his wife and two children for many years after his death. Any records of employment pertaining to Louisa (Schmidt) Alexander have yet to be found. Thus, Mrs. Adam Alexander, Adam Leopold , and young Louisa do not appear to have been wanting for anything. This argument is supported by Adam Leopold Alexander’s preliminary education having been conducted under the guidence of Dr. William McWhirr (tutor to George Washington’s nephew) at the newly establ ished Sunbury Academy (27) ; and the Al exander family’s move to Connectitut for Adam Leoplod’s subsequent attendance and matriculation at Yale College in 1821. (28) The

Alexander family did not move back to Georgia until approximately 1823, when Adam Leopold married Sarah Hilihouse Gilbert in Washington, Georgia. (29)

Little is known on the particulars of Louisa Alexander’s daily activities prior to her marriage to Anthony Porter. However, one can assume that she was educated in the same fashion that other women of privileged backgrounds were during the early 1800’s. Most likely Louisa was tutored at home, and her rudimentary education consisted of reading, music, art and embroidery.

Yet, when reflecting on Louisa Alexander’s background, it is quite easy to imagine this refined young girl being introduced to the president of the Bank of the State of Georgia during an afternoon meeting with her mother, brother, and family lawyer concerning Dr. Adam Alexander’s unsettled estate. In any case, Dr. Adam Alexander goods and effects were finally divided amongst Louisa (Schmidt) Alexander, Adam Leopold Alexander, and Louisa Alexander in 1824. (30) In that same year, on December 16, Louisa Alexander married Anthony Porter.


1824 — 1888

“The historian has to use the materials he can

find rather that those that might best answer his questions.

— Cochran and Hofstader
When Louisa Alexander and Anthony Porter began their life together in 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected president of the United States by the House of Representatives. Four years later, Andrew Jackson ushered in an era of democracy; and with it came the Second Great Awakening. This distinctive historical period, characterized by mass revivals across the countryside, as well as stringent piety in hopes for individual salvation had a profound impact on the human experience of Louisa Porter. From approximately 1830 until her death in 1888, Mrs. Porter devoted a great part of her time in a quest to aid those who were less fortunate. However, for now we will begin with Louisa’s husband, Anthony Porter.
With the exception of his vital dates (December 8, 1788 —December 18, 1870) , little is known about the background of Anthony Porter. According to Census reports, he was born in Greene County. (32) Yet, due to the coincidence that one David Porter of Greene County, South Carolina is listed directly below Anthony Porter in the 1860 Census Reports of Chatha


County, one does not know if the individuals recording the statistics neglected to include important information on the individual in question.
In addition to the confusion concerning Anthony Porter’s birthplace, there is also a fallibility in reference to his military record. According to family manuscripts, Anthony Porter is refered to at times as Major Anthony Porter. (33) However, as of the present date, I have not yet found any record of his military service. Therefore, if one believes the family letters to be true, due to the date of Anthony Porter’s birth, one can assume that he fought in the war of 1812.
Nevertheless, despite the (present) lack of information, a life can be constructed for Louisa and Anthony Porter. As president of the Rank of the State of Georgia, one can be assured that Anthony Porter provided his wife with all of the comforts in life. In the spring of 1824, Mr. Porter took Louisa Alexander, who was accompanied by her brother, sister—in—law and their two children on a journey to New York. That holiday was not to be their last. Two years later Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Porter took a second holiday to New York. Interstate travel not being the norm during the early nineteenth century, it is obvious that the couple was wealthy.

Moreover, the tax and census records of Anthony Porter show a mounting net worth up to the year of 1860. In 1844 tax

estimates show him to be worth in excess of S8000, and by 1860 that figure had increased to $15,000 (35) Porter’s net worth played a direct part in his wife’s philanthropic pursuits. Due to his success in the financial world, Louisa Porter was able to pursue a fulfilling life of aiding the poor.
Louisa Porter’s activities throughout her 31 years of marriage are primarily chronicled in the local newspapers of Savannah. She was elected to the board of directors of the Savannah Free School three times between the years of 1833 and 1855; and selected to be directress for the Savannah Female Society during the years of 1843 and 1855. In addition to leading these organizations, Mrs. Porter was a member of the Independent Presbyterian Church, and the Presbyterian Sunday School Association. (36)
While all this activity ensued, Louisa cared for her mother until her death on October 1, 1846. (37) Shorthly thereafter, she became involved in a lawsuit on behalf of her mother with her aunt Christine Dorothea, against the estate of long lost relation in Germany. In 1847, the two were awarded 2,820 guilders from The Royal Wurttemberg District Court (38); and Christine Dorothea (Aunt Van Yeveren) moved in with the Porters on the corner of Bull and State Streets, living with them until her death in 1851 . (39)
What Louisa did with her inheritance from the Royal Worttenburg Court has yet to be determined. Most likely she

had her husband invest a portion, spent the rest on her brother Adam Leopold’s many children, and donated the remainder to her pet organizations such as the Savannah Ladies Association and the Savannah Female Society. The estate of Louisa’s mother was divided equally between Adam Leopold Alexander and Anthony Porter (as was the custom of the period) (40)

It appears that even the impending Civil War and Reconstruction could not distract Mrs. Porter and her contemporaries from attempting to continue their philanthropic endeavors. Between the years of 1855 and 1879 there are not any specific accounts of in the various newspapers of Louisa Porter’s activities in Savannah’s benevolent societies.

During the war, space in print was reserved for general pleas to contribute to “the cause” or social service societies, notices of deaths, and information concerning certain battles. Yet, the pleas for aid tell us that societies to aid the poor were still in existance. Thus, Louisa Porter is believed to have remained active in the Savannah community.

When South Carolina seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860, the Porter household had two more inhabitants Miss A.V. Alexander, daughter of Adam Leopold Alexander, and Miss Loulie (Louisa Porter) Gilmer, daughter of Louisa Fredrika AleAander Gilmer and granddaughter of Adam Leopold. (41) No concrete explanation of their two children’s stay with the Porters has been desciphered in the manuscripts housed in the Georgia Historical Society. Yet it is safe to assume that due to the

fact that Louisa and Anthony Porter did not have any children, her brother sent a child or grandchild for extended visits to keep his sister company.

Louisa Alexander Porter was extremely close to her brother Adam Leopold. Adam, like most brothers, kept a watchful eye over his little sister until his death on April 9, 1882. (42) Moreover, Adam Leopold was the patriarch of the Alexander family and he made it a point to insure that his sister would remain financially secure.
Louisa’s husband, Anthony, had acquired quite a fortune prior to 1860. According to the 1860 Census of Chatham County Georgia, prior to the first shot of the Civil War being fired at Fort Sumter, Anthony Porter’s, net worth exceeded $163,000.
(43) However, by the time the South was victorious at the (first) Battle of Bull Run, Anthony was in debt to various creditors for $2,500. (44) It is likely that Anthony Porter’s financial woes were the result of either faulty investments or the decreasing value of the Confederate dollar. In any case, Adam Leopold Alexander remained concerned about his sister’s future particulary when her husband’s wealth had dwindled away during the war.
Thus, the family joined together, and when William Tecumseh Sherman’s troops burned Atlanta to the ground, they made preparations to save the Rank of the State of Georgia. Anthony Porter made arrangements to have bank funds transferred to the

Macon branch. Curiously, the Sank of the State of Georgia was required to maintain 20% of its value in gold, but never paid dividends to its depositors. (45) The children of Adam Leopold then removed the gold from the office by entering the bank in the middle of the night and packed the bills in their belts. Now with the funds in their possession, safely out of Union hands, they had it wagoned to their individual homes and buried it in their gardens. (46) Additionally, four years after the war was over, Adam Leopold continued to assist his sister by transferring real estate to Anthony Porter with the stipulation that Louisa could do with the property as she saw fit. 47) Within months of the agreement Anthony Porter died at the age of eighty—one.

Anthony Porter was buried in the Laurel Grove Cemetery, Savannah, on lot number 693 adjacent to aunt Van Yeveren in an area which later became a family plot. Louisa, later had her mother removed from the Old Cemetery in Savannah, and her father from Liberty County in Sunbury to join her husband. In time, the Alexander—Porter family would encompass lots 663, 664, 693, 694, ind 695. (48)

After her husband’s death, Louisa Alexander Porter spent her remaining years living next to her niece Louisa Alexander Gilmer at the corner of State and Bull Streets. (58) She remained active throughout her old age as a member of the First Presbyterian Church of Savannah. Louisa also became a champion of homeless women and children. Remarkably, at the age of

seventy—one, Mrs. Porter petitioned the courts in quest to incorporate the Savannah Society of Cruelty to Children —(Refuge for the Homeless). (49) She was victorious: and in 1875 the Refuge for the Homeless’ name was changed to the Industrial Relief Society and Home for the Friendless. (51) Mrs. Porter continued until the day she died, to give something badt to a society which had given her so much.

On August 5, 1868, Louisa Porter died at the age of eighty—one. Louisa divided her estate amongst her brother Adam Leopold’s ten children. (52) The majority of Louisa’s assests were bequethed to her favorite niece, Louisa Alexander Gilmer.

(53) Two years later the heirs of Louisa Porter, led by Louisa Gilmer, donated a sizable sum to the Industrial Relief Society and Home for the Friendless in homage to their aunt. As a result, the institution’s name was changed in appreciation to the Louisa Porter Home for Girls. (54) Somehow you know Louisa Alexander Porter was smiling....


If one desires to continue research on the Louisa Porter family, I suggest contacting the archives at Duke University and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In addition, further information can be has in Washington, Georgia as well as at the military archives of Fort Gordon, Augusta, Georgia.

(Happy Hunting!)

Cynthia Milonas Cummings


1 Savannah Morning News, August 16, 1888, p.2, c.6.
2 George T. Baldwin, Alexander Letters, 1787—1900 (Savannah: Private Printing, 1910), p. 375.
3 George T. Baldwin, Alexander Letters, 1787—1900 (Savannah: Private Printing, 1910), p. 375.
4 Baldwin, p. 13.
5 Baldwin, pp. 14, 37’s.
6 Baldwin, pp. 14, 375.
7 Baldwin, p. 375.
8. Liberty County Superior Court, comp., Direct and Reverse Index,

Grantee A—7, to Deeds and Mortgages, 1887—1903, County Record F

(Liberty County: Liberty County Superior Court, 1903), p. 56.

9. Liberty County Superior Court, comp., Direct and Reverse Index,

Grantee A—Z, to Deeds and Mortgages, 1887—1903. County Record 4-

(Liberty County, Liberty County Superior Court, 1903), p. 56.

Note: No document of divorce has been found — However according to

the above mentioned — Adam Alexander was clearly married to an Eleanor

Lawson Harvis — See note 24
10 Liberty County Superior Court, comp., Direct Index,

Grantor A—Z. to Deeds and Mortgages, 1777—1911, County Record 0

(Liberty County: Superior Court, Liberty County Superior Court), pp. 26, 86.

11 Sarah Alexander Cunningham, “Sarah Alexander Cunningham Collection, 1803—1939,” Collection number 194, Folder 6, Item 1, Manuscript Collections, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah.

Baldwin, p. 12.

12 Sarah Alexander Cunningham, “Sarah Alexander Cunningham Collection, 1803—1939,” Collection number 194, Folder A, Item 100, Manuscript Collections, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah.

W.C. Hartridge, “W.C. Hartridge Collection,” Collection number 1344, Folder, Alexander, Manuscript Collections, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah. No Item numbers.

Baldwin, p. 12

Note: Collection number 194 states that Christian Leopold was the brother who remained in Germany — However, Being that item 100 is a eulogy of Adam Leopold Alexander by David Hillhouse — and the only piece of information that stated Christian Leopold stayed in Germany — I came to the conclusion that due to the passage of time, Mr. Hilihouse confused the two brothers of Louisa Fredrika Schmidt —

14 Baldwin, p. 11.

15 Baldwin, p. 11
16 Baldwin, p. 13.
17 Baldwin, p. 13.

18 W.C. Hartridge, “ W.C. Hartridge Collection,” Collection number

1349, Folder, Alexander, Manuscript Collections, Georgia Historical

Society Savannah. No Item numbers.

19 Baldwin, p. 375.
20 Baldwin, p. 12.

Cunningham, It 194, Folder 6, Items 1, 100.

Note: See endnote ft 12.
21 Baldwin, p. 12

Cunningham, # 194, Folder 6, Item. 1.

22 Cunningham, ft 194, Folder A, Item 100.
23 Cunningham, * 194, Folder 6, Item 1.
24 Robert Long Groover, Sweet Land of Liberty A History of Liberty County, Georgia (Roswell: NH Wolve Associates 1987), p. 195

Direct Index Grantor A—Z, to Deeds and Mortgages, 1777—1911, (Liberty County: Superior Court, Book I), p. 110

Direct and Reverse Index, Grantee A—K, to Deeds and Mortgages, 1887-1903. ( Liberty County, County Record FJ pp. 5—6.

Baldwin, p. 375.

Note: No document has been found stating that Dr. Alexander became divorced — However, in Liberty County’s County Record F he was clearly married — In addition, Groover’s Sweet Land of Liberty states —that Eleanor Alexander did not die till 1864 — and Baldwin stated that Adam Alexander and Louisa Fredrika Schmidt were married in 1802 and the Liberty County Books of Deeds inform us that Adam Alexander’s estate was not settled until 1824 —. . . .Thus, I assumed that Eleanor Alexander contested the will.
25 Cunningham, #194, Folder 6, Item 1.
26 Baldwin, p. 13.
27 Baldwin, p. 14.
28 Baldwin, p. 14

Cunningham, #194, Folder 6, Item 100.

29 Baldwin, p. 14

Cunningham, # 194, Folder A, Item 1.

30 Liberty County Superior Court, comp., Direct Index, Grantor A—Z, to Deeds and Mortgages. 1777—1911. County Record I

(Liberty County: Liberty County SLiperior Court),110.

31 Liberty County Superior Court, comp., Marriage Record,

1806—1897. A—Z (Liberty County: Liberty County Superior Court, 1897), no pag number.
32 The Genealogical Committee of the Georgia Historical Society, comp., The 1860 Census of Chatham County Georgia (Chatham County: Georgia Historical Society) , 1986, p. 301.
33 \Hartridge, * 1344, Folder, Alexander
34 Georgian, June 20, 1822, p.2, c.6.
35 Genealogical Society, comp., Chatham County — State — GeorgiaTax — Digests 1844—48 (Salt Lake City: Genealogical Society, c500Ct 70—06 44—48) , no page

The Genelogical Committee of the Georgia Historical Society, comp., The 1860 Census of Chatham County Georgia (Chetham County: Georgia

Historical Society, 1986) , No page number.
36 Georgia, December 7, 1833, p.2, t. 6.

December 18, 1837, p.2, c.5.

December 27, 1836, p.2, c.6.

January 1, 1841, p.2, c,3.

February 6, 1941, p.2, c.3.

January 12, 1842, p.2, c.3.

January 12, 1843, p.2, c.6.

Eugene W. Ferslew, comp. Directory n4 of the City of Savannah

(Savannah: Eugene W. Ferslow, 1859), p. 204.

F.fl. Lee. J.L. Agnew, Historical Record of the City of Savannah (Savannah: J.H. Estill, 1869), pp.17

37 Cunningham, # 194, Folder 6, Item 1.
38 Cunningham, * 194, Folder A, Item 198.
39 Ronald Vern Jackson, Gary Ronald Teeples, David Schaeferineyer, eds.,

Georgia 1850 Census Index (Bountiful: Accelerated Indexing Systems, Inc.,

1977) , no page number.

40 Chatham County Superior Court, camp., indpx to Estates. A-Z

1742-1855 (Chatham County: Court of Ordinary, 1913) ,pp. 210—243.

Note: Date of 1913 is incorrect — The court confused Louisa Fredrika

Schmidt Alexander with Louisa Alexander Gilmer

41 R.H. Otto, ed., 1850 Census of Georgia (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1975) , No page number.The Genealogical Committee of the Georgia Historical Society, comp., The 1860 Census of Chatham County Georgia (Chatham County: Georgia Historical Society, 1986), no page number.
42 Cunningham, *194, Folder 6, Item 100.
43 The Genealogical Committee of the Georgia Historical Society, comp., The 1950 Census of Chatham County Georgia (Chatham County: Georgia

Historical Society, 1986) , no page number,
44 Genealogical Society, Tax Digests, 1861.

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