It infrastructure and emerging technologies



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IT INFRASTRUCTURE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

  • Chapter 5
  • VIDEO CASES
    • Case 1: ESPN.com: Getting to eXtreme Scale On the Web
    • Case 2: Salesforce.com: Managing by Smartphone
    • Case 3: Hudson's Bay Company and IBM: Virtual Blade Platform
    • Instructional Video 1: Google and IBM Produce Cloud Computing
    • Instructional Video 2: IBM Blue Cloud is Ready-to-Use Computing

Define IT infrastructure and describe its components.

  • Define IT infrastructure and describe its components.
  • Identify and describe the stages and technology drivers of IT infrastructure evolution.
  • Assess contemporary computer hardware platform trends.
  • Assess contemporary software platform trends.
  • Evaluate the challenges of managing IT infrastructure and management solutions.
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Problem: Costly and unwieldy IT infrastructure; diminishing resources

  • Problem: Costly and unwieldy IT infrastructure; diminishing resources
  • Solutions:
    • Streamline data centers
    • Implement enterprise-wide computing
    • Employ new technologies: virtualization, mobile systems
  • Demonstrates IT’s role in improving performance and decreasing costs
  • The Army Recasts its IT Infrastructure

IT infrastructure:

  • IT infrastructure:
    • Set of physical devices and software required to operate enterprise
    • Set of firmwide services including:
      • Computing platforms providing computing services
      • Telecommunications services
      • Data management services
      • Application software services
      • Physical facilities management services
      • IT management, education, and other services
    • “Service platform” perspective
      • More accurate view of value of investments
  • IT Infrastructure

The services a firm is capable of providing to its customers, suppliers, and employees are a direct function of its IT infrastructure. Ideally, this infrastructure should support the firm’s business and information systems strategy. New information technologies have a powerful impact on business and IT strategies, as well as the services that can be provided to customers.

  • The services a firm is capable of providing to its customers, suppliers, and employees are a direct function of its IT infrastructure. Ideally, this infrastructure should support the firm’s business and information systems strategy. New information technologies have a powerful impact on business and IT strategies, as well as the services that can be provided to customers.
  • FIGURE 5-1
  • CONNECTION BETWEEN THE FIRM, IT INFRASTRUCTURE, AND BUSINESS CAPABILITIES

Evolution of IT infrastructure

  • Evolution of IT infrastructure
    • General-purpose mainframe and minicomputer era: 1959 to present
      • 1958: IBM first mainframes introduced
      • 1965: less expensive DEC minicomputers introduced
    • Personal computer era: 1981 to present
      • 1981: Introduction of IBM PC
      • Proliferation in 80s, 90s resulted in growth of personal software
    • Client/server era: 1983 to present
      • Desktop clients networked to servers, with processing work split between clients and servers
      • Network may be two-tiered or multitiered (N-tiered)
      • Various types of servers (network, application, Web)
  • IT Infrastructure

Evolution of IT infrastructure (cont.)

  • Evolution of IT infrastructure (cont.)
    • Enterprise computing era: 1992 to present
      • Move toward integrating disparate networks, applications using Internet standards and enterprise applications
    • Cloud and mobile computing: 2000 to present
      • Cloud computing: computing power and software applications supplied over the Internet or other network
        • Fastest growing form of computing
  • IT Infrastructure

Illustrated here are the typical computing configurations characterizing each of the five eras of IT infrastructure evolution.

  • Illustrated here are the typical computing configurations characterizing each of the five eras of IT infrastructure evolution.
  • FIGURE 5-2

Illustrated here are the typical computing configurations characterizing each of the five eras of IT infrastructure evolution.

  • Illustrated here are the typical computing configurations characterizing each of the five eras of IT infrastructure evolution.
  • FIGURE 5-2
  • STAGES IN IT INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION (cont.)

In a multitiered client/server network, client requests for service are handled by different levels of servers.

  • In a multitiered client/server network, client requests for service are handled by different levels of servers.
  • FIGURE 5-3
  • A MULTITIERED CLIENT/SERVER NETWORK (N-TIER)

Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution

  • Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution
    • Moore’s law and microprocessing power
      • Computing power doubles every 18 months
      • Nanotechnology:
        • Shrinks size of transistors to size comparable to size of a virus
    • Law of Mass Digital Storage
      • The amount of data being stored each year doubles
  • IT Infrastructure

Packing more than 2 billion transistors into a tiny microprocessor has exponentially increased processing power. Processing power has increased to more than 500,000 MIPS (millions of instructions per second).

  • Packing more than 2 billion transistors into a tiny microprocessor has exponentially increased processing power. Processing power has increased to more than 500,000 MIPS (millions of instructions per second).
  • FIGURE 5-4
  • MOORE’S LAW AND MICROPROCESSOR PERFORMANCE

Packing more transistors into less space has driven down transistor cost dramatically as well as the cost of the products in which they are used.

  • Packing more transistors into less space has driven down transistor cost dramatically as well as the cost of the products in which they are used.
  • FIGURE 5-5
  • FALLING COST OF CHIPS

Nanotubes are tiny tubes about 10,000 times thinner than a human hair. They consist of rolled up sheets of carbon hexagons and have the potential uses as minuscule wires or in ultrasmall electronic devices and are very powerful conductors of electrical current.

  • Nanotubes are tiny tubes about 10,000 times thinner than a human hair. They consist of rolled up sheets of carbon hexagons and have the potential uses as minuscule wires or in ultrasmall electronic devices and are very powerful conductors of electrical current.
  • FIGURE 5-6
  • EXAMPLES OF NANOTUBES

Since the first magnetic storage device was used in 1955, the cost of storing a kilobyte of data has fallen exponentially, doubling the amount of digital storage for each dollar expended every 15 months on average.

  • Since the first magnetic storage device was used in 1955, the cost of storing a kilobyte of data has fallen exponentially, doubling the amount of digital storage for each dollar expended every 15 months on average.
  • FIGURE 5-7
  • THE COST OF STORING DATA DECLINES EXPONENTIALLY 1950–2012

Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.)

  • Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.)
    • Metcalfe’s Law and network economics
      • Value or power of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of network members
      • As network members increase, more people want to use it (demand for network access increases)
  • IT Infrastructure

Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.)

  • Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.)
    • Declining communication costs and the Internet
      • An estimated 2.3 billion people worldwide have Internet access
      • As communication costs fall toward a very small number and approach 0, utilization of communication and computing facilities explodes
  • IT Infrastructure

One reason for the growth in the Internet population is the rapid decline in Internet connection and overall communication costs. The cost per kilobit of Internet access has fallen exponentially since 1995. Digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable modems now deliver a kilobit of communication for a retail price of around 2 cents.

  • One reason for the growth in the Internet population is the rapid decline in Internet connection and overall communication costs. The cost per kilobit of Internet access has fallen exponentially since 1995. Digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable modems now deliver a kilobit of communication for a retail price of around 2 cents.
  • FIGURE 5-8
  • EXPONENTIAL DECLINES IN INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS COSTS

Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.)

  • Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.)
    • Standards and network effects
      • Technology standards:
        • Specifications that establish the compatibility of products and the ability to communicate in a network
        • Unleash powerful economies of scale and result in price declines as manufacturers focus on the products built to a single standard
  • IT Infrastructure

IT Infrastructure has seven main components

  • IT Infrastructure has seven main components
    • Computer hardware platforms
    • Operating system platforms
    • Enterprise software applications
    • Data management and storage
    • Networking/telecommunications platforms
    • Internet platforms
    • Consulting system integration services
  • Infrastructure Components

There are seven major components that must be coordinated to provide the firm with a coherent IT infrastructure. Listed here are major technologies and suppliers for each component.

  • There are seven major components that must be coordinated to provide the firm with a coherent IT infrastructure. Listed here are major technologies and suppliers for each component.
  • FIGURE 5-9
  • THE IT INFRASTRUCTURE ECOSYSTEM

Computer hardware platforms

  • Computer hardware platforms
    • Client machines
      • Desktop PCs, mobile devices—PDAs, laptops
    • Servers
      • Blade servers: ultrathin computers stored in racks
    • Mainframes:
      • IBM mainframe equivalent to thousands of blade servers
    • Top chip producers: AMD, Intel, IBM
    • Top firms: IBM, HP, Dell, Sun Microsystems
  • Infrastructure Components

Operating system platforms

  • Operating system platforms
    • Operating systems
      • Server level: 65% run Unix or Linux; 35% run Windows
      • Client level:
        • 90% run Microsoft Windows (XP, 2000, CE, etc.)
        • Mobile/multitouch (Android, iOS)
        • Cloud computing (Google’s Chrome OS)
  • Enterprise software applications
    • Enterprise application providers: SAP and Oracle
    • Middleware providers: BEA
  • Infrastructure Components

Data management and storage

  • Data management and storage
    • Database software:
      • IBM (DB2), Oracle, Microsoft (SQL Server), Sybase (Adaptive Server Enterprise), MySQL
    • Physical data storage:
      • EMC Corp (large-scale systems), Seagate, Maxtor, Western Digital
    • Storage area networks (SANs):
      • Connect multiple storage devices on dedicated network
  • Infrastructure Components

Networking/telecommunications platforms

  • Networking/telecommunications platforms
    • Telecommunication services
      • Telecommunications, cable, telephone company charges for voice lines and Internet access
      • AT&T, Verizon
    • Network operating systems:
      • Windows Server, Linux, Unix
    • Network hardware providers:
      • Cisco, Alcatel-Lucent, Nortel, Juniper Networks
  • Infrastructure Components

Internet platforms

  • Internet platforms
    • Hardware, software, management services to support company Web sites, (including Web-hosting services) intranets, extranets
    • Internet hardware server market: IBM, Dell, Sun (Oracle), HP
    • Web development tools/suites: Microsoft (Expression Studio, .NET) Oracle-Sun (Java), Adobe, Real Networks
  • Infrastructure Components

Consulting and system integration services

  • Consulting and system integration services
    • Even large firms do not have resources for full range of support for new, complex infrastructure
    • Software integration: ensuring new infrastructure works with legacy systems
    • Legacy systems: older TPS created for mainframes that would be too costly to replace or redesign
    • Accenture, IBM Global Services, EDS, Infosys, Wipro
  • Infrastructure Components

The mobile digital platform

  • The mobile digital platform
    • Cell phones, smartphones (iPhone, Android, and Blackberry)
      • Data transmission, Web surfing, e-mail, and IM duties
    • Netbooks:
      • Small lightweight notebooks optimized for wireless communication and core tasks
    • Tablets (iPad)
    • Networked e-readers (Kindle and Nook)
  • Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

BYOD (Bring your own device)

  • BYOD (Bring your own device)
    • Allowing employees to use personal mobile devices in workplace
  • Consumerization of IT
    • New information technology emerges in consumer markets first and spreads to business organizations
    • Forces businesses and IT departments to rethink how IT equipment and services are acquired and managed
  • Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

What are the advantages and disadvantages of allowing employees to use their personal smartphones for work?

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of allowing employees to use their personal smartphones for work?
  • What management, organization, and technology factors should be addressed when deciding whether to allow employees to use their personal smartphones for work?
  • Allowing employees to use their own smartphones for work will save the company money. Do you agree?
  • SHOULD YOU USE YOUR IPHONE FOR WORK?

Grid computing

  • Grid computing
    • Connects geographically remote computers into a single network to combine processing power and create virtual supercomputer
    • Provides cost savings, speed, agility
  • Virtualization
    • Allows single physical resource to act as multiple resources (i.e., run multiple instances of OS)
    • Reduces hardware and power expenditures
    • Facilitates hardware centralization
  • Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

Cloud computing

  • Cloud computing
    • On-demand (utility) computing services obtained over network
      • Infrastructure as a service
      • Platform as a service
      • Software as a service
    • Cloud can be public or private
    • Allows companies to minimize IT investments
    • Drawbacks: Concerns of security, reliability
    • Hybrid cloud computing model
  • Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

In cloud computing, hardware and software capabilities are a pool of virtualized resources provided over a network, often the Internet. Businesses and employees have access to applications and IT infrastructure anywhere, at any time, and on any device.

  • In cloud computing, hardware and software capabilities are a pool of virtualized resources provided over a network, often the Internet. Businesses and employees have access to applications and IT infrastructure anywhere, at any time, and on any device.
  • Figure 5-10
  • CLOUD COMPUTING PLATFORM

Green computing

  • Green computing
    • Practices and technologies for manufacturing, using, disposing of computing and networking hardware
  • High performance, power-saving processors
    • Multi-core processors
  • Autonomic computing
    • Industry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure, heal themselves when broken, and protect themselves from outside intruders
    • Similar to self-updating antivirus software; Apple and Microsoft both use automatic updates
  • Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

What business and social problems does data center power consumption cause?

  • What business and social problems does data center power consumption cause?
  • What solutions are available for these problems? Are they management, organizational, or technology solutions?
  • What are the business benefits and costs of these solutions?
  • Should all firms move toward green computing?
  • GREEN DATA CENTERS: GOOD FOR BUSINESS?

Open-source software:

  • Open-source software:
    • Produced by community of programmers
    • Free and modifiable by user
    • Examples: Apache web server, Mozilla Firefox browser, OpenOffice
  • Linux
    • Open-source OS
    • Used in mobile devices, local area networks, Web servers, high-performance computing

Software for the Web

  • Software for the Web
    • Java:
      • Object-oriented programming language
      • Operating system, processor-independent
    • HTML/HTML5
      • Web page description language
      • Specifies how text, graphics are placed on Web page
      • HTML5 is latest evolution
        • Includes animation and video processing functionality previously provided by third party add-ons such as Flash
  • Contemporary Software Platform Trends

Web Services

  • Web Services
    • Software components that exchange information using Web standards and languages
    • XML: Extensible Markup Language
      • More powerful and flexible than HTML
      • Tagging allows computers to process data automatically
  • Contemporary Software Platform Trends

SOA: Service-oriented architecture

  • SOA: Service-oriented architecture
    • Set of self-contained services that communicate with each other to create a working software application
    • Software developers reuse these services in other combinations to assemble other applications as needed
      • Example: an “invoice service” to serve whole firm for calculating and sending printed invoices
    • Dollar Rent A Car
      • Uses Web services to link online booking system with Southwest Airlines’ Web site
  • Contemporary Software Platform Trends

Dollar Rent A Car uses Web services to provide a standard intermediate layer of software to “talk” to other companies’ information systems. Dollar Rent A Car can use this set of Web services to link to other companies’ information systems without having to build a separate link to each firm’s systems.

  • Dollar Rent A Car uses Web services to provide a standard intermediate layer of software to “talk” to other companies’ information systems. Dollar Rent A Car can use this set of Web services to link to other companies’ information systems without having to build a separate link to each firm’s systems.
  • FIGURE 5-11
  • HOW DOLLAR RENT A CAR USES WEB SERVICES

Software outsourcing and cloud services

  • Software outsourcing and cloud services
    • Three external sources for software:
      • Software packages and enterprise software
      • Software outsourcing
        • Contracting outside firms to develop software
      • Cloud-based software services
        • Software as a service (SaaS)
        • Accessed with Web browser over Internet
        • Service Level Agreements (SLAs): formal agreement with service providers
  • Contemporary Software Platform Trends

In 2012, U.S. firms will spend more than $279 billion on software. About 35 percent of that ($98 billion) will originate outside the firm, either from enterprise software vendors selling firmwide applications or individual application service providers leasing or selling software modules. Another 4 percent ($11 billion) will be provided by SaaS vendors as an online cloud-based service.

  • In 2012, U.S. firms will spend more than $279 billion on software. About 35 percent of that ($98 billion) will originate outside the firm, either from enterprise software vendors selling firmwide applications or individual application service providers leasing or selling software modules. Another 4 percent ($11 billion) will be provided by SaaS vendors as an online cloud-based service.
  • Figure 5-12
  • CHANGING SOURCES OF FIRM SOFTWARE

Software outsourcing and cloud services (cont.)

  • Software outsourcing and cloud services (cont.)
    • Mashups
      • Combinations of two or more online applications, such as combining mapping software (Google Maps) with local content
    • Apps
      • Small pieces of software that run on the Internet, on your computer, or on your cell phone
        • iPhone, Android
      • Generally delivered over the Internet
  • Contemporary Software Platform Trends

Dealing with platform and infrastructure change

  • Dealing with platform and infrastructure change
    • As firms shrink or grow, IT needs to be flexible and scalable
    • Scalability:
      • Ability to expand to serve larger number of users
    • For mobile computing and cloud computing
      • New policies and procedures for managing these new platforms
      • Contractual agreements with firms running clouds and distributing software required
  • Management Issues

Management and governance

  • Management and governance
    • Who controls IT infrastructure?
    • How should IT department be organized?
      • Centralized
        • Central IT department makes decisions
      • Decentralized
        • Business unit IT departments make own decisions
    • How are costs allocated between divisions, departments?
  • Management Issues

Making wise infrastructure investments

  • Making wise infrastructure investments
    • Amount to spend on IT is complex question
      • Rent vs. buy, cloud computing
      • Outsourcing
    • Total cost of ownership (TCO) model
      • Analyzes direct and indirect costs
      • Hardware, software account for only about 20% of TCO
      • Other costs: Installation, training, support, maintenance, infrastructure, downtime, space, and energy
    • TCO can be reduced
      • Use of cloud services, greater centralization and standardization of hardware and software resources
  • Management Issues

Competitive forces model for IT infrastructure investment

  • Competitive forces model for IT infrastructure investment
    • Market demand for firm’s services
    • Firm’s business strategy
    • Firm’s IT strategy, infrastructure, and cost
    • Information technology assessment
    • Competitor firm services
    • Competitor firm IT infrastructure investments
  • Management Issues

There are six factors you can use to answer the question, “How much should our firm spend on IT infrastructure?”

  • There are six factors you can use to answer the question, “How much should our firm spend on IT infrastructure?”
  • FIGURE 5-12
  • COMPETITIVE FORCES MODEL FOR IT INFRASTRUCTURE

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