Chapter I introduction



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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
This chapter consists of background, problem statement, significance, and focus of the research. Each of those points will be discussed in turn in the following.

  1. Background

Learning process is a process which consists of planning, teaching, activities of learning and evaluation. Learning could be defined as an interaction between learners and teachers. This process is begun by the planning of learning. There should be a planning before conducting the activities of teaching and learning. In this first step, the objectives of learning and the activities are prepared or designed by the teachers. After planning the objectives and the activities, the process moves to teaching and learning activities to acquire knowledge. The last step is evaluation. It is important to determine the success or failure of the goal.

Tyler cited in Arikunto (2002) stated that evaluation is a process of determining the extend to which the educational objectives are actually being achieved. In contrast, Davis (2010) explained that evaluation answers the question “How?”. It answers the questions about how well the project or learning is working, how the person knows that value is being/has added, how valid the assessment measures are and how effective the intervention strategies are.

The other term usually used, related to evaluation, is assessment. Assessment is an activity to assess or measure the students’ achievement. It includes the collecting information as well. Davis (2010) said that assessment answers the question “What?”. It answers the questions about what is being learned by the students, the impact being made by instruction, what is working, what is not working, what can students do and what is the faculty accomplishing.

There are many kinds of assessments used in learning process such as paper and pencil assessment, product assessment, self assessment, performance assessment, attitude assessment, portfolio assessment, performance assessment andproject assessment. Those kinds of assessment use a particular technique in collecting information. The technique based on learning standards and basic competencies. Basic competency is assessed based on achievement indicators of learning outcomes, that consists of threeaspects, namely cognitive, affective, and psychomotoric.

An effective assessment is an assessment which can cover three aspects of learning namely cognitive, affective and psychomotoric. It should be considered since most of the teachers assess students only on cognitive aspects like students’ ability to memorize. The students are not taught to learn, but tend to practice in answering questions. As a result, students cannot experience and use the knowledge in their daily life. Mostly, the schools apply the assessment only for the cognitive aspect. The teachers always give the students an assignment in written form, for example fill in the blank and rearange the sentences. Especially in one of Indonesian curriculum, there was called as Lembar Kerja Siswa (LKS) or students’ worksheets. It is a book which is full of questions. Each student has to complete those questions in one semester and he/she can work on it as a homework. Those assignment potentially make the students cheat other students’ assignment.

Harris and McCann (1994) told that one of the fundamental reasons for assessment often does not feed back into the learning and teaching process is the kind of feedback is expressed only by a grade or mark. The grade classifies students, but does not give real help but telling students what their specific problems are and by making suggestion to overcome them. On the other hand, Harris and McCann (1994) stated that assessment has got to a continuous process going on at a different level.

Based on the pre-observation conducted on May 2014, the researcher found that the assessment of the students in SMA Negeri 2 Bantaeng was expressed only by a grade. In this school, the teacher gave some assignments in the form of filling in the blank, rearanging the sentences and answering questions about the text. Those assignments were conducted out of the school. Then, in the next meeting the students submitted their assignments without any feedback from the teacher. This assessment wass more like paper and pencil assessment but researcher had an information that the teacher would assign the students to do a project.

Related to what Harris and McCain (1994) explained, the researcher found one interesting assessment called project assessment. Syamsudduha (2012) said that project assessment is assessment of assignment that must be completed by students in particular period of time. The assignment is an investigation form beginning from collecting, organizing, evaluating, until presenting the data. On the other point of view, keputusan menteri (Kepmen) No.53/4/2001 tentang Pedoman Penyusunan Standar Pelayanan Minimal Penyelenggaraan Persekolahan Bidang Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah (DIKDASMEN) or ministerial decree guidelines for the implementation of minimum service standards schooling elementary and secondary education stated that project assessment is an accumulation of tasks which involves some competencies and should be accomplished by the learners. Through this assessment, the researcher predicts that project assessment can cover the feedback which the students need.

Recently, the researcher observed that this school sometimes assigns students for “Tugas Besar”. It refers to the project in which the students should complete the assignment in a period of time. The researcher concluded this tugas besar is more like project work that is related to project assessment.

In order to investigate other assessment of language learning, the researcher believes that a research is worth conducting to observe how the other assessment applied and what is the students’ perception about the project work that they work on in this assessment. The researcher is interested in investigating and exploring this assessment in the afforedmention school under the title An Exploration on Project Assessment of Students’ Productive Skills (A Study of First Grade Students of Senior High School).



  1. Problem Statement

As mentioned, an assessment has got to a continuous process going on at a different level. Unfortunately, some assessments often do not feed back into the learning and teaching process because those assessments are expressed by a grade. Project assessment has several steps to do by the students and an investigation can be conducted related to these steps. How it runs, how it functions and how it gives the feedback to the students. Related to these research problems, the researcher formulates the research questions based on the three aspects mentioned above. They can be seen as follows:

  1. How do the teachers manage the assessment?

  2. What is the students’ perception to project work?



  1. Objective of the Research

Based on the research problems above, the researcher formulates the objectives of the research as follows:

  1. Explaining the process of project assessment.

  2. Finding out the students’ perception to project work.



  1. Significance of the Research

The findings of this research are expected to be theoretically and practically beneficial contributor to the field of foreign language assessment. Theoretically, the findings of this research are expected to give reference to the teachers, educational practitioners, students and other stakeholders in educational field about project assessment. On the other hand, practically, this research can give a contribution to the assessment of teaching and learning English as a foreign language in Indonesia. It helps the teachers to assess the students not only from the cognitive aspect, but also other aspects of learning.


  1. Scope of the Research

The focus of this research is language testing related to project assessment. This assessment assesses the productive skills which focuses on speaking ability. The other focus of this research is students’ perception to the application of this assessment.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter deals with some previous pertinent ideas which included assessment, project assessment, productive skills and students’ perception.


  1. Review of Related Study

Arikunto (2013) described that some lessons can apply project assessment namely science and socials. This project would be better if it is applied to the students who are in the second or third grade in junior high school and the high school level. Arikunto (2013) gives some examples in his book. In science, students can investigate the advantage of the leaf of a particular plant to consume while in socials, teacher can assign students to investigate why villagers like to work together instead of working individually.

Nastu (2009) informed that students in a South Texas classroom had taken on the role of employees at Clean Water Tech, a fictional U.S. company that produces water filtration technology, and were poring over the economic indicators of various unnamed countries, trying to decide into which nation the company should expand. This activity is mentioned as project assessment as well in the field of technology.

The researcher notices from two aforementioned studies above that mostly project assessment is applied in the field of science, socials and technology. The researcher finds this study challenging because project assessment in this study is applied in language learning.


  1. Some Pertinent Ideas

  1. Evaluation

Tyler cited in Arikunto (2002) stated evaluation is a process of determining the extend to which the educational objectives are actually being achieved while Davis (2010) explained that evaluation answers the question “How?”. It answers the questions about how well the project or learning is working, how the person knows that value is/has being added, how valid the assessment measures are and how effective the intervention strategies are.

Evaluation can be associated with test or without test. Genesee and Upshur (1996) explored that evaluation with tests can be conducted in some ways namely testing, objectives-referenced testing, choosing and devising test task, assembling and scoring test, interpreting test scores, standardized tests and summary and integration. Some ways for evaluation without tests are observation in the classroom, portfolios and conferences, journals, questionnaire and interviews.

Those aforementioned ways above can help the teachers evaluate the class to determine the useful information for making decisions. As Genesee and Upshur (1996) stated that there are four aspects of evaluation that should be considered. Those are purpose of evaluating, collecting information, interpreting information and decisions making. A decision made because of an evaluation, while evaluation itself, as explained by Nation and Macalister (2009), tries to answer the question “Is this a good course?” They further explained that the term “good” course could be one that: attracts a lot of students, makes a lot of money, satisfies the learners, satisfies the teachers, satisfies the sponsors, helps learners gain high scores in an external test, results in a lot of learning, applies state-of-the art knowledge about language teaching and learning, is held in high regard by the local or international community and follows accepted principles of curriculum design.

Genesee and Upshur (1996) explained that evaluation is a process that results in decisions about instruction, students or both. There are two steps in making decision as they explained namely (1) identify the purpose for evaluation and (2) collect the information pertinent to these decisions. Genesee and Upshur emphasize that this aspect of the evaluation is referred to as assessment. Similarly, Nation and Macalister (2009) mentioned that assessment itself is one of the sources of information that can contribute to the evaluation of a course.



  1. Assessment

Harris and McCann (1994) stated that it is very important to make a clear distinction between assessment and evaluation. As teachers, when carrying out assessment, they have to measure the performance of their students and the progress they make. They also need to diagnose the problems they have and provide the learners with useful feedback. Evaluation, on the other hand, involves looking at all the factors that influence all the learning process, such as syllabus objectives, course design, materials, methodology, teacher performance and assessment.

Brown (2001) pointed out that assessment itself is an on-going process that encompasses a much wider domain (than a test). Moreover, whenever a student responds to a question, offers a comment or tries out a new word or structure, the teacher subconsciously makes an assessment of the student’s performance. Assessment is different with a test. It is an instrument of procedure designed to elicit performance from learners with the purpose of measuring their attainment of specified criteria. Tests are almost always identifiable time periods in a curriculum when learners muster all their faculties to offer peak performance, knowing that their responses are being measured and evaluated: tests can be useful devices among other procedures and tasks designed to assess students.

Assessment has got to be a continuous process going on at a different level. Harris and McCann (1994) explained that one of the fundamental reasons for assessment often does not feed back into the learning and teaching process is the kind of feedback that is expressed only by a grade or mark. The grade classifies students but does not give any real contribution by telling students what their specific problems are and by making suggestion to overcome them.

Brown (2001) divided assessment into two types, namely informal and formal assessment. The former is assessing students in the process of forming their competencies and skills in order to help them continue that growth process. It implies the observation of the process of learning, as opposed the product. The latter is exercises or experiences specifically designed to tap into a storehouse of skills and knowledge, usually within a relatively short time limit. They are systematic, planned sampling techniques constructed to give teacher and student an appraisal of student achievement.

Brown (2004) mentioned the kinds of the aforementioned assessment. They are:


  1. Informal assessment consists of:

  1. Unplanned observation and general feedback

  2. Planned classroom activities in which students perform tasks but do not receive final grade on performance. It can be seen in think-pair-share, dialogues, essay or journal writing, note-taking and group or partner work.

  1. Formal assessment consists of the activities in class that the teacher gives to students for which they receive graded feedback. The activities are:

  1. Tests

  2. Rubric-scored assignment:

  1. Writing portfolio

  2. Presentation

  3. Journal entries

  4. Notes

  5. Performance

  6. Posters

  7. Projects

The other assessments are called formative and summative assessment. Brown (2004) defined formative assessment as daily classroom assessment used to plan for modify and improve instruction. Feedback in this assessment helps the teacher and the students make plans to improve language competence in the future. Informal assessment, as mentioned above, should be formative. It aims at improving a student’s competence and performance.

Summative assessment measures and summarizes what a student has learned over a given period of time: unit tests, mid-term exams, final exams, entrance exams, and professional language tests.



Current issues in classroom testing are traditional and authentic assessment. The characteristics of traditional assessment can be seen as follows:

  1. One-shot, standardized exams

  2. Time, multiple-choice format

  3. De-contextualized test items

  4. Scores are feedback

  5. Norm-referenced scores

  6. One correct answer

  7. Summative

  8. Oriented to product

  9. Non-interactive

  10. Extrinsic motivation

The characteristics of authentic assessment are:

  1. Continuous long-term assessment

  2. Untimed, free response

  3. Contextualized communicative task

  4. Individualized feedback

  5. Criterion-reference scores

  6. Formative

  7. Oriented to process

  8. Interactive performance

  9. Intrinsic motivation

  1. Project Assessment

  1. The Definition of Project Assessment

There are some definitions of project assessment. One of the definitions is stated by Syamsudduha (2012). He said that project assessment is assessment of assignment that must be completed by students in particular period of time. The assignment is an investigation form beginning from collecting, organizing, evaluating, until presenting the data. The other definition can be found in keputusan menteri (Kepmen) No.53/4/2001 tentang Pedoman Penyusunan Standar Pelayanan Minimal Penyelenggaraan Persekolahan Bidang Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah (DIKDASMEN) or ministerial decree guidelines for the implementation of minimum service standards schooling elementary and secondary education as follows:

  1. Accumulation of tasks which involves some competencies and should be accomplished by the learners.

  2. A learning model which is adopted to measure and assess the cumulative achievement of competencies.

  3. Assessment model which is expected to be professional.

  4. Scope of activities: making proposals, preparation, execution (process) and the culminating activity (presentation, testing, and exhibition).

  1. The Functions of Project Assessment

Project assessment is as a measurement of students’ achievement. It has the other functions as follows:

  1. To measure the competence and capability of the students if they have achieved the expected goal.

  2. To determine the kind of action for the goal which is not achieved.

  3. To rank the students especially for the their succeed of achieving the goals.

  4. To give the information about the applying strategy especially for the strength and the weakness of that strategy.

  5. To plan or to design the procedures for reforming the lesson plan and to decide the source of material.

  1. The Implementation of Project Assessment

In implementing project assessment, there are some aspects should be considered. Mia (2012) explained three things that should be considered in project assessment.

  1. Management capability, the students are given a chance to choose a certain topic that is not too wide so the information received is more explicit, and freedom to think over about data collection schedule and written report.

  2. Relevance, knowledge and skill at relevance learning with project based task, so it can be an evidence.

  3. Authenticity, consider the source of data that can be achieved so the data are authentic.

The project can be applied in all disciplines. The implementation should follow five steps. Mia (2012) explained them as follows:

  1. Deciding the theme of the project

This first step should follow some indicators. It has to involve a general idea and is still original, it is important and interesting, it describes a complex problem, it reflects some related ideas, it gives priority to the problem solving.

  1. Deciding the learning context

This step should follow six indicators. The questions in the project should ask about the problem in a real life, it gives a priority to the students’ authority, it conducts an inquiry in the social context, students are able to manage their time effectively and efficiently, students are learning with self control and it stimulates the works professionally.

  1. Planning the activities

The planning activities include reading, research, observation, interview, recording, internet access and visiting the related places.

  1. Processing the activities

The indicators of this step are designing the scetch, describing the analysis, counting, generalizing and developing the prototype.

  1. Applying of the activities for finishing the project

There are 6 activities for this step. They are trying to do the project based on the scecth, evaluating the obtaining result, revising the obtaining result, recycling the other project and clasifying the best result.

  1. Scoring system of project assessment

Project assessment consists of score achieved from some steps; planning, data collection, processing data, and report. In scoring each step, the ranges from 1 to 3. Score 1 is the lowest score and score 3 is the highest score. The following table is the example of scoring proposed by Syamsudduha (2012).

Table 2.1. Example of Criteria and Score of Project Assessment

Aspect

Criteria and score

1

2

3

Planning

If consist of objective, topic, background, research area, respondent, complete question list.


If consist of objective, topic, background, research area, respondents, questions list less complete.



If consist of objective, topic, background, research area, respondents,
list ofquestionsin complete.

Collecting data

If all of thequestions list can be done andthe data is recordedneatly and completely.



If all of thequestions list can bedone, butthe datais notrecordedneatly andcompletely.



If questions list cannot be done all and thedata is not recorded neatly.

Processing Data

If the discussion ofthe data in line withthe researchobjectives



If the discussion of data describes the research objective incompletely



If the report do not consist of the discussion ofdata



Report

If the systematic of writingcorrect, containssuggestions, use communicativelanguage.



If the systematic ofwritingcorrect, consist of suggestions, but language used is lesscommunicative



If the writingis less systematic, language used is less communicative language,contains lesscontains

Syamsudduha (2012)


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