Writing with style

Key Terms Used in Essay Questions

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Key Terms Used in Essay Questions:

analyze to break something up into its component pieces and explain how those pieces relate to the whole.
classify to place persons or things together in categories based on common elements
compare to use examples to show how things are similar – some differences may be identified, but the emphasis is on similarities
contrast to use examples to show how things are different
define to give a clear and precise meaning for a term – sometimes including identifying the class to which an item belongs and telling how it differs from other items in that class.
describe to tell what something looks like, give a general overview of something
discuss to talk about – a vague term, generally meaning to explain an issue from several points of view
evaluate to make a value judgment in comparison to a model or a set of criteria, to look at both sides and then judge.
examine to look closely and in-depth at an issue
explain to tell how something works, make something clear, show a process, analyze
identify to list, explain, or provide an example of; to describe the most important aspects that distinguish a subject from other things
illustrate to show the reader a general concept or principle through the use of specific examples or diagrams.
interpret to identify the significance, meaning, or importance of a set of information

Interpret the data from the experiment.

justify to tell why a position or point of view is correct or good
list to provide many examples
outline to organize a set of facts or ideas by listing main points and sub-points, illustrating how the ideas relate to one another
reflect think back over what is significant to you and why, often calls for personal connection
refute to disprove an assertion using logical reasons, evidence, and explanations
review re-examine or summarize the major points of a topic, usually in chronological order or order of importance
state to briefly present the facts or your position.

summarize to present the main points of an issue in brief
support to provide proof for an assertion in the form of reasons, evidences, and explanations

trace to follow a single idea over a period of time


Topic selection

The form of your research depends on your audience and purpose. If your teacher asks you to give a one-minute speech on “weapons used during World War II” to provide the class with background knowledge, then your topic, audience, and purpose have been determined for you. If you decide to research chemistry departments at West Coast colleges for yourself, then your research process will probably be very different.

However, there are some general guidelines for topic selection:

  1. Select an interesting topic: Find a way to write about something that interests you. If you’ve been given a topic, try to find an original angle. If you’re choosing your own topic, you might start by brainstorming questions that you’d like answered or topics you want to know more about. You also might want to reflect on current controversies, look over your lecture notes, or skim through your textbook to get more ideas.

  1. Think about your topic: Before running to the computer and typing your topic into a search engine, think about what you already know and what you need to find out. Are you interested in the who, what, when, where, why, or how of the issue? Do you know where to look to find that information? (See Types of Sources below.)

  1. Do preliminary research: Discover what sources and information are out there BEFORE deciding on a final topic. You may discover that there’s too much or too little information on the topic you have chosen. You may also discover that there aren’t enough reputable sources from which you can draw. (See Evaluating Sources below.)

  1. Revise and/or limit your topic: Now that you know what information is out there, make sure your topic fits your purpose. You might have to expand or contract your topic depending on whether you’re writing a business proposal, a persuasive speech, or an eight-page essay. At this point, it’s appropriate to write a research question or thesis statement that will guide the rest of your research.

Types of sources

Once you have a working research question or thesis statement, it’s time to continue your research. Here are the types of sources that you might use:

Primary and Secondary Sources

A primary source is an original source that gives information directly. That means that the information has not been summarized, interpreted, or explained by someone else. Primary source documents include personal interviews, surveys, experiments, and original-source documents like the Constitution, a novel, or an autobiography.

Examples of primary sources:

  • Interview with a Holocaust survivor

  • Survey of students about their knowledge of the events of the Holocaust

  • WWII photographs or maps of concentration camps

  • Night by Elie Weisel (autobiography)

A secondary source is not an original source. It is removed from the original because someone has extended the primary information by summarizing, analyzing, interpreting, or evaluating it. Secondary source documents include newspaper, magazine, encyclopedia, and journal articles, as well as documentaries, biographies, literary criticism, and websites.

Examples of secondary sources:

  • Pamphlet from the Museum of Tolerance

  • CBS Documentary on the Holocaust

  • Books or articles by experts about the events of the Holocaust

  • History textbook

  • Website: http://www.holocaustsurvivors.org

Print Sources

  • Books

  • Newspapers

  • Magazines

  • Journals

  • Encyclopedias

  • Almanacs

  • Pamphlets

  • Taking Sides

  • CQ Researcher

Internet & electronic versions of print sources (databases)

  • SIRS

  • Gale Group

  • Infotrac

  • Personal website

  • Professional website

  • E-mail

  • On-line periodical

  • Listserv posting

  • E-text

Other sources

  • Film, radio, or TV program

  • Speech or lecture

  • Audio recording

  • Interview

  • Work of art
Searching the Internet


For more information on using search engines and subject directories, see:
The Spider’s Apprentice: A Helpful Guide to Web Search Engines

hen searching the Internet, a web directory (such as Yahoo http://www.yahoo.com) is a good place to start. A web directory organizes related web sites into subject categories. For example, to find sites on the Constitution on Yahoo, you would select

Government>Documents>Constitutions>United States.

A search engine (such as Google http://www.google.com) will find specific key words within web pages. Many web directories have search engines built in to their systems. To use a search engine, follow the guidelines for keyword searching below.
Keyword searching
To search the Internet or a database by keyword, you type in the important word or words you are looking for. Do not include articles, prepositions, or other small words. When searching by keyword, you should be as specific as possible. You might need to try several different terms in order to find useful information.
Example: cloning Shakespeare World War II
If you are looking for words in a particular order, for example, a phrase, title, or name, you should put the entire phrase in quotation marks. Remember that the search engine will look for EXACT matches for anything in quotation marks, so make sure that spelling and capitalization are correct.
Example: “American Heart Association” “Romeo and Juliet”

“stem cell” “Pearl Harbor”

If you type in several words in a keyword search, your results will often include pages that have only one of the words, not all. If you want all of the terms to appear in the results, then type AND or + between each word. If you want either of the words to appear, use OR.
Example: heart AND diet “Romeo and Juliet” OR Shakespeare
If you want to exclude certain terms from your results, type NOT or – before the word you don’t want.
Example: nirvana AND Buddhism NOT Cobain
Once you find a useful site, some search engines have a “Find Similar Pages” option. You can also look on the site itself for other links to useful resources.

Evaluating sources

Many sources, particularly on the Internet, aren’t legitimate for research use. Some are out-of-date; others come from non-expert sources; still others are created for shock value.

Use the following checklist to evaluate the quality of the sources you’re using:

  • I
    What should you believe?

    Can you tell which of the following cloning sites is legitimate and which is a spoof?



    s the information current?

  • Is the information complete?

  • Is the information accurate?

  • Is the source an expert?

  • Is the source biased?

You can also evaluate websites by looking at the web address’s domain name.

By doing this you can determine what type of organization is sponsoring the website and maybe even predict potential bias before looking at the site. The best research sites are usually posted by universities, government agencies, and other reputable organizations, as opposed to individuals’ personal sites.

The following are the most commonly used domains:

  • .edu -- educational site (usually a university or college)

  • .gov – U.S. governmental/ non-military site

  • .com -- commercial business site, includes news organizations

  • .mil – U.S. military sites and agencies

  • .net -- networks, internet service providers, organizations

  • .org – U.S. non-profit organizations and others

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) http://www.icann.org/tlds/ has also designated the following domains for use:

  • .aero -- restricted use by air transportation industry

  • .biz -- general use by businesses

  • .coop -- restricted use by cooperatives

  • .info -- general use by both commercial and non-commercial sites

  • .museum -- restricted use by museums

  • .name -- general use by individuals

  • .pro -- restricted use by certified professionals and professional entities

Hint: You can include a domain name in your web search. For example, searching for cloning .gov would

bring up all the cloning sites sponsored by government agencies.

Note taking

Once you find good sources, you should begin taking notes. Some teachers require students to use one particular note-taking method to ensure that they have research tools for future assignments. However, whether you’re jotting notes on napkins or on your laptop, some guidelines are the same:

  • Include a key word or phrase as a topic or “slug” so you’ll remember what you were thinking when you wrote information down.

  • Include the source name or number (see Bibliography Cards) as well as the

page number where you found the information. This should make parenthetical documentation easy when you sit down to write. (You will need to cite your sources, even if you paraphrase someone else’s ideas.)

  • Use quotation marks whenever you copy information word-for-word.

  • Only write down relevant information. (Your goal isn’t to fill a notecard quota.)

  • Use ellipses (…) whenever you leave words out of a quotation.

  • Use [square brackets] whenever you add words to a quotation.

Documenting Sources

It’s important to write down all of the relevant bibliographic information for each source before you return it or forget where you found it. You will need this information later when you cite your sources in your paper. If you are taking notes on a sheet of paper or on your computer, you should write this information at the top of each page or section. If you are using notecards, make a separate bibliography card for each source.

Bibliography cards

A bibliography card lists the publishing information of each source in MLA format on a separate notecard. This information will be used for your Bibliography or Works Cited page. You should number your source cards and use these same numbers in your research notes, an efficient way of matching notes and sources.


Daunt, Tina. “A War on Soda and Candies in Schools.” Los Angeles Times. 26 August 2001: B-1. Gale Group Student Resource Center. 2 Sept. 2002. .


Source number

bibliography citation in

proper MLA format


Using 3x5 or 4x6 notecards allows researchers to write down information whenever and wherever they find it and then organize that information by rearranging the cards. Traditional notecards have a designated space for researchers to write down their source, page numbers, and a key word (or slug).

Notecard with direct quote

“Recently, the Sweetwater Union High School District in Chula Vista signed an exclusive deal with Pepsi that is expected to bring at least $4.45 million to its 20 schools over the next 10 years—money that will help pay for library books, intramural sports and school-to-career programs.” (B-1)


source number (same as bibliography card)

exact words from source in quotation marks

page number

Notecard with paraphrase


Vending machines in U.S. schools make more than $750 million per year.



source number

information paraphrased in your own words

page number

Notecard with secondary quotation (attributed)


"When you have this marketplace of junk and soda everywhere else, it undermines the good habits that parents are trying to instill. Frankly, schools should not make an unhealthy alliance in order to seek profit. That is not the purpose of a school."
CA State Senator Martha Escutia, sponsor of bill to eliminate junk food sales in schools (B-1)

source number

direct quote from speaker

Speaker’s full name, title, and relevant info

page number

speaker’s full name, title and other relevant info.

Cornell Notes

You might have learned how to take Cornell Notes during lectures, and the same method can be used for taking research notes. These notes are written on the right hand side of a regular-size piece of paper, and the “slug” and other notes are written on the left side. This note-taking method gives the researcher more space to write commentary and is an alternative to writing on note cards. The disadvantage of this method is that the information is not easy to rearrange, but this arranging can be done during the drafting process.

Sample Cornell Notes:
Daunt, Tina. “A War on Soda and Candies in Schools.” Los Angeles Times. 26 August 2001: B-1. Gale Group Student Resource Center. 2 Sept. 2002. .



slug or topic

Vending machines bring in a lot of money for the soda companies – students spend their money on soda not healthy food (reason to ban soda sales)

Vending machines in U.S. schools make more than $750 million per year. (B-1)

thoughts on the significance or importance of the quotation
Schools make money from contracts with companies that pay for needed supplies and extra curricular activities (reason against banning soda sales)

“Recently, the Sweetwater Union High School District in Chula Vista signed an exclusive deal with Pepsi that is expected to bring at least $4.45 million to its 20 schools over the next 10 years—money that will help pay for library books, intramural sports and school-to-career programs.” (B-1)

Schools shouldn’t be selling junk food to kids – they should set a good example. (reason to ban soda sales)

"When you have this marketplace of junk and soda everywhere else, it undermines the good habits that parents are trying to instill. Frankly, schools should not make an unhealthy alliance in order to seek profit. That is not the purpose of a school."
CA State Senator Martha Escutia, sponsor of bill to eliminate junk food sales in schools (B-1)

The Purdue University On Line Writing Lab has a number of pages that explain how to paraphrase, cite sources, and complete research papers. See



There are two ways of taking notes on someone else’s work, either quote the source directly or paraphrase it. Paraphrasing is not a play-by-play retelling of everything that happened in a selection and is not just a process of substituting synonyms for the words of the original.

A paraphrase captures a source’s main ideas in your own words yet is more detailed than a summary (see Forms of Writing)
Here are some guidelines for paraphrasing:

  • Only include the essential information

  • State important ideas clearly and concisely

  • Use quotation marks around key words or phrases taken directly from the source

  • Arrange the ideas in a logical order that’s easy for the reader to understand

  • Avoid plagiarism (see below)


According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, “Plagiarism is the act of using another person’s ideas or expressions in your writing without acknowledging the source. The word comes from the Latin word plagiarius (‘kidnapper’)” (21).

Plagiarism includes:

Do I have to cite everything?

Facts, such as dates, that can be found in more than two sources are common knowledge and need not be cited.

  1. cutting and pasting from the internet (or any other source)

  1. copying word-for-word without using quotation marks

  1. lifting particularly apt phrases from the original and including them in your writing without quotation marks

  1. replacing a few words with synonyms but keeping the basic sentence structure (syntax) the same

  1. paraphrasing information but not indicating its source within the text of your paper using parenthetical citations; simply putting a bibliography citation at the end is not enough

Original Passage
The major concerns of Dickenson’s poetry, early and late, her “flood subjects,” may be defined as the seasons and nature, death and a problematic afterlife, the kinds and phases of love, and poetry as the divine art.
Gibson and Williams. The Literary History of the United States. Vol. 1. (906)

Plagiarized Passage

The chief subjects of Emily Dickenson’s poetry include nature and the seasons, death and the afterlife, the types and stages of love, and poetry as the divine art.

Acceptable Use
Gibson and Williams suggest that the chief subjects of Emily Dickenson’s poetry include nature, death, love, and “poetry as the divine art” (901).

Five Ways to Avoid Plagiarism:

  1. Don’t wait until the last minute to do your assignment.

  1. When copying information from original sources, be careful to use quotation marks around direct quotes and include page numbers. This is especially important in the note-taking phase.

  1. Read through the material you are researching and make sure you understand it. Then put it aside and write down the key ideas without looking at it.

  1. Don’t write your paper with the original sources in front of you. Use note cards with paraphrases of source material instead.

  1. Understand what you are trying to say before you start to write.


Outlining helps writers to organize their research and their ideas before and during drafting.

A working outline might start off as a simple list of ideas that are chunked together into groups. This outline should evolve throughout the research and writing process as the researcher discovers new information and narrows/expands the research topic (see example below). Some writers like to create this outline after doing preliminary research, so that they can use key words from their outline as the key words on their notecards.
A formal outline is often required after research has been done and before drafting begins.

This outline usually uses Roman numerals, capital letters, numbers, and lower-case letters to show subordinate ideas (see example below). In addition, parallel structure is required (see parallel structure).

Information is chunked without using Roman numerals
Parallel structure is not necessary.

Working Outline

Things to remember when researching
Don’t plagiarize (give sources credit)

Write sources on notecards

Parenthetical documentation
Thinking before researching

Helps research to go faster

An outline might help with this
Only write down necessary things

Slugs will help me remember

why I thought it was necessary

Formal Outline

Things to remember when researching
I. Think before researching

A. Brainstorm what I want to know

  1. Use efficient search techniques

  2. Develop a working outline

II. Write down only the necessary information

  1. Refer back to my working outline

  2. Use words from my outline as slugs in my notes

  3. Paraphrase when an exact quote isn’t necessary

III. Give sources credit

  1. Source numbers in my notes

  2. Page numbers in my notes

  3. Parenthetical documentation in my paragraphs

What is parallel structure?

A sentence or an outline is parallel if it expresses all the items in a list in the same grammatical form:

Not parallel:

Write sources on notecards

Parenthetical documentation


Write sources on notecards

Use parenthetical documentation

Roman numerals, letters, and numbers are used.
No Roman numeral, letter, or number can stand alone. (You can’t have an A without a B, etc.)

  1. _________

  2. _________

    1. ________

    2. ________

      1. _________

        1. ______

        2. ______

          1. _____

          2. _____

      2. _________

Parallel structure is used within each list.

  • Roman numerals must be parallel (Think, Write, Give)

  • Each list underneath a Roman numeral must be parallel within itself (Refer, Use, Paraphrase)

  • Lists do not need to be parallel with other lists. (II A, B, and C do not need to be parallel with III A, B, and C.)


What is MLA Format?

MLA style has been adopted by the Poway Unified School District and is based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, published by the Modern Language Association (MLA). The term MLA format generally refers to the method of citing outside sources using the MLA style of parenthetical documentation. This term can also refer to MLA manuscript format, or the set-up of your document (heading, title, and page number placement, etc.).
While not the only way to document sources, MLA style is widely used in colleges and generally simpler than other documentation styles (such as APA or Chicago). Once you have learned MLA style, adapting to another style will be simple.
The term MLA format does not refer the content of your document, nor to the method of organization you choose to employ in presenting your information. Your use of evidence (concrete detail) and your explanations of that evidence (commentary) are not governed by MLA format.

MLA Manuscript Format:

See the sample essay at the end of this section for an example of manuscript format.

  • In the MLA style, no separate title page is necessary.

  • On the first page, type your last name and the page number in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top of the page. Continue this pagination for every page of your paper, through your bibliography or work cited section.

  • Type your heading one inch down from the op of the first page, flush with the left margin: Student’s name, teacher’s name, class title and period, date.

  • Double space and center your paper’s title. (Do not underline you title or write it in quotation marks or italics.)

  • Double space the entire paper with one-inch margins on all sides. Generally use a clear, easy-to-read, 12-point font appropriate for business (such as Times New Roman).

Documenting Your Sources in MLA Format:

Preparing a research paper, involves building on the work of previous writers and researchers. When you draw on another’s work – whether facts, opinions, ideas, or quotations – you must credit the author of your source. To give the author credit, simply place the necessary information (usually the author’s last name and the page number) in parentheses after the borrowed words or ideas brief citations will then refer to a list of sources at the end of your paper.

Parenthetical Documentation:

Parenthetical documentation is a way of giving the original source of your information with a brief reference, called a citation, placed in parentheses. In order to avoid disrupting the flow of your writing, place the citation where a pause would naturally occur, usually at the end of a sentence, before the period. At the end of your paper, you will provide a works cited list that gives the full bibliography information for each source cited in your paper. See the sample essay at the end of this section for an examples of parenthetical citation.
Most often you will use simply the author’s last name and the page number:
Benjamin Franklin has been described as “a man who spent his life getting ahead without asking where he was going” (Hodgkins 58).
For a source with two authors, use both last names in your citation:
(Steele and Mayhem 567).
If you give the author in the text of your paper, give only the page number in parentheses:
In his Autobiography Benjamin Franklin lists thirteen virtues he practiced to attain “moral perfection” (135-37).
If two works by the same author appear in your list of works cited, add the title or a shortened version of it to distinguish your sources:

According to one story, the Continental Congress was afraid to let Franklin draft the Declaration of Independence because he might slip a joke into it (Mann, Early Americans 347).

If you cite someone’s words second-hand, give the abbreviation qtd. in (“quoted in”) before the indirect source in your reference. Use this form when the author of the quotation you are using is NOT the author of the text you are citing.
Herman Melville, author of Moby Dick, Made a catalog of Franklin’s roles, beginning “printer, postmaster, almanac maker, essayist, chemist, orator. He was everything,” Melville said, “but a poet” (qtd. in Hodgkins 58).
If you cite an anonymous source alphabetized by title on your works cited page, give the title or a shortened version of it:

Franklin has been identified as America’s first millionaire (“Franklin” 678).

If your source has no page numbers, simply cite the author’s last name or, if it has no author, cite the title (or short title):
(Carlos) or (Guidelines).

Bibliography versus Works Cited:

A working bibliography is the list of books, magazines, and other sources you prepare in the beginning of your library research. Usually you list these intended sources on individual index cards, noting all the information you will later need to make your source page. (See the section Bibliography Cards for more information). Also include the call number of each book and the library where you find each source.

A bibliography is a separate alphabetical list of all the sources you consider in preparing a research project. Some teachers may ask for a full bibliography rather than a works cited page, and a few teachers may ask for both a bibliography and a works cited page. (By high school most teachers will require just a works cited listing.) A bibliography appears on a separate page at the end of your paper. See the section MLA Format for Bibliography entries for the format for each source.
The list of works cited gives only the sources you have actually cited in your paper. Unlike a bibliography, it does not include the sources you may have consulted but did not actually refer to in your paper. Type your list of works cited on a separate page at the end of your paper. See the section MLA Format for Bibliography entries for the format for each source.

MLA Format for Bibliography or Works Cited Page:

See the sample essay at the end of this section for an example of a Works Cited page.

  • Number each page, continuing the numbering from the last page of the text. Type your last name and the page number in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top of the page.

  • Center the title Bibliography or Works Cited one inch down from the top edge of our paper. Double-space after this tile, before the first entry.

  • Type each entry in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If the source has no author, alphabetize by the first word of the entry (the title). (Disregard A, An, The.)

  • Use reverse indentation (also called a “hanging indent”): begin each entry flush with the left margin, but if the entry runs more than one line, indent the successive lines one-half inch (or five spaces).

  • Double-space the entire page (each entry and between entries).


Book Entries

Author(s). Book Title. Trans., Ed. Name of Translator/Editor. City of Publication: Publisher, date.

Book by One Author

Handy, Charles. The Age of Unreason. Boston: Harvard Business School

Press, 1990.

Book by Two or Three Authors

Lawrence, Jerome, and Robert Lee. Inherit the Wind. Toronto: Bantam

Publishing Co., 1955.

Book by More than Three Authors

Hastings, Marie et al. Biogenetics. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press,


Book by a Corporate Author

American Diabetes Association. Living with Diabetes. New York:

Random House, 1994.

An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword

Epstein, E.L. Afterward. Lord of the Flies. By William Golding. N.p:

Putnam, 1954. 185-90. (N.p. indicates “no place of publication given”)

A Translation

Derrida, Jacques. The Gift of Death. Trans. David Wills. Chicago: Univ. of

Chicago Press, 1995.

A Pamphlet

FDA. Check the Date: Dangers of Expired Prescription Drugs. New York:

FDA, 2001.

Entire Edited Anthology or Collection

Wieder, Jason ed. Letters of the Civil War Era. 2 vols. Athens: Univ. of

Georgia Press, 1993.

Article in a Standard (Familiar) Reference Book

“Jordan, Michael.” Who’s Who in America. 48th ed. 1995.

Article, Story, or Essay in an Anthology, Collection, or Reference Book

Author(s). “Article, Story, or Essay Title.” Translator’s Name. Title of

Anthology. Name of the Translator, Editor, or Compiler of the anthology. State: Anthology Publisher, date. page numbers of cited piece.

Toelken, Barre. “Life and Death in the Navajo Coyote Tales.” Trans.

Nicholas Black. Recovering the Word: Essays on Native American Literature. Eds. Brian Swann and Arnold Krupat. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1990. 388-401.
Previously Published Scholarly Article in a Collection (TCLC, CLC, etc.)

Author(s). “Article Title.” Title of Original Publication. [Original publication citation (see above for formats)]. Rpt. in Title of Current Publication. Editor’s Name. [Current publication citation (see above for formats)]. pages.

Shield, Tamara. “Feminist View of Jane Austen.” British Authors 24 (1984):

232-38. Rpt. in Twentieth Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Dennis Poupard. Vol. 25. Detroit: Gale Research, 1988. 399-402.

Periodical Entries

Author(s). “Article Title.” Periodical Title. Date: Inclusive pages.

Magazine Article

Martinez, Rachelle P. “What Can Be Done?” Newsweek 21 Mar. 1988: 57-58.

Newspaper Article

Smith, Bernard. “Earthquake Country.” San Diego Union Tribune 9 Sept.

1996, final ed.: A1+.

Scholarly Journal Article

Author(s). “Article Title.” Periodical Title. Volume # (Year): Inclusive pages.
Draner, Marcena. “Electronic Poetry.” Computers and the Humanities 29

(1992): 416-25.


Author(s). “Article Title.” Encyclopedia Title, edition.
Horst, Joanna. “Ellison, Ralph.” Encyclopedia Britannica, 1992 ed.
“Hansard.” World Book Encyclopedia, 1995 ed.


If no author is given, begin with the title of the page or article, and use a shortened form of the title for parenthetical citations. If any other information is missing (for example, date of last update or revision), simply leave it out and go on to the next item of information.

When citing a print source also found on line, you must first give all the citation information for the print source (see previous examples) and then add the online source information.

Personal Website or Homepage:

Author(s). Home page. Date of Posting/Revision. Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of Access. .
Hylton, Jeremy. Home page. 13 May 2002. .

Professional or Corporate Website:

Author(s). Name of Page. Date of Posting/Revision. Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of Access. .
Gray, Terry. Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet. 6 May 2002. Palomar College. 13 May 2002. .

Article or Page on a Website:

Author(s). “Title of Article or Page.” Name of Web Site. Date of last update or revision. Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of Access. .
Mabillard, Amanda. "Shakespeare of Stratford." Shakespeare Online. 4 April 2002. 13 May 2002. .
“Ranch-Raised Fur: Captive Cruelty.” PETA Factsheets. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). 13 May 2002. .

Article in an Online Magazine:

Author(s). “Title of Article or Page.” Name of Magazine or Journal. Date of publication. Date of Access. .
Huang, Greg and Sage Stossel. “Flashbacks: The Public and Private Worlds of Charles Dickens.” The Atlantic Unbound. 26 April 2002. 13 May 2002. .

Article in an Online Scholarly Journal:

Author(s). “Title of Article or Page.” Name of Magazine or Journal. Volume#:Issue# (Year of publication). Date of Access. .

Rosenthal, Steven R., et al. “Developing New Smallpox Vaccines.” Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). 7:6(2001). 13 May 2002. .

Article in an Online Database or Encyclopedia:

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Name of Database. Date of last update or revision. Date of Access. .
Kastan, David Scott. "Shakespeare, William". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 13 May 2002. .

Article previously published in print from an Online Database (such as Gale Group, Infotrac, SIRS)

Magazine or Newspaper Article:

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Name of Magazine or Newspaper. Day Month Year: Page(s).
Hobson, Katherine. “Mind versus Face.” U.S. News & World Report. 1 April 2002: 61. Gale Group Student Resource Center. 23 May 2002. .
“Bush Presses For Cloning Ban.” Los Angeles Times. 11 April 2002: A-17. Gale Group Student Resource Center. 23 May 2002. .

Scholarly Journal Article:

Author(s). “Title of Article or Page.” Name of Magazine or Journal. Volume#:Issue# (Year of publication). Name of Database. Date of Access. .
Larkin, Marilynn. “St John's Wort not Effective for Major Depression.” The Lancet. 359:9314(2002). Gale Group Resource Center. 23 May 2002. .

Online or listserv posting:

Author(s). “Title of Post or Thread.” Online posting. Date of Post. Name of Bulletin Board or Listserv. Date of Access. .
“Father Lawrence – Tragic Hero.” Online posting. 24 April 2002. Sparks Notes. 13 May 2002. .
Burke, Louise. “Creative Ideas for Romeo and Juliet.” Listserv post. 11 Feb 2000. NCTE-Talk. 13 May 2002. .


Author. “Subject of E-mail.” E-mail to [name of recipient]. Date of e-mail.
Sullivan, Peter. “Re: Homeless Shelters.” E-mail to the author. 7 April 2002.


Author(s). Name of Text. City: Publisher, Year. Name of Web Site. Date of last update or revision. Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of Access. .
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 13 May 2002. .
Poe, E.A. “The Fall of the House of Usher.” The Short-Story: Specimens Illustrating Its Development. Ed. Brander Matthews. New York: American Book Company, 1907. 2000. 13 May 2002. .


Author, if given. “Title of article.” Title of CD-ROM. Edition, release, or version. Publication medium (CD-ROM, diskette). City of publication: Publisher’s name, year of publication.
Moulton, Gary E. “Lewis, Meriwether.” Information Finder. 1995. CD-ROM. Chicago: World Book, 1995.


Film, radio, or TV program:

“Title of the Episode or Segment.” Narrator. Writer. Producer. Title of the Program or Series. Name of the network. Call letters and city of the local station. Broadcast date.
The First Americans. Narr. Hugh Downs. Writ. and prod. Craig Haffner. NBC News Special. KNSD, San Diego. 6 April 1994.

Audio recording:

Author or performer. “Title of Song.” Title of Recording. Performance group, conductor and soloists (classical recordings).Publisher or Record Label, Year.
Lennon, John and Paul McCartney. “Come Together.” Abbey Road. EMI Records, 1987.
Handel, Georg Friedrich. Suite No. 1 F Major. Water Music Concerto Grosso Op. 3 No. 3. London Festival Orchestra. Cond. Ross Pople. Arte Nova, 1995.
Film or video recording:

Title. Director. Performers. Format (Videocassette, DVD). Studio or Publisher, Year.
Gone with the Wind. Dir. David O. Selznick. Perf. Clark Gable, Vivien Leigh, Leslie Howard, Olivia de Haviland. DVD. MGM, 1939.
Work of art:

Artist. Title of Artwork. Name of Museum, City.

DaVinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. The Louvre, Paris.
Interview (conducted by you):

Name of person interviewed. Type of interview (Personal Interview, Telephone Interview). Day Month Year.

Gates, Bill. Telephone Interview. 4 Dec. 1999.
Lecture or speech:

Speaker’s name. “Title of Speech” (or use a label such as Lecture, Address, or Speech). Occasion name or Conference Title. Location, City. Day Month Year.

Sanchez, Jill. “The Jazz Age.” Class lecture. Rancho Bernardo High School, San Diego. 19 Nov. 1996.


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