-Exchanges:plants,disease,animals -Commerce and Trade
-Technology and Innovations
Peopling:Migration and Settlement -Labor systems
-Movementto,from,withinthe U.S. -Transportation
-Nativism -Land Distribution
HistoricalArgumentation:Historical thinking involves the ability to create an argument and support it using relevant historical evidence.
AnalyzingEvidence:Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, select, and evaluate relevant evidence about the past from diverse sources (including written documents, works of art, archaeological artifacts, oral traditions, and other primary sources) and draw conclusions about their relevance to different historical issues.
HistoricalCausation:Historical thinking involves the ability to identify, analyze, and evaluate the relationships among historical causes and effects, distinguishing between those that are long term and proximate. Historical thinking also involves the ability to distinguish between causation and correlation, and an awareness of contingency, the way that historical events result from a complex variety of factors that come together in unpredictable ways and often have unanticipated consequences.
PatternsofContinuityandChangeOverTime:Historical thinking involves the ability to recognize, analyze, and evaluate the dynamics of historical continuity and change over periods of time of varying length, as well as the ability to relate these patterns to larger historical processes or themes.
Periodization:Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, analyze, and evaluate different ways that historians divide history into discrete and definable periods. Historians construct and debate different, sometimes competing models of periodization; the choice of specific turning points or starting and ending dates might accord a higher value to one narrative, region, or group than to another.
CompareandContrast:Historical thinking involves the ability to identify, compare, and evaluate multiple perspectives on a given historical event in order to draw conclusions about that event. It also involves the ability to describe, compare, and evaluate multiple historical developments within one society, one or more developments across or between different societies, and in various chronological and geographical contexts.
Interpretation:Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, analyze, and evaluate the different ways historians interpret the past. This includes understanding the various types of questions historians ask, as well as considering how the particular circumstances and contexts in which individual historians work and write shape their interpretations of past events and historical evidence.
Contextualization:Historical thinking involves the ability to connect historical events and processes to specific circumstances of time and place as well as broader regional, national, or global processes.
Synthesis:Historical thinking involves the ability to develop understanding of the past by making meaningful and persuasive historical and/or cross-disciplinary connections between a given historical issue and other historical contexts, periods, themes, or disciplines.
TheBigFourArchetypes of APUSH Essays
Example prompt: Evaluate the major causes which led to the development of a Second Industrial Revolution.
Step One: Organize the causes around three Themes or Categories.
Step Three: Within the body of your essay, you must address why these were the causes of the topic under investigation.
Category #1 *
Category #3 *
Sample Essay Prompts:
Evaluate the political, economic, and social reactions of Americans to the end of Reconstruction (1877).
Explain how intellectual and religious movements impacted the development of colonial North America from 1607 to 1776.
Evaluate the causes and consequences of the growing opposition to slavery in the United States from 1776 to 1856.
NOTE: You will probably ONLY be asked to write on either cause or effect, NOT both.
HistoricalContinuity and Change Over Time:CCOT
Example prompt: Evaluate the extent to which US foreign policy goals contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostered change from the end of WWI (1918) to the end of the Korean War (1953).
Step One: Label start and stop dates on timeline.
Step Two: Identify significant events (5-7) on the timeline, related to the topic.
Step Three: Determine whether there was MORE continuity or change within the period.
Step Four: Select three of the most significant of the events. Make sure you maintain the 2/1 ratio (e.g., if you are arguing there were more continuities, then you need 2 examples of that, for 1 change, or vice versa).
Step Five: Within the body of your essay, you must address why there were continuities and changes.
E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7
Sample Essay Prompts:
Evaluate the extent to which the goals of Reconstruction (1865 – 1877) regarding African Americans were achieved by 1900. Be sure to address both continuities as well as changes during this time period.
Evaluate the extent to which the goals of conservatives contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostered change from the 1950s through the 1980s.
Evaluate the extent to which American foreign policy contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostered change with regard to United States involvement in world affairs from 1796 to 1823.
HistoricalComparison(Compare and Contrast):CC
Example prompt: Compare and contrast the decades of the 1920s and the 1950s.
Step One: Bisect your Venn diagram in half and organize the similarities and differences around two Themes or Categories (connect to the
Step Two: Determine whether there are more similarities or differences between the two concepts of the topic.
Step Three: Within the body of your essay, you must address why there are similarities and differences.
Topic / Category #1
Topic / Category #2
Sample Essay Prompts:
Compare and contrast domestic and foreign policy goals of conservatives in the 1950’s with conservatives in the 1980’s.
Compare and contrast reactions of Americans to immigration in the 1840s-1850s with immigration in the 1910s-1920s.
Compare and contrast goals and strategies of African American leaders in the 1890s-1920s with the goals and strategies of African American leaders in the 1950s-1960s.
NOTE: You will probably NOT be given the categories, but sometimes you might.
Periodization (Turning Point): TP
Example prompt: Evaluate the extent to which the French and Indian War was a Turning Point with regard to American and British relations.
Step One: Bisect your T-Chart in half and organize the boxes around two Themes or Categories (connect to the Learning Objectives).
Step Two: Determine whether there is more evidence to support that it was (Y) or was not (N) a Turning Point.
Evaluate the extent to which the Mexican American War was a Turning Point with regard to the expansion of slavery.
The Declaration of Independence was a Turning Point in American History. Support, Modify, or Refute this statement.
NOTE: Limit your time frame before and after the event to 20 years. So for the FIW, 1754 to 1763 (only consider 1734 – 1783).
TheThesisStatement– WhatIs It? TheThesisFormula:
NOTE: These are not necessarily stand-alone sentences, they are concepts. ‘X’representsthestrongestpointagainstyourargument.Wecallthisthecounter-argument (it does not have to be a counter-argument, it can qualify as well).
‘A’ and ‘B’ represent the two strongest points for your arguments. We call these your organization categories.
‘Y’ represents the position you will be taking – in other words, your stand on the prompt.
Levelsof Specificityin the Thesis Statement–HowMuch DoISay? Howmuchspecificitytoincludeinthe thesis statementshouldbeabalancingact. Ontheonehand,you don’twanttobetoogeneral(LevelThreeGeneralization),butontheotherhandyoudon’twanttobetoospecific(LevelOneSpecification).Letthemknowwhere youaregoing,butdon’tgiveawayallyourinformation.Wewantthereadertokeepreading!WewillcalltherightamountofspecificityLevelTwoSpecificity. Considerthefollowingprompt: Identify and evaluate the causes which led to the American Revolution. LevelThreeThesis(notenough):The economic factors were very harsh on the Americans. However, the political and social conditions were much more strenuous on the Americans. Therefore, while economic factors were important, political and social factors were more important in bringing about the American Revolution. LevelTwoThesis(justright):Thetaxes which were implemented following the French and Indian War were viewed by Americans as harsh and unfair leading to anger and frustration. However, it was the denial of basic political rights along with a beefed up presence in enforcing policies which had long been ignored which gave rise to a new sentiment within the American conscience. Therefore, while economic factors like taxes were important, political and social factors were more important in bringing about the American Revolution. LevelOneThesis(toomuch):The Stamp Act, Tea Act, and Intolerable Acts were very harsh on the Americans which led to great anger and frustration. However, “no taxation without representation,” the Admiralty Courts, enforcement of the Navigation Act to counter piracy and smuggling, the Quartering Act, and the Boston Massacre, were important factors which caused more stress on the Americans. Therefore, while economic factors were important, political and social factors were more important in bringing about the American Revolution.
PuttingItAllTogether–WhatAre theX,A, B,andY’s?
Identifies the causes / effects, the reasons for those causes / effects, and determines which was greater. X=leastimportantcauseoreffect,why A & B = most important causes or effects, why, organized by categories Y=yourassertionstatement
Identifies the historical continuities and changes, the reasons for continuities and changes, and determines which was greater.
X=continuityorchange = yourcounter-argument
A & B=continuityorchangeduringthespecifiedtimeperiod,organized around the events Y=yourassertionstatement
Identifies similarities and differences, the reasons for similarities and differences, and determines whether there are more similarities or differences. X=moresimilarordifferent = yourcounter-argument A & B=similaritiesordifferencesbetweenthetwothings,why, organized by categories Y=yourassertionstatement
Identify reasons for and against it being a Turning Point AND the extent to which it was or was not a TP. X=counterargument,whysomethingwasorwasnotaturningpoint A & B=argument,whysomethingwasaturningpoint, organized by categories Y=yourassertionstatement
Howto USE theDocumentsintheDBQ:
ThemostunsophisticatedwaytoreferenceadocumentinaDBQessayistodothefollowing,“Accordingto‘Document1’blah,blah,blah.”“Document1says this,document2saysthis...etc.”Instead,youshouldshowthereaderthatyouunderstandthedocumentsand more importantly you understand the content of the document and employed it properly within theargumentofyour paper.DONOTquotethedocuments.Inordertogetfullcredit(2points)fordocumentusageontheDBQ,youmustbeHIPPandyoumustuseALLof the documents.Documentusageinthe DBQwillinclude(atleastoneofthelevelsofanalysismustbeemployed):
H: historical context; I: intended audience; P: purpose; P: point of view.
Itwouldlooklike:“The ClaytonAntitrustActwaspassedunderWilson’sadministrationwhenprogressivesweredesperatelyseekinghelpinenforcinganti-trustlegislationunderarelativelyinefficientShermanAntitrustAct.Thepurposewastogivesomeenforcementpoweroveranti-trustlegislationtothefederalgovernment, even though the actual usage of the law was used against labor unions. (Doc 1)”
Howto Bring in Outside Information intheDBQ?
Evidence BEYOND the Documents equals one point on the DBQ rubric. The example must be different from the evidence used to earn other points on the rubric. The point is not awarded for merely a phrase or reference. Responses need to reference an additional piece of specific evidence and explain how that evidence supports or qualifies the argument. This is not simply name dropping, you cannot just rattle off a list of proper nouns expecting to receive outside information credit. You also cannot give context to a document and expect to get outside information credit, this is a much larger element. This is bringing in something, not found in the documents, which is used to help support your overall argument. It does NOT have to be a separate paragraph, it can be used to support either your X or A/B (preferred) paragraphs, but needs to be a substantial contribution to the overall argument. Substantial contribution = 3 or 4 solid sentences, which add to the main point you are making. As with other parts of the DBQ, you will also reference this at the end of the usage in a parenthetical reference. (outside information)
The required references in the DBQ essay are as follows: (contextualization), (thesis), (documents), (outside information), and (synthesis).
Contextualization (Broader Context) – the Opening Paragraph (first 3-4 sentences)
C3 - Situate historical events, developments, or processes within the broader regional, national, or global context in which they occurred in order to draw conclusions about their relative significance.
#1: Situate the topic of the essay within the broad historical context of the time, then #2: draw a conclusion about the topic, why was this event so significant? What led up to this event under investigation and what were the larger issues going on during it.
Britain as a World Power
Social Contract Theory John Locke
Rebellion American Revolution Civic Virtue
Natural Rights Republicanism
Americans Asserting Authority
Example: “The broad context to which the American Revolution was a small part of, concerned the attempts of the British Empire to maintain control over its colonies. This power struggle would determine the fate of the British, and indeed, other European countries, as a leading world power. Both their financial and political institutions required the existence of these satellite colonies, taxes and raw materials were necessary requirements to maintain their position in the world. The need to maintain control over its colonies was an essential element to maintaining that world status, thus the American Revolution was not simply a minor rebellion within a tiny colony, but a much larger revolution which would lead ultimately to the downfall of the greatest nation in the world and would give birth to the next great world power.” (contextualization)
Synthesis (Other Context) – the Concluding Paragraph
C4 - Make connections between a given historical issue and related developments in a different historical context, geographical area, period, or era, including the present.
Similar in Kind, but at a Different Time: Ask yourself, what other period (SKDT) makes sense to compare it to? Think of it in terms of what would make sense on a Venn diagram? Would you compare the French Indian War to the passage of the 15th Amendment? No. The American Revolution? Yes. Would you compare the Market Revolution to the Publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin? No. The 2nd Industrial Revolution? Yes. Once you find a good period, MAKE TWO SOLID CONNECTIONS (NOT vague generalizations).
Uncle Tom’s Cabin You begin the synthesis point of the essay with the following. “The [topic of essay] can be compared to the earlier / later period of [synthesis topic] in two ways…” Then establish 2 common connections between the two periods.
Example: “The American Revolution can be compared to South Carolina and in general Southern Cession prior to the U.S. Civil War in two ways. First, both groups saw themselves fighting for what they perceived as injustices from a tyrannical government. Southerners viewed the injustices of the Northern government in the same light as the Americans viewed the British, so much so, they utilized many of the same points of the Declaration of Independence. Second, both groups invoked the Lockean social contract theory, which allowed the throwing off any government when it failed to meet the needs of its citizens as a natural right.” (synthesis)