Chicago Style: The Basics



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Chicago Style: The Basics

  • A UNA University Writing Center
  • Citation and Documentation Presentation
  • Dr. Robert T. Koch Jr., Ms. Cayla Buttram,
  • Mr. David Gunnels, Ms. Luliann Losey
  • Center for Writing Excellence
  • University of North Alabama
  • June 23, 2010

Today’s Goals

  • Learn what Chicago style is, what it includes, and why it is important
  • Learn about the standard Chicago title page format
  • Learn basic documentation for books, journals, and websites
  • Learn the differences between methods of source integration: summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting
  • Learn how to use signal phrases and in-text notes to avoid plagiarism

What is Chicago Style? Why Use It?

  • The Chicago Manual of Style, also called “Turabian Style”
  • Style established in 1937 when Kate L. Turabian assembled a guideline for students at the University of Chicago
  • Style provides guidelines for publication in some of the social sciences and natural & physical sciences, but most commonly in the humanities—literature, history, and the arts
  • Style lends consistency and makes texts more readable by those who assess or publish them
  • Turabian, K.ate. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press., 2007
  • p. xi & xiii Turabian 7

Chicago Style

  • Chicago has two recommended styles or subtypes.
    • Parenthetical citations-Reference List
    • Notes-Bibliography
  • The most common is Notes-Bibliography and this style uses either footnotes or endnotes
    • Footnotes, the most common, are printed at the bottom of the page
    • Endnotes are a collected list at the end of the paper
    • This style also includes a Bibliography page at the end of the paper that lists all references in a format similar to the footnotes found within the paper
  • p. xi, 136, 141-142 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K.ate A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press., 2007.

A Chicago Title Page

  • Title (First-Third of the Page)
    • Place the title here in all caps. If there is a subtitle, place a colon at the end of the main title and start the subtitle on the next line. NOT DOUBLE SPACED.
  • Name and Class Identification (Second-Third of the Page)
    • Author(s) Name(s)
    • Course Number and Title (ex. EN 099: Basic Writing)
    • Date (Month date, year format)
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
  • p. 378 & 386 Turabian 7

A Chicago Title Page

  • p. 378 & 386 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Chicago Body Pages

  • Body Pages in Chicago Style simply show the page number in the top right corner.
  • The prose of the paper is typically double spaced (unless specified otherwise by your professor) though block quotes are typed with single spacing.
  • Footnotes are entered at the bottom of the page to show reference.
  • p. 393 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Chicago Body Pages

  • p. 393 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Documentation

  • Refers to the Bibliography list at the end of the paper
  • The List
    • is labeled Bibliography (centered, no font changes, only on the first page)
    • starts at the top of a new page
    • continues page numbering from the last page of text
    • is alphabetical
    • is single spaced with two blank lines between the title and the first entry and one blank line between entries
    • Uses a hanging indent (1/2 inch – can be formatted from the Paragraph dialog box in MS Word)
  • p. 404 & 401 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Documenting Authors

  • In the bibliography page. List the first author’s name in inverted order (Last name, First name), place a comma, and list each following author in standard order (First Name Last Name).
  • In the Note, list each authors’ name in standard order.
  • No matter how many authors are listed within a work, every author must be listed in the Bibliography page. The foot note, however, lists the first author’s name in standard order followed by “et al.” for a work with with four or more authors.
  • Example
    • Kenobi, Obi-wan, Quentin Jinn, Marc Windu, Kermit Mundi, Phil Koon, Kevin Fisto, Aaliyah Secura, Orville Rancisis, Lucretia Unduli, The Jedi Way. Coruscant: Coruscant Publishing, 1977.
  • p. 163 and 230 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Documenting Books

  • Model for Bibliography:
  • Author 1’s Last Name, First Name and Author 2’s First and Last Name, etc., Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. City: Publisher, Date of Publication.
  • Model for Note:
  • Note Number. Author 1’s First and Last Name and Author 2’s First and Last Name, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. (City: Publisher, Date of Publication), p#.
  • Example of Note:
  • 3. Ash Williams and Raymond Knowby, The Powers of That Book. (Wilmington, North Carolina: Necronohaus Books, 1987), 22-25.
  • p. 143 – 145 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Documenting Chapters in an Edited Collection

  • Model for Bibliography:
  • Author 1’s Last Name, First Name, “Title of Article/Chapter.” In Title of Book, edited by Editor’s First and Last Names, ##-##. City: Publisher, Date of Publication.
  • Model for Note:
  • Note Number. Author’s First and Last Names, “Title of Article/Chapter,” in Title of Book, ed. Editor’s First and Last Names (City: Publisher, Date of Publication), ##-##.
  • Sample for Note:
  • 6. John McClain, “Broken Glass,” In Trials of Bare Feet, Ed. Al Powell (Los Angeles, California: 1988), 22-28.
  • p. 144 - 145 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Documenting Journals

  • Model for Bibliography:
  • Author 1’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical volume, number (Date of Publication): XX-XX.
  • Model for Note:
  • Note Number. Author 1’s First and Last Names, “Title of Article,” Title of Periodical volume, number (Date of Publication): XX-XX.
  • Sample of Note:
  • 1. Robert Koch Jr., “Building Connections Through Reflective Writing,” Academic Exchange Quarterly 10, no. 3 (2006): 208-213.
  • p. 145 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Documenting Online Journals

  • Model for Bibliography:
  • Author’s Last name, Author’s First Name. “Title of Article,” Title of Journal Volume, Number (Date of Publication). URL (accessed Date of Access).
  • Model for Note:
  • Note Number. Author’s First and Last Names, “Title of Article: Subtitle,” Title of Periodical Volume, Number (Date of Publication), under “Descriptive Locator or Subheading,” URL (accessed Date of Access).
  • Sample of Note:
  • 1. Minnie Mouse, “My Disney Success Beginning in 1950,” Life of Disney Quarterly 10, no. 7 (2001), under “Lifestyle,” http://thisismadeup.journals.edu/lifeofdisney (accessed May 2, 2010).
  • p. 145 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Documenting Websites

  • Bibliography Model for an authored website:
  • Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Page.” Title of Owner of the Site. URL (accessed Date of Access).
  • Note Model for an authored website:
  • Note Number. Author’s First and Last Names, “Title of the Page,” Title of Owner of the Site, URL (accessed Date of Access).
  • Sample for Note:
  • 8. John Daniels, “Nebraska School Children Honored Teacher,” Nebraska Family Council, www.nebraskafictionnews.com/teacherhonored (January 18, 2007).
  • No Author? Give the name of the owner of the site. Include as many elements of the citation as you can.
  • p. 198 Turabian 7
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Why Source Integration?

  • Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries
    • provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
    • refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
    • give examples of several points of view on a subject
    • call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with
    • highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original
    • distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own
    • expand the breadth or depth of your writing
  • Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html
  • p. 169 - 170 APA 6

Choosing Text to Integrate

  • Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas.
  • Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is.
  • Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay.
  • Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly.
  • Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html
  • p. 169 - 170 APA 6

Summarizing

  • When you summarize, you put the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s).
    • Summarized ideas must be attributed to the original source.
    • Summaries are significantly shorter than the original.
    • Summaries take a broad overview of source material.
  • Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html
  • p. 170 - 174 APA 6

Paraphrasing

  • Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words.
    • Attribute paraphrases to their original sources.
    • Paraphrases are usually shorter than, but may be the same length as the original passage.
    • Paraphrases take a more focused segment of the source and condense it slightly.
  • Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html
  • p. 170 - 174 APA 6

Quoting

  • Quotations must be identical to the original.
    • Quotations use a narrow segment of the source.
    • They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.
    • Use quotes when the actual words are so integral to the discussion that they cannot be replaced.
    • Use quotes when the author’s words are so precisely and accurately stated that they cannot be paraphrased.
  • Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html
  • p. 170 - 174 APA 6

Using Footnotes in Text

  • When using Chicago footnotes, whenever a source is used in a paper, a footnote is inserted to credit the source.
  • Footnotes are shown in text as superscript numbers that relate to a numbered source at the bottom of the page.
  • The source at the bottom of the page includes much, if not all, of the original bibliographic source information
  • A simple rule: Who, What, Where, When, Which (pages)
  • Authors’ First and Last Names, “Title” Title of Periodical, Owner, or Publisher (Date of Publication): XX-XX (( page range))
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Using Footnotes in Text (continued)

  • To enter a footnote (in Microsoft Word), place the cursor at the end of the sentence (after the period) that includes information or ideas from a source. Click “References” and click “Insert Foot Note”
  • This inserts the superscript number and allows you to insert the corresponding source material at the bottom of the page with the matched number
  • The order the subscript and citations follow is the order they appear in the text
  • Documenting sources at SNHU: APA style. (n.d.). Southern New Hampshire University. Retrieved September 17, 2007 from http://acadweb.snhu.edu/documenting_sources/apa.htm#Use%20a%20citation%20when%20you%20paraphrase
  • Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

In the first in-text citation note, do the full citation. If the same text is cited again, the note can be shortened to include Author Last Name, Title, and Page numbers:

  • In the first in-text citation note, do the full citation. If the same text is cited again, the note can be shortened to include Author Last Name, Title, and Page numbers:
  • 5. Johns, Nature of the Book, 384-85
  • Documenting sources at SNHU: APA style. (n.d.). Southern New Hampshire University. Retrieved September 17, 2007 from http://acadweb.snhu.edu/documenting_sources/apa.htm#Use%20a%20citation%20when%20you%20paraphrase
  • Using Footnotes in Text (continued)
  • Turabian, K. (2007). A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • p. 136, 141-142 Turabian 7

References

  • “Documenting sources at SNHU: APA style.” Southern New Hampshire University. http://acadweb.snhu.edu/documenting_sources/apa.htm#Use%20a%20citation%20when%20you%20paraphrase
  • “Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing.” Purdue University Online Writing Lab, 2007. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html
  • Turabian, Kate. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 7th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
  • University of Chicago. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.


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