World War II

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World War II

  • W.47 Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers and explain the major battles of the Pacific and European theaters of war including the blitzkrieg, Dunkirk, Battle of Britain, Stalingrad, Normandy, Midway, Battle of the Bulge, Iwo Jima, and island hopping.

State Standard W.47 A. Identify the location of the Allied and Axis Powers

  • At the bottom of the map of Europe, label it “European Theater”
  • At the bottom of the map of Asia, label it “Pacific Theater”
  • Use the map on pp. 524-525 to label the following countries:
    • Hearts: U.S., Soviet Union, United Kingdom
    • Clubs: Germany, Italy, Japan
    • Diamonds: China, France

State Standard W.47 A. Identify the location of the Allied and Axis Powers

  • Share you findings with the others in your group. Everyone should have all eight countries labeled.
  • Use the text on p. 348 to determine whether each country was part of the Allied Powers or Axis Powers. If they are Allies, color them blue. If they are Axis Powers, color them red. Use background knowledge to determine France’s alliance (think democracy). Use the text on p.343 to determine China’s alliance.

Map Assessment

  • In which two theaters was World War II fought?
  • Which triumvirate made up the bulk of the Axis Powers?
  • Which quintet made up the bulk of the Allied Powers?
  • True or False: These eight were the only countries involved in World War II.

World War II

    • W. 45 Compare the German, Italian, and Japanese drives to expand their empires in the 1930s, including atrocities in China, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, German militarism, and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939.
  • German expansion and treaty violations by Hitler
  • Italy’s expansion into Ethiopia and subsequent pact with Germany
  • Further expansion by Germany and more treaty violations by Hitler
  • Japanese expansion into China

B. What was Hitler’s motivation for German expansion and what was the outcome?

  • Motivation:
    • To seek out more land to support the growing Aryan race - Lebensraum.
    • Hitler believed this land would be in the Soviet Union.
    • The Slavic people of the U.S.S.R. would then be used as slave labor so that Aryans could dominate Europe for “a thousand years”.

B. What was Hitler’s motivation for German expansion and what was the outcome?

  • In order to accomplish his goal, Hitler must first do what?
  • Militarize
  • In order to militarize, Hitler must break what treaty?
  • The Treaty of Versailles
  • Notes: In 1935, Hitler announced establishment of a new air force and begins conscription. Military size increases to 550,000.

B. What was Hitler’s motivation for German expansion and what was the outcome?

  • Outcome:
  • Hitler poses as a man of peace, only fighting to reverse “unfair provisions” and for “Germany’s rightful place among European states”.
  • France and Great Britain condemned Germany’s actions, but were distracted by their own internal problems caused by the Great Depression.
  • Hitler, knowing France and Great Britain were not going to use force to uphold the Treaty of Versailles, occupied the Rhineland (demilitarized zone).
  • Great Britain begins practice of appeasement.

B. What was Hitler’s motivation for German expansion and what was the outcome?

  • Appeasement: satisfying reasonable demands by dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
  • France had the right to use force against Germany, but would not do so without the British.
  • Since the Rhineland was territory of Germany, the British didn’t view the mobilization as an act of war.
  • London Times: The Germans “were only going into their own back garden”.

WWII Begins Quiz

  • Describe Hitler’s motivation for German expansion.
  • In order to accomplish his goal, Hitler had to do what first?
  • What was the name of the treaty signed after WWI that Hitler viewed as “unfair” and sought to reverse?
  • What was the term used to describe the Rhineland?
  • What was the British response to Germany’s mobilization into the Rhineland?
  • Define appeasement.
  • Why were the British so willing to “appease” the Germans?

C. Describe why Germany and Italy formed an alliance.

  • After taking power, Mussolini sought to create a new Roman Empire.
  • In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia.
  • Mussolini became angered by French and British opposition to the invasion and welcomed Hitler’s support.
  • In 1936, both sent troops to aid the Spanish government in their civil war.
  • This alliance became known as the Rome-Berlin Axis.

Miscellaneous Information

  • In 1936, Germany also formed an alliance with Japan called the Anti-Comintern Pact. Both sought to fight against Communist ideas.
  • In 1938, Hitler threatened to invade Austria if they did not allow the Nazi party to have control of the government (Anschluss).
  • In return, Hitler would send German troops to “help” put down any revolt. One day later, Hitler annexed Austria to Germany.

Daily Assignment/Bell Work: (put in daily assignments)

  • Describe Mussolini’s reasoning for attacking Ethiopia?
  • Explain why Great Britain and France were upset with Italy’s actions.
  • What was the purpose of the League of Nations?

D. After forming the initial alliances, how did Hitler further expand German control?

  • Hitler’s next goal was obtaining the Sudetenland, an area in Czechoslovakia inhabited largely by Germans.
  • Hitler was willing to risk world war to obtain this land.
  • Height of Western appeasement to Hitler: the West gave in and met all of Hitler’s demands, allowing him to occupy Sudetenland.
  • Hitler now felt more than ever, that the West would not use military force.

D. After forming the initial alliances, how did Hitler further expand German control?

  • The Munich Conference was the high point of Western Appeasement of Hitler (September 1938).
  • Hitler promised no more expansion or demands.
  • Chamberlain: “peace for our time”
  • Churchill: “a disaster of the first magnitude”
  • Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia in March, 1939, and then turned his attention to Poland.

Article: Neville Chamberlain vs. Winston Churchill.

  • State Standard W.49 Utilize primary and secondary sources to describe the contributions and roles of leaders during the war, including Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito, Hideki Tōjō, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Harry Truman, Douglas MacArthur, and Dwight Eisenhower.
  • E. Compare and contrast the views of Neville Chamberlain and Winston Churchill.

F. How did Hitler’s threat against Poland immediately spark WWII?

  • Upon hearing the news, Great Britain immediately offers to aid Poland in the event of war.
  • However, France and Great Britain know that the Soviet Union is the only nation powerful enough to contain Nazi aggression, and the three begin military negotiations.
  • Still sure that the West would not use force, but fearful of an alliance (and two-front war), Hitler coerces Stalin to sign the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact.

G. Identify the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact.

  • The pact stated that neither country would attack the other. However, Hitler new that war with the Soviets was inevitable, he was simply trying to prolong it.
  • In return, Hitler promised Stalin eastern Poland.
  • On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland.
  • Two days later, Great Britain and France declared war against Germany.

Daily Assignment

  • Choose one of the following two:
  • Essay: How did Chamberlain’s and Churchill’s views toward Hitler differ? How might the outcome of war be different if Churchill was Prime Minister of Great Britain? What might Churchill have done differently. Give specific details based on events that occurred.
  • Essay: Identify which countries that Hitler invaded without intervention from the West. Why was the West so hesitant to intervene? What was Hitler’s short term and long term intentions for signing the Nazi-Soviet Pact? Based on what you have learned about Hitler, do you think that Hitler thought the West would retaliate once he invaded Poland? Explain citing evidence discussed in class.

H. How did Japan become involved in WWII? Sub: Why did Japan seek expansion?

  • In 1931, Japanese soldiers dressed as Chinese soldiers attacked the Manchurian Railway in a Japanese territory of China.
  • Reason: to give the Japanese government an excuse to attack and obtain more land within northern China and Mongolia and further imperialism (resources).
  • Outcome: The League of Nations conduct an investigation, finding the Japanese guilty. Japan withdraws from League.

H. How did Japan become involved in WWII? Sub: How did the Chinese-Japanese conflict change perceptions of Japan?

  • The Chinese government appeases Japan and allows them control of areas in north China.
  • Why: They were dealing with a larger threat: the communist movement.
  • Outcome: Japan begins to push for control further south.
  • Chinese response: to again commit more troops to fend off Japan.
  • Japanese response: Rape of Nanjing: Japanese soldiers massacre more than 100,000 citizens.

Rape of Nanjing

  • The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (then spelled Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
  • Perhaps the most notorious atrocity was a killing contest between two Japanese officers. The contest — a race between the two officers to see which could kill 100 people first using only a sword — was covered much like a sporting event. Some have later said this was fiction.

H. How did Japan become involved in WWII? Sub: How did Japanese imperialism hinder Japanese-U.S. relations?

  • In response to Nanjing, the U.S. offers goods and resources to the Chinese.
  • Japan then turns to Siberia for resources (Nazi-Soviet Pact caused issues) and the South Pacific to further imperialize for raw materials (for militarization).
  • U.S. response: the U.S. threatened with economic sanctions (eventually cutting off 90%).

H. How did Japan become involved in WWII?

  • Oil, rubber, and scrap iron. Where would Japan seek them?
  • Instead of choosing, Japan chooses to attempt forcing the West out of the Pacific (1940), forming an alliance with Germany and Italy.
  • December 7, 1941 – Pearl Harbor

Graded Quiz

  • 1. Describe why Japan attacked and destroyed part of the Manchurian railway (what was their motive?).
  • 2. Identify the “Rape of Nanjing” and describe how it changed Western perception of Japan.
  • 3. Upon relations between the U.S. and Japan being hindered, where did Japan turn to for resources?
  • 4. Who controlled most of the islands of the South Pacific and southern China?
  • 5. What was Japan’s response to the economic sanctions levied against them (alliance) and who becomes their biggest rival?
  • 6. Opinion: What if the United States was not involved economically with Japan? Would the U.S. have entered WWII? Why or why not?

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