Hotels in the Adelaide Hills: patterns of development Patricia Sumerling

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Hotels in the Adelaide Hills: patterns of development

Patricia Sumerling

Although not an easily definable area, the Adelaide Hills are a spectacular backdrop for almost 40 quaint and picturesque trading hotels in the many townships and roads spread throughout them.1

This number survives from nearly 100 hotels which were licensed between 1839 and April 1938, when in that year the last new hotel in the region for over 50 years, the Oakbank, was built and licensed.2
Of the 158 South Australian hotels that still trade and which were licensed before 1855, 25 of them are in the Adelaide Hills. Of hotels in the Hills that were licensed before 1842, when the first economic crisis struck the colony, surprisingly four still trade under their original licence. They are, in order of age, the Crafers Hotel of 1839, the German Arms at Hahndorf of 1839, the Balhannah Hotel of 1840, and the Three Brothers Arms at Macclesfield of 1841.3
Hotels were established in the Adelaide Hills in several types of locations. Many were licensed along transport routes where they were strategically located at a convenient carriage drive from each other, usually about eight kilometres. Others were licensed in townships, while quite a number were licensed at or convenient to mine sites.
For this essay the Adelaide Hills area ranges from Williamstown to Meadows. From the Hills Face Zone it stretches eastwards to Macclesfield and Mount Pleasant and includes those pubs where they help to explain the development of the area generally or where they are on roads leading out of the Hills.
Reasonable access through the Hills was crucial for development to take place in them and beyond. The several early main routes that were popular enough to warrant a proper road included the Glen Osmond Road that was surveyed directly through the Adelaide Park Lands to join the Mount Barker Road. Originally surveyed in 1841, it was one of the first tracks from the city of Adelaide to be cut through the Hills. Having several names it was called the Great Eastern Road to begin with, and is now known as the Southeastern Freeway. Its construction was in response to petitions by settlers living in the Hills to the governor in April 1839, such as the following:

the means of communication are at present of the rudest and most difficult description, the road chiefly used leading over the highest elevation of a very steep ridge, on which draught horses cannot be used, and even bullock teams cannot convey more than half a ton weight. It necessarily follows that while the road continues in this state all communication between the city and the district must be of a very expensive, difficult, dilatory, and dangerous description.4

The challenge to create an access route was soon taken up as the townships of Mount Barker, Balhannah, Hahndorf and Nairne could not guarantee survival without an adequate transport route.
Meanwhile, the first inn in the hills, the Sawyers' Arms, now known as the Crafers Inn, had been built in 1838 and licensed in 1839. It was located on a bullock track leading into the Stringybark Forest where ‘timber-getting’ was an early major industry. 'Tiersmen' living and working in the hills supplied the valuable timber mainly to the building industry in the city of Adelaide. The track traversed the steep and treacherous slopes which only confident carters or the desperate would negotiate. Few travellers passed the pub, with even fewer approaching Adelaide from the eastern colonies.
But the isolation of the Adelaide Hills as a refuge was soon sought after by escaped convicts from the eastern colonies and runaway seamen from Port Adelaide which all added to the many dark tales that were told by firesides and bar counters for generations after.
This was the background in which the Crafers Hotel began its long history, first as the Sawyers' Arms in a crude wooden paling hut in late 1838 on the opposite side of the road to the present building. In 1840 it was rebuilt on the site of the present hotel and changed its name to the Norfolk Arms. Named after the English county in which the first publican David Crafer was born, this move was probably to elevate its name and distance itself from its earlier notorious reputation. In March 1842 the name was changed to become the Foresters' Arms. Within eighteen months when Richard Dixon Hawkins became its publican in September 1843, he changed the name yet again, this time to the Crafers Inn in honour of its first and enigmatic publican.
By this time, with the increase in traffic past the Crafers Hotel following the completion of the Special Surveys around Mount Barker, and the establishment of one of the first township in the hills which was the German town of Hahndorf in 1839, the bullock track was well trodden but still treacherous. Another hotel was licensed in Crafers in 1855 called Mount Lofty but it was destroyed by fire after only three months trading.5
Before Christmas in 1839, Hahndorf had its first inn, appropriately named the German Arms Inn which was established by Gottfried Lubasch on the site of No 80 in the Main Street. By the time the hotel was rebuilt on the opposite side of the road on its present site in 1880, there were two other hotels that had been licensed in the township.
The establishment of the townships of Balhannah, Nairne and Mount Barker followed in 1840. The increasing flow of travellers to and from the Adelaide Hills as each new township was established, became the stimulus for the licensing of new hotels at strategic points along the new but difficult hilly routes. Travellers not only needed to stop for refreshments, but this was extended also for the watering, feeding and resting of their bullocks and horses.
While Balhannah still has its first licensed hotel (although rebuilt), the first hotel in Nairne, the 1840 Nairne Arms, ceased trading in 1852 but still survives as a private house. It closed because of competition from the 1848 New Nairne Hotel and the licensing of the Crooked Billet, now known as the Miller's Arms, and which opened in March 1851.
Unusually, although Mount Barker was established in 1840, its first hotel, the Scotch Thistle Inn (now known as Hotel Barker) was not licensed until six years later in 1846. Before 1861 four more hotels were licensed in the township. However, only two of them still trade. One of the former hotels has become the RSL clubrooms in Hutchinson Street while another in Pridmore Street has become a private dwelling. The third, the former Oakfield Hotel, was subsumed into the Barr Smith's residence, ‘Auchendarroch’, which is now part of a successful cinema and entertainment complex.
Also within a couple of kilometres of Mount Barker, the township of Littlehampton was surveyed between 1849 and 1851. However, it was 1854 before the township had its own local called the Great Eastern Hotel. Appropriately, it was named after the main road that passed through the township.
Between Littlehampton and Nairne, the tiny hamlet of Blakiston was established in 1847. In the same year the Blakiston Arms was licensed. With a name change to the Dublin Castle in 1852, it traded until 1870 when it became a private residence for many years. However, all that remains now is a 'scattered heap of rubble' in someone's garden.6
Following on from the establishment of the earlier Adelaide Hills towns and the first German town of Hahndorf, Lobethal was established in the early 1840s as another German town. However, possibly due to objections on religious grounds, it was eight years before the Alma was licensed in 1849 by Ann Anderson and in 1856 the Rising Sun Hotel by Leopold Fleck.
Between the German townships of Hahndorf and Lobethal were several routes passing through the townships of Verdun, Inverbrackie and Woodside. Before Woodside was established in 1850, the Inverbrackie Inn, which was close by was established in 1846 but it ceased trading by 1853 because of competition from the hotels in Woodside. The Woodside Hotel was licensed in the same year as the town's foundation in 1850, followed by the Bedford Hotel in 1857. Since its closure, the former Inverbrachie Inn has been a private residence. For a short time there was another hotel that operated near Inverbrackie that was known as the Wheatsheaf Inn but only the ruins remain. They are located on Section 5296 on the Wuttke Road which was once part of the bullock route to the Reedy Creek Mine. Perhaps reflecting the mine’s fortunes, the hotel only operated between 1855 until 1864.7
Originally surveyed as Grunthal in 1875, the township had a name change in 1918 to Verdun. However, as is so often the history of these Hills pubs, Verdun's hotel, the Stanley Bridge, was licensed in 1853, over twenty years before the township was founded. It would have been a travellers’ stop-over for those journeying between Balhannah and Bridgewater.
Before 1841 and before other townships were established, development of another sort took place throughout the Adelaide Hills by means of several Special Surveys which were specifically undertaken for syndicates with large sums of capital at their disposal. This fast-tracked the unlocking of large tracts of crown land, of several thousand acres at a time, enabling the swift development of the sheep and cattle industry and also benefiting the almost empty colonial coffers.
As increasing numbers of shepherds and agricultural labourers found work on these Special Surveys and the concentration of them in particular areas stimulated opportunities for the formation of new townships. The Three Brothers and Green Hills surveys in the Macclesfield vicinity led to the township's early establishment in 1841 and the licensing of its first hotel. The Three Brothers Arms (originally the Goats Head Inn, which became the Macclesfield Arms in the early 1840s and then the Davenport Arms in 1846) had no competition until the licensing of the township's second hotel, the Macclesfield Hotel in 1855. However, despite the smallness of the town's current population, they are both still trading.
The township of Meadows was named after one such Special Survey that was undertaken there in 1839. The town and the Meadows Hotel were not established until 1856. South of Meadows on the way to Goolwa along the Bull Creek Road, the township of Ashbourne was founded in 1865. The Green Man Hotel was licensed in 1866 but only traded until 1869 since when it had life as a post office and a private residence. Then after more than 130 years, it was once more granted a 'historic inn' licence in the early 2000s.8 It is possible that the first publican came from Ashbourne in Derbyshire, for in that English village was a pub known as the Green Man and Black's Head Royal.9
The present form of the Echunga Hotel dates from 1855, it having been first licensed in 1848 which was a year before the town was established. From 1853, the hotel has been known as the Hagen Arms after local landholder Jacob Hagen. Following the discovery of gold in the area at Biggs Flat five kilometres north of Echunga in the early 1850s, the town supported a second hotel called the Bridge Hotel. Built in 1857 as a one storey stone structure, it was rebuilt as two storeys after a fire destroyed it in the early 1880s. When the town could no longer support two hotels, the Bridge Hotel ceased trading in the 1920s. Nothing of it now remains, after the last remaining part was demolished in the 1950s.10
Between 1869 and 1871 more gold was discovered in the Echunga area, this time six kilometres southwest of the town at a place called the Jupiter Creek Diggings. The mini-gold rush saw the licensing of the Jupiter Creek Hotel in the same year but this ceased trading when the mine closed. It has not been determined what has survived of the hotel.
Reminiscing on township formation, the early colonist Nathaniel Hailes stated in the South Australian Register on 23 January 1878 that 'the first step ... is often taken by a farmer who may take up a section at a distance from any township. If there happens to be a good supply of water at the place, teamsters and travellers call, and as they require meals etc, a public house is in due time started, and various tradesmen follow...A township may owe its foundation to... a rural property being laid out and sold in allotments by an enterprising speculator...'.
As settlement expanded as far as Macclesfield, there were new opportunities for establishing inns along the route as refreshment stops between Crafers and Macclesfield and Mount Barker and Macclesfield. In 1841 the Deanery at Cox's Creek, near Bridgewater (the subject of an archaeological dig in 1994), was licensed and almost a year later the Wheatsheaf Inn on Section 3825 between Mylor and Echunga near Biggs Flat (later the site of a gold field) was licensed. The Deanery closed when the publican transferred the licence to a new hotel downstream in 1855. When the township of Bridgewater was surveyed in 1859, it took its name from the pub. While a plaque marks a depression in the vicinity of the Deanery Inn, the Wheatsheaf was incorporated into the home of George W Goyder,. the Surveyor General, and called Warrakilla, after the hotel closed in 1878. Since then, it has been much changed and is now an impressive country residence.
Beyond this region in the early 1850s, the Gold Escort route passed along the road to the eastern colonies goldfields through Mount Barker, Wistow and then past the Everley Hotel (also known as the Tin Pot Inn) at Everleigh (also known as Woodchester). It was recorded by policeman extraordinaire, Alexander Tolmer, that there were 18 trips by way of Chauncey's Line which was surveyed eastwards to Wellington and then by ferry over the River Murray. The road continued to be popular for travellers journeying eastwards for several years after the gold escorts finished and two hotels sprang up along the way. They were the Lord Nelson Inn in 1861, which is halfway between Mount Barker and Wistow, and the Morning Star Inn for which, although it is technically located in the Bugle Ranges, its location is often given as Mount Barker or Wistow.11
Trade at the Tin Pot Inn continued to flourish when the Wheal Ellen Mine opened closeby in 1858 and a road from the mine came almost to the inn door. However, when the inn closed about 1867 it became a private dwelling until the early twentieth century but it has since been demolished.12
Had a road and railway bridge at Wellington been successful instead of at Murray Bridge more prosperity may have come to the Woodchester area. Instead, the increased usage of Edwards Crossing near Murray Bridge brought prosperity there with increasing traffic also coming from Callington. This effectively saw Chauncey’s Line sink into obscurity and the Woodchester locality became a quiet backwater.
At the base of the Mt Barker Road the Glen Osmond Inn was established in August 1840 in a prefabricated timber residence which had been imported from Singapore.13 When the Glen Osmond silver and lead mine, the Wheal Gawler, was established in 1841, the pub became Australia’s first mining pub when it catered for the miners working at the nearby mine. But the wooden hotel only traded in this building until early 1844, when the licence was transferred to a more substantial stone building that was 75 feet to its south. However, reflecting its association to the nearby mine, it changed its name to become the Miners Arms and operated until 1870. With the surveying, realigning and building of the Mt Barker Road built after 1841 from Glen Osmond where the Toll House was, it seemed worth the risk of establishing another hotel at the bottom of the hill as the Mountain Hut in 1845. The Miners’ Arms was most likely not suitable for the respectable travelling public, so the picturesque Mountain Hut, which is now a popular boarding kennels, was established and traded between 1845 and 1909. It lost its licence in a Local Option Poll along with more than 20 other hotels in the eastern metropolitan district.
More mining inns were built in the hills from the late 1840s that were accessible along this main road. When copper was discovered at Kanmantoo, which is now a tiny sleepy township, more hotels were established there than anywhere else in the Adelaide Hills, all with the purpose of surviving and thriving. But none of them did.14 Four pubs were licensed in the township but only two ever operated at the one time. Three had very short lives. They were the Black Dog 1853-1858, Britannia 1857-61 and Miners Arms 1861-1875. Of the Kanmantoo Hotel that traded the longest from 1863 until 1929, nothing now remains. Two of the former hotels survive as very attractive private properties. One is the Black Dog, while the Britannia Hotel has grasped a new lease on life in recent times as the immensely popular lunchtime Mediterranean restaurant the Osteria Sanso.
There were quite a number of mines in the Adelaide Hills, always a good enough reason to open a hotel. When the Tungkillo mines were established in 1847, there followed the licensing of two hotels. One was built next to the mines in 1847 as the Campbell Arms which became the George Inn in 1850. When the township of Tungkillo was surveyed in the early 1860s, the licence was transferred from the hotel at the mines to the new one that was known as the District Arms.
Five years after the mines at Kanmantoo began, the Bremer Mines just five kilometres east and in the vicinity of Callington were established. While the mine soon ceased trading and the small township went through a long quiet spell, the 1850 pub soldiered on. Since the 1980s as Callington has been going through a quiet renaissance, the pub at the foot of the hills has been there to service a growing clientele. It changed its name to reflect late twentieth century trends for quirky names when it became the Dog & Ute.
The popularity of the Great Eastern Road and the promotion ot the Adelaide Hills as a summer retreat from the 1850s, saw the establishment of the Eagle-on-the-Hill in 1853. Twice destroyed by fires, each time it was rebuilt it continued to thrive. However, like many a hotel where its fortunes suffer due to a road diversion, when the freeway was recently upgraded in the late 1990s, tunnels were driven through the hills directly under the popular pub on the hill. Worse than any fire, the road diversion spelled the death knell, for hardly any traffic passes the hotel and it was forced to close in 2005. This is despite the pub having the best view from a hilltop in the whole of South Australia.
Shortly after the Eagle-on-the-Hill was established, the township of Stirling was founded in 1854 and its pub, the Halfway Hotel (named for being halfway between Adelaide and Mount Barker) was licensed five years later in 1859. It became the Stirling Hotel in 1900 after it was rebuilt following a fire. There were attempts to licence two other hotels in the township in 1857 and in 1885, but nothing eventuated.
The township of Aldgate, which was not surveyed until 1882, was named after the hotel which was originally licensed eighteen years before in 1864 and called the Aldgate Pump Hotel.
Approaching the Adelaide Hills from Tea Tree Gully and Salisbury, following the survey of the township of Houghton in 1841, the Travellers' Rest was licensed in 1842. It had a monopoly of passing trade for fifteen years but lost much of it when the worst thing to happen to a publican - a road diversion - by-passed Houghton altogether in 1857. The more direct route to Kersbrook created an attractive opportunity for Firmin Deacon, a city publican, to establish the Inglewood Hotel in March 1858. While the Inglewood continues to trade, the Houghton pub ceased trading in the Great Depression in 1934 and no longer exists.15
This part of the Adelaide Hills has changed little since the 1920s when it had been described thus when travelling from Tea Tree Gully to Houghton and onwards: 'along the roadside, at no great distance apart, are clusters of houses ... Inglewood, Millbrook and Chain of Ponds may be described as hamlets, through which a constant stream of traffic is passing up and down. They are halting places on the great north-eastern highway of trade ... they are convenient places for stores, hotels, post offices, places of worship and schools...'16
Long before the building of the Millbrook Reservoir in 1918, the Morningstar Hotel was licensed in 1847 on the route between Tea Tree Gully and Gumeracha, predating the hamlet of Chain of Ponds which was surveyed ten years later in 1857. In this year and in the vicinity of the string of waterholes, the Millbrook Hotel was also licensed. This time the hotel predated the hamlet by twenty years. The first publican, John Tippet, named his hotel after his nearby property which eventually also gave its name the hamlet. The pub and township ceased to exist in 1918 after they were flooded by the waters of the Millbrook Reservoir.
It was another 60 years before the government decreed that in the interests of unpolluted drinking water, the Morning Star Hotel and the rest of the township should be demolished. Accordingly, the hotel closed and was demolished in 1972. Locals have not forgotten their pub and still commemorate its last day of trading.
The transport routes that traversed beyond the Chain of Ponds led to Gumeracha, Blumberg (now Birdwood), Mount Pleasant and Tungkillo, or to Kersbrook and Williamstown.
These heavily wooded townships were surveyed in the 1850s. Mount Torrens was surveyed in 1853, Williamstown in 1854, Mount Pleasant and Birdwood in 1856, and Maidstone (which was renamed Kersbrook) in 1858. However, although the township of Gumeracha was only officially surveyed in 1860, European settlement in the locality dates back to before 1840. The first hotel licensed in this locality was the Kenton Hotel in 1855. Six years later in 1861 the Gumeracha Hotel was licensed. When Gumeracha could not support two hotels, as often happened, the owner of one hotel bought out its rival to eliminate the competition. This was the fate of the Kenton Hotel in 1944 during the Second World War.
Licensed earlier than both the Gumeracha hotels, was the Robert Burns Hotel in nearby Forreston which operated for only seven years from 1851 until 1858. Unusually, it closed when Forreston, sometimes referred to as North Gumeracha, was officially laid out in 1858. This tiny hamlet was subdivided two years before Gumeracha but it is not known as yet why it should have lost its pub.
The first Mount Torrens Hotel was located three kilometres west of where the township was surveyed about 1853. It was licensed in March 1848 by the prominent local landholder, George Dunn. However, once the township was surveyed it made sense to license a hotel within the town. James Bond grabbed the opportunity to establish the Mill Inn in the main street in March 1859. But not to be outdone, local big-wig Dunn closed down his first hotel when he built and licensed a new Mount Torrens Hotel which opened in March 1862. It still continues to trade, having had several alterations and makeovers since then. In 1870, perhaps due to the competition, the Mill Inn closed.
Although there were advertisements for the new township of Williamstown in 1854 at the junction of several roads leading to Lyndoch, Kersbrook, Gawler, One Tree Hill, Springton and Mount Pleasant, it was 1858 before the township eventuated. In anticipation of the new town, Thomas Adams built and licensed the Victoria Hotel in March 1854. The second publican of this hotel, George Snellgrove, who ran the hotel between 1856 and 1869, went on to license the newly built Williamstown Hotel in June 1869. The town was unable to support two hotels and the Victoria Hotel ceased to trade in 1870.
The One Tree Hill Hotel was established in 1851 to catch the passing trade journeying between Salisbury and Gawler. The township, founded about 1867, took its name from the pub that had ceased trading in 1861. For many years the former pub was used as the meeting place of the District Council of Munno Para.
Blumberg (now called Birdwood) and Mount Pleasant were both surveyed in 1856. As they are only about eight kilometres apart, it is possible that each subdivider of the townships was unaware of the other's intention.
Two years before these townships were established, the Travellers' Inn was licensed a kilometre west of Birdwood at the junction of the Angas Creek and the River Torrens in 1854, but it closed in early 1873. Only the ruins exist of this pub. It had plenty of competition from nearby pubs for, with the founding of the new township, the Napoleon Bonaparte Inn was licensed in 1856 and it now trades as the Blumberg Hotel. Added to this, for a short time between 1870 and 1874, a one storey bluestone inn called the Bismarck also operated within the town at 27 Shannon Street. It is now an attractive dwelling.
Likewise, the earlier 1853 Mount Pleasant Hotel, also licensed before the town was established, closed in early 1861. This was after the Totness Inn was licensed in May 1860, followed by the Talunga Hotel in March 1861. Both these pubs are still trading.
To the north of Mount Pleasant, the road to Angaston and the Barossa Valley passed through several small townships that were established in the early 1860s. Being on a mail route, a post office opened in the location of Springton before it was founded as a township in 1864 along with the hotel. About eight kilometers northwards of this township, two years later, the Eden Valley Hotel and township were founded in 1866.
Fifteen kilometres westwards from Mount Pleasant as the crow flies, the location of the Wheatsheaf Hotel which was licensed in 1851 pre-dated the township of Maidstone (now known as Kersbrook) of 1858. Despite the development of the hamlet and for whatever reason, the hotel ceased to trade in 1873. It was another 105 years before Kersbrook obtained a licence for a new hotel when there was a healthy increase in the local population to warrant a licence.
Although there were transport routes routes between Tungkillo and Mount Pleasant and Birdwood, because of the steep hills to these townships which led to Houghton and the Torrens River Valley, they missed out entirely on the benefits of the lucrative Tungkillo mine trade. Instead the ore travelled along the far easier route in the 1850s in the direction of Mount Torrens. From there, the ore trundled through Charleston, Inverbrackie, Oakbank, Balhannah, Cox Creek, Crafers and down the hill past Glen Osmond to Adelaide.17 The little township of Charleston was established in 1857, a year after its pub that was so conveniently located on the route from the Tungkillo Mines.
One of the earlier transport routes – the Main Eastern Road - passed through Magill and past the World's End Hotel. The hotel was appropriately named for being located at what must have seemed like the end of the world in one of the outer townships in the early 1840s at the base of the hills. Although there was a rough bullock track that zig-zagged into the hills from this direction, when the township of Norton Summit came into being between 1839 and 1845, perhaps the condition of the track through a treacherous terrain deterred travellers and potential publicans. Such was the sparsity of hotels in the Hills in the area that stretches between Cudlee Creek, Bridgewater, Lenswood and Magill,. It is feasible to consider not only the poor state of the tracks as a deterrent, but also whether the religious fervour of local Lutherans, Bible Christians and Baptists may have had more than a little influence in there being so few.
However, Isaac Gepp (of Gepp's Cross fame) was not deterred. He became the publican of the World's End Hotel in 1849 and saw an opportunity for the establishment of a hotel to be built halfway up the Third Creek on the track (now known as Old Norton Summit Road that zig-zagged to the newish township. In 1854 Gepp bought AW Bannier’s long stone house with a shingle roof tucked into the side of the hill and called it the Rock Tavern. The premises were first licensed in March 1857. The hotel was largely rebuilt in 1882 when it was taken over by brewers, Syme & Sison, but it ceased trading when the new Norton Summit Road opened in May 1889. The hotel also had competition from the Sanitorium Hotel for six years which was virtually across the road and traded between 1869 and 1875. The Scenic Hotel was established at the top of the hill in 1873 and went from strength to strength when the other two hotels ceased trading.18 Also in the Scenic’s favour was that there were generally so few hotels within easy distance in any direction. The Uraidla Hotel, established in 1867, with a storekeeper’s licence, and Brewer’s Wine Shop (commonly referred to as the Wine Shanty), on the Greenhill Road were its closest rivals.
Brewer’s Wine Shop was licensed in March 1875 and from 1876 until 1886 it was run by Mrs Elizabeth Brewer. It would seem that after this time it was operated purely as a provision store.19
A few kilometres further along Greenhill Road on the ridge-top in Summer Town (as the name was then), it took many years before a licence for a hotel was granted because of the protests against one being located there. The location halfway between Norton Summit and Crafers, helped Thomas Bonython Percival’s cause in gaining a licence. The imposing two storied 15 roomed Mount Lofty Hotel was built as a temperance hotel in 1884-85. When it finally opened as a licensed hotel in March 1887, it was as the last nineteenth century hotel to be built in the Adelaide Hills. At the time, licences were also becoming harder to obtain and indeed Local Option Polls also reduced the number trading.
The Mount Lofty Hotel at Summertown was not licensed for long. When it generally became impossible to have new hotels licensed in the city, the suburbs or the Adelaide Hills, because the market had become saturated with too many hotels, the South Australian Brewing Company resorted to a kind of mischief-making when the hotel came up for sale in March 1914. It bought the hotel merely to strip it of its licence and transfer it to Murray Bridge where business was brisk. Having obtained the licence in this way, the brewery then sold the Mount Lofty Hotel. It once again operated for a few years as a temperance hotel and then became a private residence.20
This tactic was used again with the establishment of the Oakbank Hotel. The licence of the 1884 Forest Range Hotel was transferred to the new Oakbank Hotel in 1938, making it the first new hotel in the Adelaide Hills for 51 years and the only one built in the twentieth century before the late 1970s.
Forest Range’s first hotel, the Splitters Arms, dated from the days of the Stony Creek goldrush, and operated from 1857 to 1859. It was another 10 years before Caleb Biggs obtained a Wine Licence for the Forest Range Wine Shop. When he obtained a publican’s licence in 1884, the premises was renamed the Forest Range Hotel. In 1913 the Biggs family sold the hotel to H Pike & Co, brewers of Oakbank; it was their new hotel at Oakbank that took the licence from Forest Range.21
Travelling through the Adelaide Hills from the southern districts fewer hotels were established. Journeying from south of Mitcham, the first hotel to be licensed was the Swan Hotel located opposite Evans Avenue en route to Brownhill Creek. It only traded until 1851. By this time the Brownhill Creek Hotel at Taylors Road in Mitcham had begun trading from June 1850 but it closed in 1864. Further into the hills at Clarendon on the old main road, the Tally Ho Inn was licensed in 1848 but ceased trading in 1851. However, the long low stone pub building is now successfully incorporated into the Clarendon Bakery Restaurant that for many years operated as the Clarendon Bakery.
More successful was the nearby Royal Oak Hotel at Clarendon which has been trading since June 1855, but which had several major additions between 1860 and the early 1880s. Moving south from Clarendon to Meadows, it made sense to license a hotel for the travelling public but it didn't happen until 1863. WB Hooper opened his Kangarilla Inn in a picturesque two storey stone building that was tucked away in this part of the Adelaide Hills. It traded only until 1876, when due to a temperance influence in the area, it became a temperance hotel called the Glenview Inn. It only operated as such until 1879 when, for a further year, it was once more a licensed premises. Since its closure, it has operated as a guest house and then as a private residence.22
The first hotel in the Belair district and which was licensed in 1856, was the Traveller's Rest at Sleep's Hill. Since its closure in 1863, the building located in Sheoak Road has been a private dwelling. It was several years before another hotel took its place. This was the Belair Hotel licensed in 1869. Rebuilt in the 1880s, it is now a favourite local hotel.
Since 1967 when the longer hotel trading hours took effect, followed by the increase in tourism and connoisseurs of fine food, several more licences have been granted for premises in the Adelaide Hills. They are the Kersbrook Tavern in 1978, the Duck Inn at Coromandel Valley in 1987, the Cudlee Creek Tavern in the 1990s, with the relicensing of the Green Man at Ashbourne and the Bakery Arms at Williamstown in the early 2000s. Many of the hotels have won awards for their hospitality and cuisine. Others have renovated and refurbished their pubs to further emphasise the nineteenth century character which all of them have apart from the 1938 Oakbank Hotel and those licensed from the late 1970s onwards.
I thank Geoffrey Bishop for his helpful comments on this essay.

1 Geoffrey Manning’s Manning’s Place Names of South Australia, 1990, was the source of information

for many places in the Adelaide Hills.

2 JL (Bob) Hoad, Hotels and Publican in South Australia, 1836-1993, 2nd edition, 1999, was

extensively used for the opening and closure dates of hotels.

3 Only the Three Brothers Arms may contain remnants of the original building.

4 Robert Martin, Under Mount Lofty, District Council of Stirling, 2nd edition, 1996, p 32.

5 Observer 10 April 1858, p7h.

6 Bob Schmidt, Mountain on the plain: A History of Mount Barker and its surroundings, District

Council of Mount Barker, 1983, p79.

7 SA Centre for Settlement Studies, Onkaparinga District Council Heritage Survey, Item Ref 6.6, 1984.

8 Paul B Stark, Meadows Heritage, District Council of Meadows, 1983, p238.

9 L Dunkling, G Wright, A dictionary of pub names, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, London, 1981,


10 J Whimpress, Dedicated to Pioneers: Echunga 1839-1939, published by the author, pp 107-9.

11 JL Hoad, Hotels and Publicans p294.

12 EA Cross, Old Woodchester and Onaunga District Council Area, 1842-1992, 1992.

13 JL (Bob) Hoad, Hotels and Publicans, p 188.

14 AR Mills, Kungna Tuko: a history of Kanmantoo, 1981.

15 Ian Auhl, From Settlement to City: A History of the District of Tea Tree Gully 1836-1976, Lynton Publications, Blackwood, SA, pp44, 198-99.

16 Reg Butler, The Quiet Waters by: Mount Pleasant District, District Council of Mount Pleasant,

1993, p 10.

17 Reg Butler, Mount Pleasant, p53.

18 Lucy Maymon Hines (ed. Geoffrey C Bishop) Environs of Norton Summit, East Torrens Historical

Society Inc, 1996.

19 Geoffrey C Bishop, ‘The Wine Shop at Greenhill’, East Torrens Historical Society Newsletter,

Issue 65 May 2001 pp 16-17.

20 Geoffrey C Bishop, Summertown Heritage Walks, East Torrens Historical Society Inc 2002.

21 Geoffrey C Bishop From Stringybarks to Orchards. A History of Forest Range and Lenswood.

Lenswood Cooperative Society Limited 1984, p204.

22 Paul B Stark, Meadows Heritage, 1983, p110. See also Hassell Planning Consultants, City of

Happy Valley Heritage Survey, 1988, item 96; RH Strickland (ed), Kangarilla Historical Records,

1978, p40.

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