Topic sentences with transitions, a case study……………………………………………………………………………………….p. 13
My writing, a checklist……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………p. 14
Index of They Say/ I Say Templates………………………………………………………………………………………………………..p. 15
What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing? From Purdue.owl: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/
Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. Remember that quoting should be done only sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when you decide to do so.
Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.
Using summaries and quotations from outside sources: Good verb choices to introduce the outside source.From They Say, I Say
The Quote Sandwich: 3 Steps (from They Say /I Say p. 43-44)
Steps 1 and 2: Introduce Source and Give Quotation
X states, “……………………..”
According to X, “……………………..”
In X’s view, “……………………..”
X agrees when he/she writes, “……………………..”
In his/ her article, X writes, “……………………..”
As the prominent philosopher X puts it, “……………………..”
In the New York Times, X urges that, “……………………..”
Step 3: Explain/analyze quotations (44)
Basically, X is saying ………………………………
In other words, X believes ………………………………
In making this comment, X argues that ………………………………
X is insisting that ………………………………
X’s point is ………………………………
The essence of X’s argument is ……………………………
…Transitional Phrases: From About.com- (http://grammar.about.com/od/developingparagraphs/a/cohsignals.htm)
The website, About.com, in an article titled “Coherence Strategies- Using Transitional Words and Phrases” makes the case that a “strong paragraph is more than just a collection of loose sentences. Those sentences need to be clearly connected so that readers can follow along, recognizing how one detail leads to the next.” The following phrases help to make for a unified collection of thoughts:
1. Addition Transitions:
first, second, third
in the first place, in the second place, in the third place
to begin with, next, finally
2. Cause-Effect Transitions:
as a result
for this reason
3. Comparison Transitions:
by the same token
in like manner
in the same way
in similar fashion
4. Contrast Transitions:
on the contrary
on the other hand
5. Conclusion and Summary Transitions:
on the whole
6. Example Transitions:
as an example
7. Insistence Transitions:
8. Place Transitions:
on top of
to the left
to the right
9. Restatement Transitions:
in other words
in simpler terms
to put it differently
10. Time Transitions:
at the same time
in the future
in the meantime
in the past
5. Follow the steps below for proper MLA format: Step 1. Double-space the entire essay: Format/Paragraph/Double/Okay
Step 2. Change the margins to one inch: File/Page Set-Up/Left 1.0 Right 1.0/ Okay
Step 3. Insert Headers: View/Header and Footer/Align Right/ Type Last Name/ Space/ Click on # in bar/Close
Step 4. In the upper left hand corner type: Student Name/Enter, Teacher Name/Enter, Class Name/Enter, Date/Enter (08 October 2008)
Step 5. Center and then type the title of the paper/Enter: Do not underline, bold, italicize, put in quotation marks, etc.
Step 6. Align Left/Tab once to indent the paragraph and begin typing the paper. Subsequent paragraphs need to be indented as well.
It is also important to remember:
1) In-text citations require a note in parentheses to identify the source of each passage or idea you use. The author’s last name and the page number of the source “are separated by a single typed space” (Smith 42). Electronic sources with no author are cited by the title of the article (“Writing for Fun”). Punctuation follows the parentheses in short quotes or paraphrases.
2) Sources mentioned in the paper must be included in the Works Cited page. At the conclusion of the essay space down until a clean/new page appears. Center Works Cited at the top of the page: do not underline, bold, italicize, etc. Then Enter/Align Left. Alphabetize sources based on the author’s last name. If there is no author, alphabetize based on the title of the article. The second line of an entry needs to be indented five spaces (tab).
6. Basic In-Text Citation Information
The Rule Above All Rules: All work cited in the Works Cited should be found in your text. Conversely, all work cited in your text should be found in the Works Cited.
In MLA style, in-text citations, called parenthetical citations, are used to document any external sources used within a document (unless the material cited is considered general knowledge). The parenthetical citations direct readers to the full bibliographic citations listed in the Works Cited, located at the end of the document.
Use of Authors' Names- Always mention the author's name—either in the text itself or in the parenthetical citation—unless no author is provided. See the guidelines below on how to cite sources without an author. .
If the author's name is mentioned in the text introducing the source material, then cite the page number(s) in parentheses. (If it is an electronic source, you may omit the page number IF it is not provided.)Example: Miller argues that "it's a good idea to lurk (i.e., read all the messages without contributing anything) for a few weeks, to ensure that you don't break any of the rules of netiquette" (7) when joining a listserv.
If the author's name is NOT mentioned in the text introducing the source material, then include the author's last name in the parenthetical citation before the page number(s). Note that no comma appears between the author's name and the page number(s). Example: The modern world requires both the ability to concentrate on one thing and the ability to attend to more than one thing at a time: "Ideally, each individual would cultivate a repertoire of styles of attention, appropriate to different situations, and would learn how to embed activities and types of attention one within another" (Miller 97).
If the book, article, journal, webpage, etc. does not have an author,then the title of the book, article, journal, webpage, etc. needs to be mentioned- either in the text itself or in parenthetical citation. Example: “Many people think of plagiarism as copying another's work, or borrowing someone else's original ideas” (“Plagiarism in the Digital Age”).
*Place a citation as close to the quoted or paraphrased material as possible without disrupting the sentence. Parenthetical citations usually appear after the final quotation mark and before the period.
*An exception occurs, however, in quotes of four or more lines since these quotes are presented as block quotes: that is, they are indented and use no quotation marks. In such cases, the parenthetical citation goes after the period.
*A good rule to remember is that whatever (author’s name, title of article on a web page, name of the webpage, etc.) is cited in parentheses in the essay needs to be the first piece of information given for that source on the Works Cited page.
7. A discussion on how to use direct and indirect citations with examples, not comprehensive. 1) When you have to introduce a lot of factual information in a paragraph, one way is to incorporate the source into your topic sentence and to use markers. Also, when you cite the author and the article title directly, it makes your writing more rhetorically effective.
Example 1.1: Colin Moynihan describes in his article, “Cold Case DNA Unit Links Rikers Inmate to ‘86 Murder,” the story of a young lady’s horrendous death. He reports that November 10th, 1986 was a cool, damp day. A day which Miss Antoinette Bennett thought would be a literal walk in the park, or to be more specific, St. Nicholas Park in Harlem. Unbeknownst to her, someone else had other plans. Bennett was attacked, raped, and stabbed in the face until she died. She was left there, lying dead in the park for anyone to find. The corpse spent all night in the park until a group of workers found the body. Soon the police were called and came to investigate the murder. Moynihan asserts that after the examination of the crime scene and the body was concluded, the strongest piece of evidence found was on Miss Bennett’s body. But wait-this was 1986. DNA testing was not around back then. Instead of analyzing the DNA to find the murderer, it was collected and sat on a shelf for 26 years while the case ran cold. All that time Miss Bennett’s rapist and killer was allowed to walk free.
*Notes on example 1.1:
a) In the second sentence, “He” marks the author.
b) There is a marker in the 9th sentence, what is it?
Example 1.2: Eric Lichtblau’s article, “Obama Backers Tied to Lobbies Raise Millions,” details a circumstance in which lobbyists supported a particular candidate through heavy donations to his campaign.
*Notes on example 1.2:
a) The word “article” is the subject of the sentence, and the article title is cited directly.
b) The use of capital letters in the article title, the quotes around the article title, and where the comma is placed—inside the quotes.
c) The word “details” is the verb in the sentence.
Example 1.3: Thomas Spulak, author of the article, “Citizens United Ruling Can Enhance a Corporation’s Lobbying Efforts,” explains that lobbyists’ projects are not currently regulated by their companies’ shareholders because the process takes too much time.
*Notes on example 1.3:
a) The subject of the sentence is ….
b) Write the article title, underline the capital letters, circle the small letters, and put a triangle around where the comma is in relation to the quote.
c) The verb in this sentence is…
2) Be careful not to over use direct citations. Sometimes, indirect citations, or parenthetical reference, are fine as well.
Example 2.1: Not surprisingly, drugstores and pharmacists were behind the push to kill the legislation in Congress (Pear).
*Note on example 2.1, there are no quotes, so I can assume that the words used in this sentence are the student author’s words.
Example 2.2: Even though their “products kill more people than AIDS, alcohol, crack, cocaine, heroin, suicide, fires and automobile accidents combined,” tobacco companies still forcefully promote their products (Godshall).
*Note in example 2.2, the words, “products kill more people than AIDS, alcohol, crack, cocaine, heroin, suicide, fires and automobile accidents combined” have quotes around them because they are not the student author’s words. Also, note that we know where these words come from, Godshall.
Example 2.3: After being accused of illegally bribing foreign companies in Mexico, Wal-Mart lobbied for the amendment of the anti-bribery laws that they were supposedly breaking (Hamburger, Dennis, and Yang).
*Note in example 2.3 that the article has three authors and that there are no direct citations nor direct quotes.
3) If you have a specific number, there is a 99% chance that you are going to need a citation.
Example 3.1: In 2009, gasoline and oil companies set a record by spending $154 million on lobbying that year (Mulkern).
*Note from example 3.1: Where does the information that $154 million was spent on lobbying in 2009 come from?
4) When dealing with a quote within a quote, or outside information within a source, it can be tricky. Note these two examples.
Example 4.1: Batcho, a psychologist in New York, assumes that with social media “‘kids are not learning how to behave in a face-to-face conversation,’”; he posits that “‘what could be happening in cyberspace may not translate well to real life’” (Graham). Although Batcho creates a powerful argument, his views on social media causing antisocial behavior are misguided.
*Note in example 4.1 that Batchco is the one making the statement, but that this quote comes from an article written by Graham.
Example 4.2: The Supreme Court case Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission sparked uproar from a divided nation when “the court eliminated the distinction between individual and corporate political speech and opened the door for corporations to spend unlimited funds to expressly advocate the election or defeat of federal candidates” (Spulak)
*Note that in example 4.2, both the information about the court case, Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, as well as the quote, “the court eliminated the distinction between ….,” comes from an article written by Spulak.
8) More Quote Integration Examples…
Throughout his experience at Reardan, Junior became increasingly more aware that “there is power to which refers to ability, capacity and connotes a kind of freedom and there is power over which refers to domination” (Trites).
There are different kinds of power. There is power “in which people have ‘power to’ do good [and] ‘power over’ other people to dominate them” (6).
Contrastingly, Junior’s relationship with Rowdy did not allow him to “reckon with both [his] sense of individual power and [his] recognition of the social forces that require [him] to modify [his] behaviors” (6).
In the piece “From Convention to Insurgency,” author Gwen Tarbox confirms that, “Ignorance is safety, believing children would be kept from harm if kept from knowledge.”
He not only loses him though, Rowdy starts to hate him, and the level of hatred is defined when Junior announced, “I mean, you have to love somebody that much to hate them that much too” (191).
However, when he saw his mother’s name inside, he realized that he “was staring at a geometry book that was at least thirty years older than [he] was” (31).
Junior argued that the “[kids from Reardan] were magnificent. They knew everything. And they were beautiful… They were beautiful and smart and epic. They were filled with hope” (50).
When describing the Reardan boys who bullied him, Junior says, “I was a reservation Indian, and no matter how geeky and weak I appeared to be, I was still a potential killer. So mostly they called me names. Lots of names” (?).
When Mr. P and Junior have a heart to heart discussion, Mr. P confesses he was trained to teach Indian children in a way that would “kill the Indian to save the child” (35) and “the only thing you kids are being taught is to give up” (43). *Note this example is not syntactically clear. The “you” takes the sentence out of the third person into the 2nd person. A bracket is needed.