1. Petition of Subba Ram Prasad Thakali … 1.
2. Revenue Settlement in Rolpa … 2
3. Nepali Officials in Lhasa … 6.
4. Birta Lands in Dhulikhel … 8.
5. Law on Land-Holding, 1854 … 9-16, 17-21.
6. The Janch Bujh Kendra … 22.
7. King Prithvi Narayan Shah … 26-32, 41-45, 60-64,
69-78, 86-93, 110-112,
8. Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat in A.D. 1810 … 33-40, 49-55.
9. Selected Documents of Chaitra 1887 … 46.
10. Miscellaneous Notes on the Mining Industry … 65.
11. Appointment of Officials in Garhwal ... 67.
12. Land Grants in Kumaun and Garhwal … 69.
13. On Chhap Land … 79
14. The Eastern Hill Region, A.D. 1806-6 … 81.
15. Miscellaneous Documents of 1894 Samwat … 93.
16. Population Census in Bhadgaun … 97.
17. Hulak Services Between Kathmandu and Garhwal … 103.
18. Mines and Munitions, A.D. 1800 … 104-109, 113-121.
19. Land Reclamation in the Eastern Tarai Region … 125-128, 129-131.
20. Kumaun Affairs, 1797 … 131.
21. Kashmiri and Gosain Traders … 133.
22. Selected Lalmohar Orders of Samvat 1888 … 135.
23. Jung Bahadur … 145.
24. Nepal: Strategy for survival … 146.
25. Nepal's Defeat in Nepal-British War … 150.
26. Pagari-Salami Levy in Chitaun … 159.
27. Prices of Essential Commodities … 160.
28. The Taksari … 161.
29. Miscellaneous Documents on the Nalapani Fort … 165.
30. The Battle of Nalapani … 167-170, 187-194.
31. Preliminary Notes on the nature of the Gorkhali
State and Administration … 171.
32. The Northern Border Trade in Humla … 177.
33. The Mutarfa Tax … 186.
Regmi Research (Private) Ltd.
Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal
Compiled by Regmi Research (private) Ltd for private and research. Not meant for public sale, distribution, or display.
Regmi Reseach (Private) Ltd
Kathmandu: January 1, 1978
Regmi Research Series
Year 10, No. 1
Mahesh C. Regmi
1. Petition of Subba Ram Prasad Thakali … 1
2. Revenue Settlement in Rolpa … 2
3. Nepali Officials in Lhasa … 6
4. Birta Lands in Dhulikhel … 8
5. Law on Land-Holding, 1854 … 9
Regmi Research (Private) Ltd
Lazipat, Kathmandu, Nepal
Compiled by Regmi Research (Private) Ltd for private study and research. Not meant for public sale or display.
Petition of Subba Ram Prasad Thakali
On Bhadra Sudi 2, 1943 (September 1886), Subba Ram Prasad Thakali of the Dana Customs in Thak submitted the following petition:-
''In the year 1933 Vikrama (A.D. 1876), orders had been issued in the name of Subba Balabir Thakali, and his son, Kaviram Thakali, authorizing them to procure on a monopoly basis salt purchased from Tibet by the people of Barhagaun, Panchagaun, Thak, and Ghelung. This arrangement continued until the year 1942 Vikrama year (A.D. 1885).
''This year the people of those areas submitted a petition to the government praying that they be allowed to sell their salt anywhere they like. The government has now issued an order directing that no restrictions whatsoever be imposed on the trade in salt.
''If I am not permitted to engaged in the salt trade on a monopoly basis, how can I fulfill my contractual obligations to the government, which amounts to thousands of rupees?''
Subba Ram Prasad Thakali, therefore, prayed that the local people be ordered to sell the salt purchased by them from Tibet only to the Dana Customs, and not supply the commodity to Manang and other areas.
The petition was referred to Prime Minister Bir Shumshere by the Kausi Tosakhana. The following order was then issued:
''Orders had been issued in the years 1920 and 1931 Vikrama (A.D. 1863 and 1874) directing that no restrictions whatsoever be imposed on trade in that region. On the basis of those orders the people of Barhagaun, Panchgaun, etc. had been permitted to sell their salt anywhere they liked. Now Subba Ram Prasad Thakali has produced a copy of the 1933 Vikrama (A.D. 1876) order in the name of Kaviram Thakali, reconfirming the monopoly that thad been granted to his father, Subba Balabir Thakali, so that revenue from the Dana Customs, which then amounted to Rs 82,000 yearly, might not be adversely affected. Now the amount has gone up to Rs 97,000. The monopoly is hereby reconfirmed in favor of Subba Ram Prasad Thakali, and the order issued in the name of the local people, permitting free trade in salt, is rescinded.''
Margh Badi 3, 1943 (November 1886).
RegmiResearchCollection, vol. 53, pp. 195-201.
Revenue Settlement in Rolpa
On Jestha Badi 30, 1945 (May 1888), Jethabudha Bikram Singh Khatri Chhetri of Rolpa district in the Salyan region, submitted the following petition to Prime Minister Bir Shumshere:-
''People who live in the hill region face many hardships. We have to supply charcoal to the Pyuthan munitions factory and provide porterage services for the transportation of goods towards the east and the west. We have also to transport cash from the Naya Muluk region to Kathmandu. We also bear liability of copper and lead mines, but because no one can be extracted, we have to pay the stipulated amount of money. In addition, we have to transport iron from the Thuni mines to Doti, Jumla, and Dailekh. We have been fulfilling all these obligations in accordance with the thek-thiti arrangements of the year 1894 Vikrama (A.D. 1837), and also paying the stipulated amount of revenue in a single installment every year.
''A fresh revenue settlement was conducted in the year 1925 Vikrama (A.D. 1868). The tax-assessments were revised, which incorporated income from judicial fines and penalties, walak levies, serma, etc. the assessments were different for different households, but we expected a new royal order generally reconfirming the arrangements made in the year 1894 Vikrama (A.D. 1837).
''The settlements officer was subsequently sentenced to imprisonment for life on the ground that he had finalized arrangements which reduced the government's revenue. The settlement reports were invalidated.
''Because there were discrepancies in the amount of taxes payable by different households, Dhokres and Dwares appointed by Jagirdars to collect revenue on their behalf are harassing the people. Fresh royal orders reconfirming the old-tax-assessment rates were issued in the names of persons who visited Kathmandu and submitted petitions to the government. However, we have received no such orders, and have been paying a total amount of Rs 2,389 and 14¾ annas. The breakdown is as follows:
Amount payable according to
the 1894 Vikrama (A.D. 1837)
settlement … Rs 2,172/1½
Additional assessment on new
villages (inclusive of asmani
income, i.e. income from
judicial fines and penalties) … Rs 217/13¼
Total Rs 2,389/14¾
''We pray, therefore, that subject to the payment of this amount, the arrangements made in 1894 Vikrama (A.D. 1837) be reconfirmed, so that:-
(1) Until another settlement is conducted, the government will not raise the revenue on the ground that additional lands have been brought in cultivation, or new households have been set up.
(2) The ryots will not seek any remission in the revenue on the grounds that cultivated lands have reverted to waste, or that households have been depopulated.
(3) (The Village headmen) exercise judicial authority except in Panchakhet cases.
''Orders reconfirming the arrangements made in 1894 Vikrama (A.D. 1837) have already been issued for Rukuk, Sankot, Bangaun, Pyuthan, Jajarkot, Dang-Deukhuri, Sunar Jumla, Doti, and Dailekh. We pray that a similar order be issued for Ropla also on thek-thiti basis.''
Padma Dhwaj Khatri, a private of the Mahindradal Company, signed a statement at the Adalat Goswara, according to which Commander-in-Chief General Deva Shumshere Jung Rana Bahadur had directed that orders reconfirming the arrnageemnts made in the year 1894 Vikrama (A.D. 1837) be issued on this petition through the Sadar Dafdarkhana. The Adalat Goswara then communicated the order to the Sadar Dafdarkhana, directing that action be taken in accordance with current laws and regulations.
The following arrangements were then sanctioned:-
1. The stipulated amount of Rs 2,389/14¾ per year shall be paid through Jethabudha Bikram Singh Khatri Chhetri every year to Jagirdars in Kathmandu Valley.
2. The ryots need not pay amount in excess of the stipulated amount, nor shall mukhiyas and ryots seek remissions for losses, if any.
3. The Jethabudha, mukhiyas, etc. shall dispense justice in case other than Panchakhat, impose fines according to the nature of the offense and the law, and apportion the income equally among the inhabitants of the appropriate village. If they do no do so,. and appropriate the income themselves, they shall be held liable according to the law.
4. Any loan due to the depopulation of households shall be shared equally by the inhabitants of the appropriate villages. Collection shall not be made in excess of the actual amount of such loss.
5. Panchakhat case shall be disposed of according to the law by the Chief of the Salyan Adalat.
6. If any mukhiya is incapable of collecting the revenue, or resigns, an honest and capable person trusted by the local people shall be appointed to fill up the vacancy in consultation with the officials stationed in Salyan. The Jethebudha Shall not dismiss any mukhiya without proper reasons.
7. If any mukhiya complains that the Jethabudha has dismissed him arbitrarily, or if ryots and mukhiyas complain that he has made collections in excess of the prescribed payments, the complaints shall be heard by the chief officers of the Salyan Headquarters Office and the Salyan Adalat.
8. Lands which have been recorded in the tax-assessment register shall not be kept uncultivated.
9. If irrigation channels are damaged, and lands are left uncultivated as a result, repairs shall be undertaken through the labor of the cultivators and the local people. If they proves inadequate, assistance shall be sought from the officials stationed in Salyan.
10. If any person who reclaims waste raikar lands which have not been recorded in the tax-assessment register, and if such reclamation does not affect the easement rights of anybody, no rents shall be collected for the first three years. In the fourth year, the reclaimed lands shall be registered with the Sadar Dafdarkhana through the Jethabudha.
11. If any peasant whose holding has been included in the thek-thiti, manachamal, or other lands, the Jethabudha shall reallot his holding to another person through the mukhiya, and thus realize the amount stipulated from him.
12. Cultivate the lands that have been in your possession. Make the village populous.
13. No Dware shall be appointed in any village.
14. The Jethabudha and mukhiyas shall not be paid emoluments or perquisites.
15. Provide porterage services for military stores and supplies belonging to the government. You need not provide Jhara labor for other purposes.
16. Provide necessary services during war. If you do not do so, severe punishment shall be inflicted according to caste status.
17. Not a single dam shall be remitted in payments due to Jagirdars even if any natural calamity occurs.
18. If any Jagirdar complaints that he has not received any payment within the stipulated time-limit, these thek-thiti arrangements may be cancelled, and revenue may be collected by Jagirdars themselves.
Particulars regarding the stipulated payment of Rs 2,389/14¾ were as follows:-
Serma tax Rs 1,026/½
Asmani (judicial fines etc) Rs 997/7¾
Saunefagu Rs 69/7¼
Chhelahi Rs 53/6½
Mukhiya-Darshani Rs 222/2
Teledhupe Rs 39½
Saune-Boka Rs 14/2¾
From this amount, Rs 32 was deducted in consideration of the remission of the Serma tax on holding belonging to member of the Thakuri community. The breakdown was as follows:-
VillageTotal amount of Serma tax
Thula-Gadakot Rs 5¾
Sana-Gadakot Rs 3
Syurathgaun Rs 2
Budathokigaun Rs 1¼
Kotgaun Rs 4¼
Gairhagaun Rs 2¼
Damachaurgaun Rs 3½
Sindhuragaun Rs 5¾
Pakhapanigaun Rs 2
Dahagaun Eight annas.
Aruwagaun Rs 1¾
Total Rs 32
The net amount collected from Rolpa through Jethabhuda Bikram Singh Khatri Chhetri was thus Rs 2,389/14¾.
Kartik Sudi 15, 1945 (November 1888).
Regmi Research Collections, vol. 53, pp. 731-49.
Nepali Officials in Lhasa 1. On Baisakh Sudi 6, 1867 (May 1810), Ratna Singh Newar was appointed Nayak in Lhasa, with a Khangi assignment of 400 muris of rice-lands. He was authorized to exercise judicial authority over Newari traders in Lhasa, and transit the income from fines, etc to theTosakhana in Kathmandu through the Taksari.
(Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 181-82).
2. There were actually two posts of Nayak in Lhasa. Both ports had previously been held by Paneju. With Ratna Singh Newar's appointment, the posts were again separated. Both Ratna Singh Newar and Paneju were then directed to function as Nayaks, according to an order issued on the same date.
2. On the same date, the following order was sent to the Newari trading community in Lhasa: We have appointed paneju and Ratna Singh Newar to function as Nayaks in Lhasa. Obey their orders on the customary manner. In case there asises any dispute, settle it at a meeting attended by the Nayaks, as well as of you, without fear or favor, affection or ill-will. Transmit the income from fines, etc. to us through Nayaks Paneju and Ratna Singh Newar. Refer the matter to us if anyone treats you unjust or arbitrarily. Engage in trade and other affairs with your own free will, and send reports to us about the situation prevailing there.''
(Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 183-84).
4. On Baisakh Sudi 9, 1867, Harikrishna was appointed Dittha of the Newari trading community in Lhasa. As abstract translation of regulation promulgated in his name in given below:-
1. Identity persons who maintain contacts with Chinese or Tibetan officials in Lhasa with the intension of harming our interests and report the matter to us. take action as ordered.
2. Be careful in all matter relating to our correspondence with Lhasa. Do anything that may be necessary to promote out interests. Collect information and transmit it to us.
3. If the Nayak or any Newari trader in Lhasa misappropriates revenue due to us, obtain a confession at a meeting attended by all of them, recover the amount, and punish the guilty persons.
4. If you receive a complaint that the Nayak or other person has taken a bride and diposed of any case unjustly, dispense justice at a meeting attended by all of them, and punish he guilty persons.
5. Transmit to Tosakhana through the Taksari all revenues from Lhasa, including fines and penalties, escheats, and customary fees, as well as amounts collected by you.
6. If the Nayak or any Newari trader in Lhasa commits any crime, dispense justice at a meeting attended by all of them, obtain a confession from the guilty persons, and inflict punishment from the guilty persons, and inflict punishment on them according to the nature of their crime. Refer to us such cases as you cannot dispense of on your own authority through the Taksari and take action as ordered.
7. We hereby sanction Rs 325 as salaries from revenues collected there. The details are given below:
Dittha Rs 225
Clerk Rs 40
2 Peons Rs 60.
8. Divide fees and perquisites into three shares. Appropriate one share yourself, and give the other shares to the two Nayaks.
9. If the Nayaks, or any Newari trader in Lhasa, do not obey your orders in matters that will promote our interests, report the matter to us, and we shall take appropriate action.
(Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 187-89.
5. On Jestha Badi 1, 1867, the two Nayaks, Paneju and Ratna Singh Newar, were informed that Harikrishna and been appointed as Dittha above them to excersice judicial authority among the Newari trading community in Lhasa. The order added: ''Dispenses justice in the customary manner in consultations with the Dittha. Transmit the income from fines, penalties, etc., to the Palace throught Taksari. Act promotly according to the orders of the Dittha in matters that will promote our interests. We shall punish any person who does not do so.''
(Regmi Research Collection, Vol. 39, p. 194).
6. A similar order was sent on the same date to the headmen of theNewari trading community in Lhasa, informing them of the appointment of Dittha Harikrishna. The order added: ''If anybody harasses of opperesses you, report the matter to us through the Dittha. We shall investivate the complaint and punish the guilty person.''
(Regmi Research Collection, pp. 196-97).
Birta Lands in Dhulikhel King Prithvi Narayan Shah had confiscated the birta rice-lands of the inhaibitants of the Dhulikhel (in Kabhrepalachok district) when he conquered that area. However, he allowed them to remain their Pakho lands under birta tenure when they submitted a petion through Ramakrishna Kunwar Rana.
In the year 1894 Vikrama (A.D.1837), all birta lands in Dhulikhel whch lacked documentary evidence of restored when the birtaowner submitted a petition through Kaji Balanarsingh Kuwnar Rana.
No serma tax was payable on these borta lands, which could be sold and bequeached. In 1913 Vikrama (A.D. 1856), however, the Trikhandi levy, amounting to one-third of the income of birtaowners, was collected.
In 1931 Vikrama (A.D. 1874), surveyors were deputed to measure all Pakho land under birta tenure in Dhulikhel. The Newar inbahitants of that place then appealed to Prime Minister Jung Bahadur to reconfirm their birta holdings.
Their request was accepted, subject to the following conditions:
1. The Balanarsing-Jatra (festival), instituated by Kaji Balanarsingh Kunwar Rana, shall be celebrated every year.
2. In times of war, each household in Dhulikhel shall provide one porter for the transportation of provisions on payment of wages.
Guru-Purohit Khajanchi Bamadeva Panditju was ordered to issue a royal order (lalmohar) accordingly.
Marga Sudi 5, 1931 (December 1874)
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 69, pp. 535-41
On Falgun Badi 7, 1890 (February 1834), Kaji Balanarsing Kunwar had reallocated 30 muris from the 100 muris of guthi land owned by the Shekh Narayan temple in Dhulikhel for financing a festival (Srikrishna-Jatra) with 20 muris and [paying] ornaments for the deity with 10 muris every year. He had also appointed seventeen persons to sing devotional songs at the temple. Later, arrangements were made for the appointment of two temple attendants. All these persons were granted exemption from force-labor obligations (Jhara, beth, begar) and the saunefagu and other taxes, except during war. An order was issued on Poush sudi 15, 1933 (January 1877) to confirm these arrangements through a lalmohar order.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 69, pp. 728-29.
Law on Land-Holding, 1854
(Continued from the December 1977 issue)
76. Even though the law prescribes that no tenant should be evicted so ling as he pays the stipulated rens and other dues, if the owner or talukdar dismisses any tenant and reallots his holding to another person, and the later has cultivated such holding for one year on payment of the stipulated rents and other dues, and if the former subsequently complains that he was evicted from his holding, and that is was reallotted to another persons even though he was paying the stipulated rents and other dues, he shall be regarded as having relinquished the holding of his own accord, because he did not file any complaint even when another person had already cultivated the holding for one or two years on payment of the stipulated rents and other dues. The holding cannot be restored to him. the owner or talukdar who had evicted him shall not be punshed.
77. If the owner of birta, bekk, phikdar,marwat, manachamal, chhap, jiuni, and other mafi (tax-exempt) lands, other than raikar and kipatlands, receives the chardam-theki for from the existing tenant for any year, but resumes the land for personal cultivation, and if the tenant files and complaint, other owner shall be punished with a fine amounting to ten percent of one year's rent on the land. The land shall be reconfirmed in favor of the existing tenant who had paid the chardam-theki fee.
78. If any person offers the chardam-theki fee to any landowner or jagirdar, falsely stating that the latter is entitled to appoint or dismiss tenants on any land, he shall be punished with a fine amounting to ten percent of the produce of the land. The owner who has thus wrong accept the chardam-theki fee shall not be paid guilty of he is be[..] sixteen years of age, or is a stupid or senile person. Otherwise, he shall be punished with a fine amounting to five percent of the produce of the land.
79. With effect from the year 1925 Vikrama (A.D. 1868), an amali or talukdar may, while allotting raikar lands and homesteads, accept a theki fee amounting to between eight annas and five rupees from the allottee. He shall not accept a higher fee, even anybody is willing to pay more. If it is proved that has accepted a theki fee of more than five rupees, the excess amount shall be recovered from him, and he shall be punished with a fine of an equal amount.
80. If any person pays the chardam-theki fee for guthi, birta, or other mafi lands or pakho lands under raikar or kipat tenure, but does not take possession of the lands even when crops are sown on adjoining lands, the amali, jimmawal, or talukdar may reallot the lands to another person, so theki fee paid by the former shall be forfeited. If he complaints after the lands are used by another person, claiming that they belong to him because he had paid the chardam-theki fee for them, he shall be punished with a fine amounting to 2½ percent of one year's rent on the lands.
81. If a jimmawal, mohinaike, or other talukdar has accepted the chardam-theki fee and allotted raikar lands to pay person, and if, after the talukdar's death, the allottee complains that he was actually allotted less than the area for which he had paid the chardam-theki fee, he shall be punished with a fine amounting to half of the annual rent on the area claimed by him for having made such a complaint after the death of the talukdar who had allotted the lands.
82. While appointing any mohinaike, jimmawal, mukhiya, thani, thari, chaudhari, mokaddam, jimidar, mijhar or jhuttawal, settlement officers deputed from the Sadar Dafdarkhana shall have them sign a bond containing the following stipulation:
I hereby undertake to grant tax-exemption according to the law to any tenant who reclaims waste lands adjoining rice-lands and pakho lands in the area under my jurisdiction, have the reclaimed lands registered at the appropriate office, and collect and transmit rents accordingly. If I do no do so, but let the tenant misappropriate the rents, or do so myself, I am willing to refund the amount