Write an introductory paragraph after analyzing the documents



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  • Write an introductory paragraph after analyzing the documents:
  • What factors indicate that the recent victory in the French and Indian War appear to foreshadow the difficult times ahead in British and Colonial relations?
  • Introductory paragraph as if you were writing a DBQ or Free Response Essay: Needs to have the following components….
  • Opening statement
  • Rephrasing the question
  • Opinion
  • Introduce your arguments
  • As the American Revolution saw its first shots fired between the Americans and the British at Lexington, it is unclear which side actually fired the shot. The emotions of the times seem to indicate that a conflict and the possibility of war was inevitable. The question of who fired the first shot is unclear based on the propaganda, eyewitness accounts and the biases on both sides. There is no doubt that this shot heard around the world led to the eventual downfall of British rule and the creation of the United States.
  • Do you see the following components in this introductory paragraph?
  • Opening statement
  • Summarize the question
  • Opinion
  • Arguments
  • Early settlers disliked England
  • America’s isolation and distance
  • Weakened England’s authority
    • Produced rugged and independent people
    • Allowed Colonies to govern themselves (made their own laws and taxes)
    • Produced a new civilization and culture “American”
  • AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • 1607 TO 1789
  • Revolution in Thought 1607 to 1763
  • Taxation without Representation
  • Colonial blood shed by British
  • Battle of Lexington and Concord
  • Declaration of Independence
  • War and Separation from Great Britain
  • Writing of the US Constitution
  • The New Nation
  • AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • 1607 to 1789
  • Revolution in Action
  • 1763 to 1789

notes7

  • 1. Taxation differences.
  • 2. England’s Colonial Policies
  • 3. Colonial responses to British laws….
  • 4. Parliament’s response.
  • 5. Boston Massacre----March of 1770
  • 6. Boston Tea Party---Dec. 1773
  • 7. British response
  • 8. Colonial response to the Intolerable Acts
  • Battles of Lexington and Concord---April 19, 1775
  • 10. 2nd Continental Congress
  • REVOLUTION IN ACTION
  • 7. Colonial response to the Intolerable Acts
    • Moderates vs. Radicals
      • Negotiate but Militias prepare for war
  • 8. Battles of Lexington and Concord---April 19, 1775
    • British attempt to “search and seize” stolen weapons.
    • First shots of the Revolution in Action
  • 9. British and Colonial responses:
  • King George declared colonies in rebellion
  • 2nd Continental Congress---May 10, 1775
    • Organized the first Continental Army
    • Appointed George Washington as General
  • Pass a series of tax laws and have the Colonists help pay back the debt.
  • Pass a law restricting Colonists from moving westward into and settling the Northwest Territory.
  • Keep British troops in North America to stop Indian attacks and protect the Colonies.
  • Stop the smuggling of Colonials by enforcing the Navigation Acts with a series of unrestricted search warrants.
  • England's Solutions
  • Was 1763
  • a "turning point"
  • in British-colonial
  • relationships???

George

  • “Once vigorous measures appear to be the only means left of bringing the Americans to a due submission to the mother country, the colonies will submit.”
  • King of England.
  • Instrumental in ending the French and Indian War in 1763.
  • Strong supporter of taxing the colonies to pay for the debt.
  • He opposed any compromise with the colonial government in America.
  • After loosing of the colonies, he withdrew his efforts at personal government and went insane.
  • King George III (1738-1820)
  • Real Whigs
  • Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies??
  • Absolute?
  • OR Limited?
  • Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body??
  • Theories of Representation

Tax w/out rep

  • The 13 Colonies were represented under the principle of “virtual” representation.
  • It did not matter if the Colonists did not elect members from each colony to represent them in the British Parliament.
  • Not all citizens in Britain were represented either.
  • The British Parliament pledged to represent every person in Britain and the empire
  • Americans resented “virtual” representation.
  • Colonists governed themselves since the early settlers.
  • They had direct representation by electing colonial assembly members to represent their interests.
  • Colonists were not opposed to paying taxes because the Colonies taxed their citizens.
  • If the British Parliament was to tax them, they should be able to elect a representative from their colony to represent their interests in Parliament.
  • Great Britain vs. The Colonies
  • Virtual Representation Actual Representation
  • If you have the power to tax, you have the power to take all their wealth from them.
  • If there is no check upon the people who posses the “power to tax” then they have the power to destroy.
  • Colonists wanted an “actual” representative elected from them to address their concerns to Parliament.
  • The Power to Tax is the Power to Destroy
  • If a politician wants to have power he needs votes of the people that elect him.
  • He has to live among those people so he will not use his power to destroy them,
  • Or, the people may in turn vote him out of power or worse destroy him.
  • Man’s nature is greedy. Therefore, he cannot be trusted with unchecked power.
  • Absolute power corrupts, absolutely.
  • The Power to Tax is the Power to Destroy
  • Br. Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling:
  • James Otis’ case
  • Protection of a citizen’s private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute.
  • He lost  parliamentary law and custom had equal weight.
  • Rethinking Their Empire
  • George Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765
  • Writs of Assistance - 1761
  • Proclamation Line – 1763
  • Sugar Act – 1764
  • Currency Act – 1764
  • Quartering Act – 1765
  • Stamp Act - 1765
  • Northwest Territory
  • Proclamation Line of 1763: Colonists were not allowed into the Northwest Territory
    • Colonists defied order— American Dream
  • Writs of Assistance: unrestricted British search warrants to stop Colonial smuggling……
    • Continued to smuggle
  • Quartering Act: 1763: Colonists were to house and feed British soldiers.
    • Colonial resentment-why are soldiers here?
  • The Sugar Act 1764: First law passed by Parliament to raise tax revenue from colonies
    • Increased duty on imported sugar (molasses) from West Indies
    • Duties lowered after bitter colonial protests
  • Colonial Resistance
  • Currency Act: 1763: Had to use British, French and Spanish Coins
    • Colonists buying more than could sell under Mercantile policies, so chronic shortage of hard currency
    • What did colonists use for currency besides coins? Barter
    • On the eve of revolution, colonies issue paper money of dubious value
    • British merchants view paper $$$, “worthless”
    • Parliament eventually bans, which is one more grievance of colonists
  • Colonial Resistance
  • Americans saw new laws as a strike against local liberties and against the basic rights that all Englishmen were entitled to.
  • Some colonial legislatures did not fully comply with the Quartering Act
  • The Sugar Act and Stamp Act allowed
    • For offenders tried in British military courts, without juries, where defendants were assumed guilty unless they could prove otherwise
    • Violations of principles held dearly by British (and British colonists in America)
  • Colonial Resistance

Stamp Tax

  • The Hated Stamp Tax
  • Tax on legal documents, playing cards, newspapers, etc.
  • A direct tax which went to the British government.
  • Paid for debt and British troops in the Colonies.
  • Colonists hated the Stamp Tax = “taxation without representation
  • British tax collectors were tarred and feathered…..
  • Stamp Act protests led by the Sons of Liberty…..

Stamp Tax

  • The Hated Stamp Tax
  • Boycotts: Colonists refused to trade or buy British goods until Stamp Act was repealed.
  • Protests: Led by the Sons of Liberty up and down the colonies from 1765 to 1766.
  • Committees of Correspondence: Colonies kept in contact with one another and described British actions through letters exchanged by carriers on horseback.
  • Colonial Resistance
  •                              
  •                              
  •                           
  • “If our trade be taxed, why not our lands, or produce, in short, everything we possess? They tax us without having legal representation.” Samuel Adams
  • Sons of Liberty was a secret society formed in protest of British rule.
  • They had a large role in the repeal of the Stamp Act and the Boston Tea Party.
  • 9 original members which included the leaders Samuel Adams and Paul Revere
  • Patriots or Terrorists
  • Samuel Adams
  • Paul Revere
  • Britishlaws
  • STAMP ACT PROTESTS
  • Stamp Act Protests: 1765 to 1766
  • Between 1765 to 1766, the Sons of Liberty led over 40 protests up and down the colonial coastline.
  • Most of the protests are located in the Middle Colonies up through the New England Colonies.
  • Successful in forcing the British Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act.
  • Costs of Colonial Resistance
  • British Parliament
  • Stamp Act of 1765
  • Parliament repeals Stamp Act.
  • Declaratory Act, 1766
  • declared Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures. 
  • 1767  William Pitt, P. M. & Charles Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer.
  • Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops  paying col. govt. salaries.
  • He diverted revenue collection from internal to external trade.
  • Tax these imports  paper, paint, lead, glass, tea.
  • Increase custom officials at American ports  established a Board of Customs in Boston.
  • Townshend Duties Crisis: 1767-1770
  • 1. John Dickinson  1768 * Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania.
  • 2. 1768  2nd non-importation movement: * “Daughters of Liberty” * spinning bees
  • 3. Riots against customs agents: * John Hancock’s ship, the Liberty. * 4000 British troops sent to Boston.
  • Colonial Response to the Townshend Duties
  • "patriots!"
  • For the first time,
  • many colonists began calling people
  • who joined the non-importation
  • movement,

Britishlaws

  • Townshend Acts, 1767---Another series of revenue measures which taxed items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint.
  • Tea Act, East India Company---The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
  • BRITISH RESTRICTIVE POLICIES

Britishlaws

  • Tea Act, East India Company---The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea.
    • Made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
  • BRITISH RESTRICTIVE POLICIES

notes1

  • England’s Relationship to Colonies 1607 to 1763
  • To benefit England
    • Trade policy: Navigation Act
  • Colonies practice “democracy”
  • 2. French / Indian War 1756 to 1763
  • British victory = claimed most of North America
  • 3. England’s problems after war
  • Debt
  • Stop Colonial smuggling
  • England’s solutions
    • Tax Colonies = pay debt.
    • Enforce Navigation Act
  • AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • King George III
  • British Parliament

notes5

  • 4. England enforces tax policies
    • Stamp Act 1765

notes5

  • 4. England enforces tax policies
    • Stamp Act 1765
  • 5.“No taxation without representation”
  • Colonies oppose-----Why?
  • Proclamation Line of 1763 Colonists were not allowed into the Northwest Territory
    • Colonists defied order— American Dream
  • Writs of Assistance---1763---unrestricted British search warrants to stop Colonial smuggling……
    • Continued to smuggle
  • Quartering Act---1763---Sent British soldiers to Colonies and Colonists were to house and feed British soldiers.
    • Colonial resentment-why are soldiers here?
  • BRITISH RESTRICTIVE POLICIES

notes5

  • 4. England enforces tax policies
    • Stamp Act 1765
  • 5.“No taxation without representation”
  • Colonies oppose-----Why?
  • 6. Colonists defy British laws….

notes5

  • 4. England enforces tax policies
    • Stamp Act 1765
  • 5.“No taxation without representation”
  • Colonies oppose-----Why?
  • 6. Colonists defy British laws….
  • Radical organizations
    • Sons of Liberty
  • For the first time,
  • many colonists began calling people
  • who joined the boycott
  • movement,
  • "patriots!"

notes5

  • 4. England enforces tax policies
    • Stamp Act 1765
  • 5.“No taxation without representation”
  • Colonies oppose-----Why?
  • 6. Colonists defy British laws….
  • Radical organizations
  • Repeal means revoke, cancel or take away. The British Parliament canceled the Stamp Act.

notes5

  • 4. England enforces tax policies
    • Stamp Act 1765
  • 5.“No taxation without representation”
  • Colonies oppose-----Why?
  • 6. Colonists defy British laws….
  • Radical organizations
    • Sons of Liberty
    • Force British to repeal Stamp Act
  • 7. Boston Massacre----March of 1770
  • BOSTON MASSACRE
  • 1768—1770, British soldiers arrived in Boston, MA to maintain order and enforce the taxes the colonists were asked to pay after the French and Indian.
  • The people of Boston resented the British soldiers and considered them a foreign presence.
  • 1770
  • BOSTON MASSACRE
  • High tensions between British and Bostonians over enforcing British policies.
  • March 1770, the British shed Colonial blood for first time blood.
  • The relationship between the Colonies and England would never improve
  • Used as propaganda to convince people of the colonial cause.
  • Boston Mass.
  • Boston Mass.

Boston Mass

  • An eyewitness account "An unruly gang of civilians (colonists), to the amount of thirty or forty, mostly boys and many of them drunk, left a local tavern and saw a regiment of British soldiers. The gang assembled ... near the sentry at the Custom-house door, began taunting the British, calling them names and throwing snow balls, along with horse manure and ice balls ... I saw a party of soldiers come from the main guard, and draw themselves up ... the people still continued in
  • BOSTON MASSACRE

Boston Mass

  • An eyewitness account the street, crying, 'Fire, fire, and be damned,' and threw more snow balls. British Captain Preston could not control the crowd as they taunted the soldiers. He ordered his troops "Don’t fire!" but with the commotion I heard the word 'fire' given ... and instantly the soldiers fired one after another." The troops fired and killed three men instantly; another two died later. The first man to die was Crispus Attucks, a black man. “
  • BOSTON MASSACRE

Boston Mass.

  • When the smoke and confusion cleared, five Bostonians were dead or dying. John Adams, a lawyer (and future President), helped win acquittal for six of the soldiers, but his cousin, Sam Adams, a patriot leader, called the incident a "plot to massacre the inhabitants of Boston" and was used to rouse fellow colonists to rebel.
  • BOSTON MASSACRE
  • Boston Mass.
  • The 5 Colonists killed at the Boston Massacre would become martyrs for the Colonial cause
  • They would be buried in the same cemeteries as Paul Revere and Samuel Adams.
  • British soldiers were tried in court and 2 were found guilty of manslaughter.
  • Boston Mass.
  • October 1, 1768: British regulars arrived in Boston, MA to maintain order and enforce the taxes the colonists were asked to pay after the French and Indian War, such as the Townshend Acts.
  • The people of Boston resented the British soldiers and considered them a foreign presence. They taunted them and prevented them from carrying out their duties.
  • March 5, 1770: The Twenty-Ninth Regiment came to the relief of the soldiers on duty at the Customs House. They were met by an unruly gang of civilians, many of them drunk after having left a local tavern.
  • It was dark, and the crowd threw snowballs, ice balls, horse manure, and anything else lying on the street at the soldiers. The crowd also taunted the soldiers by yelling and calling them names.
  • Captain Preston could not control the crowd as they taunted the soldiers. He ordered his troops "Don’t fire!" but with the commotion the troops fired and killed three men instantly; another two died later. The first man to die was Crispus Attucks, a black man.
  • This was not a massacre in the sense that a lot of people died -- only five died.
  • The funerals of the dead were great patriotic demonstrations.
  • Preston and six of his men were acquitted (Robert Treat Paine as Prosecutor, and John Adams and Josiah Quincy as defense lawyers), but two of his men were found guilty of manslaughter, punished, and discharged from the army.
  • The event and the propaganda surrounding it helped lead to the Revolutionary War.

The Gaspee Incident

  • In 1772 the customs ship the Gaspee ran aground off of Rhode Island. The Gaspee was a ship that collected cargo for technical violations of the Sugar Act. The Gaspee crew had been known to steal and harass colonist.
  • More than one hundred colonist burned the Gaspee to the waterline.
  • The British launched an investigation and colonial and English tension ran higher.
  • The British had ordered that any suspects be tried in England. No suspects were found by the commission. However, to try a person without a local jury is a violation of basic English Rights.

notes5

  • 4. England enforces tax policies
    • Stamp Act 1765
  • 5.“No taxation without representation”
  • Colonies oppose-----Why?
  • 6. Colonists defy British laws….
  • Radical organizations
    • Sons of Liberty
    • Force British to repeal Stamp Act
  • 7. Boston Massacre----March of 1770
  • 8. Boston Tea Party----Dec. 1773
  • BOSTON TEA PARTY
  • Tea Act, East India Company
    • Made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
    • The Colonists had to buy tea from the East India Tea Company----gave them a monopoly
  • Colonists claimed it was “taxation without representation”
  • Sons of Liberty protested against the Tea Act in Dec. 1773 by dumping 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor

Boston Tea Party

  • To the British, the Boston Tea Party represented a crucial change in the relationship with the Colonies, an act of defiance.
  • The Colonists refusal to buy tea from the British and dumping it overboard was a “gesture” to the British that the Colonists were saying, “you can take your tea and stuff it where the sun doesn’t shine”.
  • BOSTON TEA PARTY

Britishlaws

  • Tea Act, East India Company
  • The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
  • BRITISH RESTRICTIVE POLICIES

notes7

  • 9. British response
  • Intolerable Acts---1774

Boston Tea Party

  • Closed the port of Boston from Colonial trade and placed Massachusetts under martial law until Colonists paid for the tea.
  • Colonists referred to these as the “Intolerable Acts”
  • COERCIVE ACTS
  • Exports & Imports: 1768-1783
  • The Intolerable Act closed the port of Boston from Colonial trade and placed Massachusetts under martial law.

notes7

  • 9. British response
  • Intolerable Acts---1774
  • 8. Colonial response
  • Moderates Radicals Ben Franklin Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson Paul Revere John Adams Samuel Adams
  •                           
  • 1ST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
  • Moderates argue with Radicals whether or not to go to war.
  • Representatives send a document “Declaration of Rights and Grievances” in 1774 to King George and Parliament
  • In the meantime, Congress ordered militias to prepare for war.
  • DOI-2
  • Colonies send their representatives to Philadelphia to form a Congress in response to the Intolerable Acts in 1774
  • Main goal was to try and negotiate with King George and Parliament
  •                           
  • 1ST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
  • DOI-2
  • notes8
  • Moderates Radicals Ben Franklin Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson Paul Revere John Adams Samuel Adams
  • Do we go to war with Great Britain?

PHenry

  • Patrick Henry (1736-1799) Revolutionary War orator, radical and statesman. In a speech urging armed resistance against the British. Speech was given in March of 1775.
  • Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death
  • There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come.
  • It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace -- but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms!

PHenry

  • Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God!          I know not what course others may take but as for me:
  • “Give me liberty or give me death”.
  • Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death

notes7

  • 9. British response
  • Intolerable Acts---1774
  • 10. Colonial response
    • Olive Branch Petition
  • Moderates Radicals Ben Franklin Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson Paul Revere John Adams Samuel Adams

notes7

  • 9. British response
  • Intolerable Acts---1774
  • 10. Colonial response
    • Olive Branch Petition
    • Minutemen prepare for war
  • Moderates Radicals Ben Franklin Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson Paul Revere John Adams Samuel Adams
  • BRITISH TROOP DEPLOYMENT
  • 1770

Troops2

  • BRITISH TROOP DEPLOYMENT
  • After the Boston Tea Party the British send more troops to enforce the Intolerable Acts.
  • Colonial militias prepare for war.

notes7

  • 9. British response
  • Intolerable Acts---1774
  • 10. Colonial response
    • Olive Branch Petition
    • Minutemen prepare for war
  • 11. Battles of Lexington and Concord
  • April 19, 1775
  • Moderates Radicals Ben Franklin Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson Paul Revere John Adams Samuel Adams

Lexington

  • British attempt to “search and seize” stolen weapons.
  • First shots of the Revolution in Action
  • British searching for stolen weapons– “search and seizure
  • Stopped at Lexington and encountered 56 Minutemen
  • Minutemen stood up for what they believed was their land
  • SHOT HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD
  • BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
  • British Captain Pitcarin orders Minutemen off the green.
  • Response by the Minutemen, “this is our green
  • Controversy over who fired the first shot
  • BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
  • Americans
  • 90 dead wounded or captured British
  • 250 dead, wounded, or captured
  • Minutemen engage British troops at Concord Bridge.
  • British find some weapons at Concord.
  • British return to Boston, 5,000 Minutemen attack British troops.
  • BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
  • BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
  • BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
  • Americans used “guerilla warfare” tactics----”hit and run”.
  • Learned this from the Indians during the French and Indian War.
  • British used Europeans tactics and not familiar with the “hit and run” tactics of the Americans.
  • Stone wall used by Americans during British return to Boston

notes8

  • 12. King George declared colonies in rebellion
  • Sends troops called Hessians
  • 13. Colonial response
  • 2nd Continental Congress---May 10, 1775

DOI-2

  •                           
  • 2nd CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
  • Organized first American army called the Continental Army and appointed George Washington as our Commanding General.
  • Willing to stay part of the empire but King must “redress our grievances”
  • Congress prepares for war…….
  • Came together again after the battles of Lexington and Concord, May 10, 1775.
  • OLIVE BRANCH PETITION
  • Colonial leaders met in Philadelphia, PA to discuss their options in response to the Intolerable Acts.
  • The decision was to negotiate with King George III and send him a declaration of their willingness to remain British.
  • BUT, they have grievances (problems) which they want the King and Parliament to address.
  • AND, they instructed the local militias in each town to begin preparing for war with the MINUTEMEN!
  • OUR FIRST GENERAL
  • Who would be our first commanding general?
  • 2nd Continental Congress based their decision on the following:
    • Political
    • Economic
    • Military
    • Social
  • vs
  • George Washington
  • John Hancock
  • George Washington was chosen based on his qualifications.
  • CONTINENTAL ARMY
  • First US Army made up of volunteers, militias and Minutemen.
  • George Washington chosen as the first Commanding General.
  • Not an army of professionals but mostly farmers.
  • Lacked the discipline of a professional army at first….
  • Lacked resources, men weren’t paid and some quit after the first few battles.
  • 2nd Continental Congress lacked $$$$ to supply army…


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