Native American Cultures in Crisis 1 Learn About



Download 5.02 Mb.
Date19.01.2019
Size5.02 Mb.
  • 1
  • Learn About
  • the Native Americans’ and settlers’ ways of life.
  • To Understand
  • the conflicts that occurred during settlement of the Western frontier.
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Native American Cultures in Crisis
  • 1
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Key Idea
  • Pursuit of economic opportunity leads settlers to push westward, forcing confrontation with established Native American cultures.

Great Plains: the grassland extending through the west-central portion of the US

  • Great Plains: the grassland extending through the west-central portion of the US
    • Map on Page 411
  • The Horse and the Buffalo
    • Spanish brought Horse in 1598
    • Tribes left their farms to roam the plains and hunt buffalo
    • Roaming brings conflict among the tribes
      • “Counting coup” touching a live enemy with a coup stick and escaping unharmed
    • Buffalo provided many basic needs
      • Chart Page 413
  • Family Life
    • Live in small extended family groups
    • Leader of tribe ruled by counsel rather than force

Native Americans believed land belonged to no one…settlers believed in private property

  • Native Americans believed land belonged to no one…settlers believed in private property
  • The lure of Gold and Silver
    • Thousands of miners go West in hopes of striking it rich

1834 government designated entire Great Plains as one enormous reservation

  • 1834 government designated entire Great Plains as one enormous reservation
    • 1850’s government changed and defined specific boundaries for each tribe
      • Did this because of the railroad
  • Massacre at Sand Creek
    • 1864 Cheyenne return to Colorado’s Sand Creek Reservation
    • Colonel John Chivington attacked and killed over 150 people, mostly women and children
  • Death on the Bozeman Trail
    • Bozeman Trial ran through Sioux hunting ground in the Bighorn Mountains
    • Sioux Chief Red Cloud was unsuccessful in appealing to government to end settlement on Bozeman Trial

December 1866 Crazy Horse ambushed Captain Fetterman and his company at Lodge Trial Ridge

  • December 1866 Crazy Horse ambushed Captain Fetterman and his company at Lodge Trial Ridge
    • Map Page 411
    • Over 80 soldiers were killed
    • Natives called this the Battle of the Hundred Slain…whites called it Fetterman Massacre
  • Fights continued until the Government agreed to close the trial
  • Treaty of Fort Laramie
    • Sioux agreed to live on a reservation along Missouri River
    • Sitting Bull Refused to Sign this Treaty (Read Key Player P.410)

Gold Rush

  • Gold Rush
    • Miners began settling the Black Hills for Gold
    • Custer’s Last Stand 1876
      • Little Bighorn River in Montana
      • Within an hour Custer and all of the 7th Cavalry were dead
  • By December 1876 the Sioux had been defeated
    • Sitting Bull fled to Canada until 1881 in which he was forced to surrender
    • http://www.nps.gov/libi/photosmultimedia/multimedia.htm

Assimilation: a plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture

  • Assimilation: a plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture
  • Dawes Act 1887: aimed to “Americanize” the Native Americans
  • Destruction of the Buffalo
    • Most significant down flaw to Tribal Life
    • Tourists and Fur Traders shot Buffalo for sport
    • 1800 65 million Buffalo…1890 fewer than 1,000 remained

In a desperate attempt to save their way of life the Sioux turned to a new ritual called the “Ghost Dance”

  • In a desperate attempt to save their way of life the Sioux turned to a new ritual called the “Ghost Dance”
    • Dec. 1890 The 7th Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment) slaughtered 300 unarmed Native Americans…the soldiers left the bodies on the frozen ground…this became know the Battle of Wounded Knee…Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota

Vaqueros and Cowboys

  • Vaqueros and Cowboys
    • Mexicans taught American cowboys how to rope and ride
    • They greatly influenced cowboys’ language, clothes, food, and daily life
    • Growing demand for Beef in the Cities gave a bigger need for more cattle drives and thus for more cowboys
  • Chisholm Trial: the major cattle route from San Antonio to Kansas

A Day’s Work

  • A Day’s Work
    • 10-14 hours a day
    • Expert rider/roper…gun was used to protect herd more than chasing outlaws
    • Roundup cattle from open range every spring
  • Legends of the West
    • James “Wild Bill” Hickok: served as a scout during Civil War and later a marshal in Abilene, Kansas
      • Shot holding a pair of aces and a pair of eights (dead man’s hand)
    • Calamity Jane: expert sharpshooter…may have been a scout for Custer
  • Overgrazing of the land, extended bad weather, and the invention of barbed wire responsible for ending the Open Range era
  • Section
  • Native American Cultures in Crisis
  • 1
  • This chapter says that the destruction of the buffalo was “perhaps the most significant blow to tribal life.” Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.
  • RECOGNIZING EFFECTS
  • Assessment
  • 1
  • how Native Americans used the buffalo
  • how Native Americans viewed ownership of land
  • THINK ABOUT
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Section
  • Native American Cultures in Crisis
  • 1
  • Assessment
  • 1
  • Why do you think the assimilation policy of the Dawes Act failed?
  • EVALUATING
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • the experience of Native Americans such as Zitkala-Sa
  • the attitudes of many white leaders toward Native Americans
  • the merits of owning property
  • the importance of people’s cultural heritage
  • THINK ABOUT
  • 2
  • Learn About
  • the life of farmers on the Great Plains.
  • To Understand
  • how the settlers endured hardships and transformed the land.
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Settling on the Great Plains
  • 2
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Key Idea
  • The promise of cheap, fertile land draws thousands of settlers westward to seek their fortunes as farmers.

Railroads Open the West

  • Railroads Open the West
    • Union Pacific: Moved westward from Omaha
    • Central Pacific: Moved eastward from Sacramento

Government Support For Settlement

  • Government Support For Settlement
    • Homestead Act: Passed in 1862,160 acres of free land to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of the household
      • Not all plots were of equal value: Fertile Soil in Iowa or Minnesota compared to Western SD or Wyoming
    • Exodusters: African Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas
    • http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/homestead-act/
  • Settled by
  • homesteaders
  • Held by
  • Railroad
  • companies
  • Fenced in by
  • Cattle ranchers
  • Grabbed by
  • miners,
  • woodcutters
  • Free Land
  • offered
  • By Government

1889 In less than 1 day more than 2 million acres were claimed in a massive land rush

  • 1889 In less than 1 day more than 2 million acres were claimed in a massive land rush
    • Some took possession of the land before the government officially declared it open

People living west of Mississippi River: 1% in 1850 to 30% by 1900

  • People living west of Mississippi River: 1% in 1850 to 30% by 1900
  • Hardships included; droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, Native American raids
  • Dugouts and Soddies

Women’s Work

  • Women’s Work
    • Worked along side husbands planting and harvesting crops
    • Educated their children before schools were established
    • Made by hand many of the products the family wore, ate, and used
    • Doctored their families and the livestock they owned

Inventions such as barbed wire, the steel plow, and the reaper, helped farmers increase production and led to the development of bonanza farms: enormous single crop spreads of 15,000-50,000 acres

  • Inventions such as barbed wire, the steel plow, and the reaper, helped farmers increase production and led to the development of bonanza farms: enormous single crop spreads of 15,000-50,000 acres
  • Science and Technology Page 423
  • Agricultural Education
    • Morrill Act: gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges
    • Hatch Act: Established agricultural experiment stations to inform farmers of new developments

Machinery was expensive

  • Machinery was expensive
  • Railroad fees
  • Bonanza farms did not work…large single-crop operations couldn’t compete with smaller farms, which could be more flexible in the crops they grew
  • Section
  • Settling on the Great Plains
  • 2
  • Assessment
  • 2
  • What were at least four events that shaped the settling of the Great Plains?
  • SEQUENCING HISTORY
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • 1869 Completion of the first transcontinental railroad
  • 1862 Homestead Act
  • 1874 Development of barbed wire
  • 1893 Turner’s essay on the frontier
  • 1889 Oklahoma land rush
  • Section
  • Settling on the Great Plains
  • 2
  • Review the changes in technology that influenced the life of settlers in the Great Plains in the late 1800s. Explain how you think settlement of the plains would have been different without these inventions.
  • GENERALIZING
  • Assessment
  • 2
  • the tasks done by the settlers
  • tools and methods previously used
  • the inventions that became widely used in the late 1800s
  • THINK ABOUT
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Section
  • Settling on the Great Plains
  • 2
  • Assessment
  • 2
  • How successful were governmental efforts to promote settlement of the Great Plains?
  • EVALUATING
  • THINK ABOUT
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Farmers and the Populist Movement
  • 3
  • Learn About
  • pressures that made farming increasingly unprofitable.
  • To Understand
  • the rise and fall of the Populist movement.
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Farmers and the Populist Movement
  • 3
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Key Idea
  • Farmers band together to address their economic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement.

Crop prices falling

  • Crop prices falling
  • Good farm land becoming scarce
  • Banks foreclosing on mortgages
  • Railroad prices

Grange: organization for farmers whose original purpose was to provide a social outlet and an educational forum for isolated farm families

  • Grange: organization for farmers whose original purpose was to provide a social outlet and an educational forum for isolated farm families
    • Ended up spending energy fighting railroads
    • Oliver Hudson Kelley: founder
  • Farmers’ Alliances: sent lecturers from town to town to educate people about topics such as lower interest rates on loans and government control over railroads and banks

Populism: the movement of the people

  • Populism: the movement of the people
    • Populist, or People’s Party
    • Populist party platform
      • Increase money supply, graduated income tax, federal loan program, elect Senators, President could only serve a single term, 8 hour work day, restrictions on immigration
  • Panic of 1893
    • Caused by overexpansion of key industries, especially the railroads, and shrinking federal gold reserve

Bimetallism: money system where government gives citizens gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks

  • Bimetallism: money system where government gives citizens gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks
  • Gold Standard: backing dollars solely with gold
  • Chart on Page 428
  • Populist Party endorsed Democrat William Jennings Bryan for President in 1896
    • Defeated by Republican William McKinley
      • McKinley being elected brought an end to the Populist Movement
  • Section
  • Farmers and the Populist Movement
  • 3
  • Assessment
  • 3
  • What were some of the causes for the rise of the Populist Party and the effects the party had?
  • ANALYZING CAUSES AND EFFECTS
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Populist Party
  • CAUSES
  • Falling prices for crops
  • Inability to repay loans
  • High railroad rates
  • EFFECTS
  • New ideas that later become law
  • Political forum for addressing special interests
  • Message of hope to downtrodden
  • Section
  • Farmers and the Populist Movement
  • 3
  • Rank the following four factors in order of the impact you think they had on bringing an end to the Populist Party.
  • APPLYING
  • Assessment
  • 3
  • support for free silver
  • lack of wealthy backers
  • advocating a greater voice in government
  • third-party status
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Section
  • Farmers and the Populist Movement
  • 3
  • Assessment
  • 3
  • Who do you think was most to blame for the Panic of 1893: (1) farmers and businesspeople, (2) railroads and banks, or (3) government?
  • FORMING AN OPINION
  • the actions of each group prior to the Panic of 1893
  • the causes of the panic
  • the business cycle
  • THINK ABOUT
  • HOME
  • SECTION
  • Chapter
  • 13
  • Assessment
  • 1. Identify three significant differences between the culture of the Native Americans and that of the white settlers on the Great Plains.
  • 2. How did the conflict over the Bozeman Trail symbolize the difficulties Native Americans faced?
  • 3. How effective was the Dawes Act in promoting assimilation of Native Americans into white culture?
  • 4. Why did the cattle industry become a big business in the late 1800s?
  • 5. How did cowboy culture reflect the ethnic diversity of the United States?
  • HOME
  • Chapter
  • 13
  • Assessment
  • 6. How did the real life cowboys differ from the myths about them?
  • 7. What measures did the government take to support settlement of the frontier?
  • 8. How did settlers overcome the challenges of living on the Great Plains?
  • 9. What economic problems confronted American farmers in the 1890s?
  • 10. According to farmers and other supporters of free silver, how would bimetallism help the economy?
  • HOME

Download 5.02 Mb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page