2. Writing Process Fundamental Writing Skills Instructor: Hsin-Hsin Cindy Lee, Ph. D. What is a writing process?



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2. Writing Process

  • Fundamental Writing Skills
  • Instructor: Hsin-Hsin Cindy Lee, Ph.D.

What is a writing process?

  • Every writer goes through some kind of ‘journey’ when they write.
  • The final ‘perfect’ work of your writing is the destination of this journey.
  • To reach the destination, the journey often involves several steps.
  • Different techniques are needed on each step.

Why do you need a writing process?

  • It can help you to organize your thoughts.
  • It can help you to avoid frustration and waste of time.
  • It can help you to use time productively and efficiently.
  • It can ensure the quality of your final work.

The Writing Process

  • Prewriting
  • Planning
  • Drafting
  • Revising
  • Editing

Prewriting

  • Certain strategies commonly groups under the heading ‘prewriting’ can help you get started and develop your ideas.
  • Although you may not need all of them in all writing assignments, learning how to use them gives you a box of tools to select the best tools for a writing job.

Prewriting Strategies

  • Free writing
  • Brainstorming
  • Clustering
  • Researching

Free Writing

  • In freewriting, you write without stopping, letting your ideas tumble forth.
  • You do not concern yourself with the fundamentals of writing, such as punctuation and spelling.
  • Freewriting is an adventure into your memory and imagination.
  • The key is ‘non-stopping’ writing.

Brainstorming

  • Brainstorming features key words and phrases that relate in various ways to the subject area or the specific topic you are concerned.
  • One effective to get started is to ask the big-six questions:
    • Who? What? Where?
    • When? Why? How?
  • The key word for brainstorming is ‘listing’.

Clustering

  • Write your topic down in the middle of the page and draw a double circle around it.
  • What do you ‘associate’ with the topic?
  • Single-bubble other ideas based on your association radiating out from the hub that contains the topic.

Cluster-Example

  • Clustering is related to ‘mind-mapping’.
  • Please get to the website below to learn more information about mind-mapping’.
  • http://members.optusnet.com.au/~charles57/Creative/Mindmap/

Researching

  • Gather ideas from references.
    • Find references on the Internet, in the bookstore, in the library…
  • Locate and evaluate research materials.
  • Conducting interviews.
    • Ask people’s opinions.
    • Do you agree with them? Why? Why not?

(2) Planning – Writing an outline

  • An outline is a pattern for showing the relationship of ideas.
  • The two main outline forms are:
    • sentence outline
    • topic outline
  • The topic outline (each entry is a key word or phrase) is commonly used for paragraphs.

Planning - Example

  • Outline for an essay
  • I. Introduction
  • A. Grab attention
  • B. State thesis
  • II. Body
  • A. Build points
  • B. Develop ideas
  • C. Support main claim
  • III. Conclusion
  • A. Reemphasize main
  • idea
  • Outline for a short article
  • Topic sentence
  • Major support 1
    • Minor support
    • Minor support
      • Details or examples
      • Details or examples
  • Major support 2
    • Minor support
    • Minor support
      • Details or examples
      • Details or examples

(3) Drafting – Writing your first draft

  • Once you have completed your topic sentence and outline, you may begin writing your paragraph.
  • The initial writing is called the first, or rough, draft.
  • At this stage, you pay close attention to your outline and compose your ideas based on it.
  • At this stage, you make sure that the basic organization of your draft works well.

(4) Revising

  • The first draft suggests there will be many more drafts or revisions.
  • What we do beyond the first draft is revising and editing.
  • We make efforts to our composition to ensure a quality and satisfying result.

(4) Check List for Revising - (CLUESS)

  • Coherence
    • Did you use appropriate transitional words?
    • e.g. “first, second, third…” to indicate ‘time’ order
  • Language
    • Did you avoid using cliché?
  • Unity
    • Did you begin with a good topic sentence?
  • Emphasis
    • Did you stress the important ideas by position, repetition or isolation?
  • Support
    • Did you give relevant and logical examples, reasons, details to support your main and supporting ideas?
  • Sentences
    • Were your sentences complete?
    • Did you use different types of sentence?

(5) Editing – (COPS)

  • The final stage of the writing process involves a careful examination of your work.
  • You look for the following problems:
    • Capitalization
    • Omissions
    • Punctuation
    • Spelling
  • Revising and Editing may happen at the same time!

Writing Process Worksheet

  • For each paper, please complete the Writing Process Worksheet.
  • You may copy the next page in your own paper.
  • Submit the worksheet with your assignment.

Writing Process Worksheet

  • Title: Name: Student No.:
  • Due Date:
  • Assignment: In the space below, write whatever you need to know about your assignment, including information about the topic, audience, pattern of writing, length and whether to include a rough draft or revised drafts.
  • Stage One: Explore – Free writing, brainstorm, cluster, or take notes as directed by your instructor. Use separate paper if you need more space.
  • Stage Two: Organize – Write a topic sentence or thesis; label the subject and treatment parts.
  • Write an outline or a structured list.
  • Stage Three: Write – On separate paper, write an then revise your paragraph or essay as many time4s as necessary for coherence, language, unity, emphasis, support, and sentences (CLUESS). Read your work aloud to hear and correct any grammatical errors or awkward-sound sentences.
  • Edit any problems in fundamentals, such as capitalization, omissions, punctuation, and spelling (COPS).

-End-

  • Reference: At a Glance by Lee Brandon


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