sentence types and their communicative function in texts: declarative, imperative, interrogative, exclamative
the basic functions in clause structure: subject, object, complement, adverbial
sentence structures: sentence fragments; simple, compound, complex and compound-complex sentences; ellipsis; nominalisation; and coordination and subordination
active and passive voice, including agentless passives
syntactic patterning in texts: antithesis, listing, parallelism.
factors that contribute to a text’s coherence: cohesion, inference, logical ordering, formatting, consistency and conventions
factors that contribute to a text’s cohesion: information flow including clefting, front focus and end focus; anaphoric and cataphoric reference; deictics; repetition; synonymy, antonymy and hyponymy; collocation; ellipses; substitution; conjunctions and adverbials
features of spoken discourse: pauses, false starts, repetition, repairs, openings and closings, adjacency pairs, overlapping speech, interrogative tags, and discourse particles
strategies in spoken discourse: topic management, turn-taking, holding the floor, minimal responses
conventions for the transcription of spoken English.
lexical choice and semantic patterning in texts: irony, metaphor, oxymoron, simile, personification, animation, puns, lexical ambiguity
lexical meaning, especially sense relations: synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, idiom, denotation and connotation
euphemism and dysphemism.
“Introduction” of Living Lingo- will document the above sections in detail download it at
UNIT 3 – LANGUAGE VARTIATION AND SOCIAL PURPOSE. All language centres around social interaction. We will investigate English language in the Australian social setting, along a continuum of informal and formal registers. We will consider language as a means of societal interaction, understanding that through written and spoken texts to communicate information, ideas, attitudes, prejudices and ideological stances.
We will consider how texts are influenced by the situational and cultural contexts in which they occur. We examine how function, field, mode, setting and the relationships between participants all contribute to a person’s language choices, as do the values, attitudes and beliefs held by participants and the wider community.
AREA OF STUDY 1
We will investigate how speakers and writers choose from a vast repertoire of language in order to vary the style of their language to suit a particular social purpose. They consider the features and functions of informal language in written, spoken and electronic interactions, understanding that the situational and cultural context of an exchange determines the language used. For example, how do we distinguish between ‘chat’ and ‘being serious’?
On completion of this unit the student should be able to identify and analyse distinctive features of informal language in written and spoken texts.
Short answer test: 15 Marks Week of March 9
Essay: 35 Marks Week of April 13
AREA OF STUDY 2
As with informal language, the situational and cultural context determines whether people use formal language and in which mode they choose to communicate. Formal language in all modes, tends to be less ambiguous, more cohesive, and is more likely to make explicit aspects of the presumed context. We will investigate formal texts, explore how writers and speakers are more likely to consider how their audience might interpret their message, packaging it appropriately with attention to the art of rhetoric. We examine how formal written texts are more likely to have been edited while formal spoken texts may have been rehearsed.
For both Outcomes we learn about the functions and features of texts in both areas and use the overarching themes of politeness and face, and the difference between Standard English an non standard Englishes
On completion of this unit the student should identify and analyse distinctive features of formal language in written and spoken texts.
Analytical commentary: 50 marks Week of June 1
UNIT 4 LANGUAGE VARIATION AND VARIETY We explore how language use reflects and constructs identities. There is a particular focus on the connections in Australia between language use
and ‘national identity’, and language varieties and individuals’ identities. Individuals’ identities are not fixed, but alter according to the ways in which they draw on their understanding of social expectations and community attitudes to shift their language style in a given context. Individuals’ identities are shaped by their capacity to access the overt or covert norms of a particular speech community.
Investigate and analyse varieties of Australian English and attitudes towards them.
Assessment: Expository essay 20 Marks Week of July 27 Oral presentation: 30 Marks Week of 10 August
Individuals and group identities
Analyse how people’s choice of language reflects and constructs
Analyse how people’s choice of language reflects and constructs their identities.
Expository Essay: 50 Marks Week of Sept 14
Examination – worth 50% of total assessment
Set reading pages 9 – 26 as discussed at transition. Create notes or summaries for reading taking particular attention of ‘mode’, ‘field’, ‘audience’ and ‘locale’. Use note paper below.
Informal language is a register used in a specific situation. In your home it is intimate and casual. You have established relationships between your guardian, parents, brother, sister. These relationships guide the language you speech. In he episode of Upper Middle Bogan we watched Wayne utters to the tv screen, in a drunken slur, ‘I luv ya’, Jules. I really luv ya.” This unit will look at the informality of language but cannot be defined of separated from formal language.
See the ‘degrees of formality’ table in your textbook page 15.
Audience: General- demographic ABC 1 – educated, middle class etc (Later we will look into how socio-linguistics affects the interpretation of each text).
Locale: Viewed in peoples homes, may be discussed at work or social situation
reviews in tv magazines etc
Field: Australian television comedy (domain and field coexist)
Mode: Spoken, visual
Spoken and written language, have functions which you will have to identify and describe throughout the year. More importantly, function, and the terms above should become part of your understanding and knowledge for the course, and used automatically in discussion and written work. (For spoken and written function s of language see tables 1 & 2 textbook pps 22-23.