Which statement is generally not true



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Exam

Name___________________________________





MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)



Which statement is generally NOT true?

1)


_______

A)



Microbial cells exclude the cells of plants and animals.

B)



Microbial cells carry out their life processes of growth independently.

C)



Microbial cells exist as single cells.

D)



Microbial cells include both bacteria and viruses.


2)



Basic microbiology can be used to

2)


_______

A)



study characteristics of cells of multicellular organisms.

B)



model our understanding of cellular processes in multicellular organisms, including humans.

C)



probe the fundamental processes of life.

D)



do all of the above.


3)



Applied microbiology deals with important practical problems in

3)


_______

A)



industry.

B)


medicine.

C)


agriculture.

D)


all of the above.


4)



The largest mass of living material on Earth comes from

4)


_______

A)



plants and animals together.

B)


animals.

C)



microorganisms.

D)


plants.


5)



Differential selection and reproduction of phenotypes occurs during a process called

5)


_______

A)



transformation.

B)


growth.

C)



cellular differentiation.

D)


evolution.


6)



In what/which domain(s) of life is/are microorganisms represented?

6)


_______

A)



Archaea

B)


Eukarya

C)


Bacteria

D)


all of the above


7)



A specific molecule, used especially by evolutionary biologists, that is unique to a particular taxonomical group is called a

7)


_______

A)



biomarker.

B)


metabolic tracer.

C)



taxon.

D)


genome.


8)



Protein catalysts involved in the acceleration of the rate of chemical reactions are called

8)


_______

A)



catalytic converters.

B)


evolutionary molecules.

C)



growth agents.

D)


enzymes.


9)



Regarding early life on Earth,

9)


_______

A)



microbial life, plant life, and animal life all appeared at about the same time.

B)



microbial life existed for billions of years before plant and animal life.

C)



microbial life existed long before animals but has been around for about the same amount of time as plants.

D)



it is impossible to determine which type of life first appeared.


10)



Most prokaryotic cells reside

10)


______

A)



in the oceanic and terrestrial subsurfaces.

B)



in lakes, rivers, and oceans.

C)



on Earth's surface.

D)



in and on nonprokaryotic organisms (including humans and other animals).


11)



The person who described the "wee animalcules" was

11)


______

A)



Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.

B)


Ferdinand Cohn.

C)



Louis Pasteur.

D)


Robert Hooke.


12)



Fannie Hesse is credited with giving ________ the idea to use agar as a solidifying agent.

12)


______

A)



Robert Koch

B)


Louis Pasteur

C)



Ferdinand Cohn

D)


Sergei Winogradsky


13)



Which of the following is/are characteristic of cellular organisms?

13)


______

A)



regeneration and reproduction

B)


metabolism

C)



communication

D)


all of the above


14)



Which of the following is NOT a major ecosystem?

14)


______

A)



other organisms, such as plants and animals

B)



aquatic

C)



atmospheric

D)



terrestrial


15)



Which statement is TRUE?

15)


______

A)



Habitats are assemblages of microbial communities.

B)



Populations are assemblages of habitats.

C)



Populations are assemblages of microbial communities.

D)



Microbial communities are assemblages of populations.


16)



Louis Pasteur developed the vaccine(s) for

16)


______

A)



anthrax.

B)


rabies.

C)


fowl cholera.

D)


all of the above.


17)



The discovery of antibiotics and other important chemicals led to the field of

17)


______

A)



industrial microbiology.

B)


marine microbiology.

C)



agricultural microbiology.

D)


aquatic microbiology.


18)



Microbial sterilization is used to

18)


______

A)



clean a work area.

B)



decrease the possibility of contaminants growing in a culture.

C)



kill all microbes in or on objects.

D)



kill bacteria but not necessarily viruses or other microbes.


19)



Transparent double-sided dishes used for growing microbes are most commonly called

19)


______

A)



culture medium plates.

B)


sterilization plates.

C)



Petri dishes.

D)


baker dishes.


20)



Microbes playing a role in nitrogen fixation in plants live in ________, while those playing a role in the digestive tract of certain herbivores live in ________.

20)


______

A)



rumens / nodules

B)


fortrans / rumens

C)



nodules / rumens

D)


nodules / fortrans


21)



Which of the following is NOT an accomplishment of Louis Pasteur?

21)


______

A)



developed heat sterilization techniques that involved the creation of a specialized swan-necked flask

B)



developed enrichment culture techniques

C)



determined that the alcohol-making process was mediated by microbial fermentation and thus refuted the theory of spontaneous generation

D)



developed the first rabies vaccine and treated thousands of individuals


22)



The theory of spontaneous generation was refuted by the work of

22)


______

A)



Robert Koch.

B)


Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.

C)



Robert Hooke.

D)


Louis Pasteur.


23)



A Pasteur flask has a(n)

23)


______

A)



double neck so two substances may be added at the same time.

B)



inverted upper edge to prevent spillage while swirling.

C)



swan neck to prevent particulate matter from getting into the main body of the flask.

D)



secondary opening at the base to allow for drainage.


24)



Robert Koch's greatest accomplishment in the field of medical bacteriology was with

24)


______

A)



Escherichia coli.

B)


Bacillus cereus.

C)



Bacillus subtilis.

D)


Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


25)



A pure culture

25)


______

A)



was cultured for a certified stock culture.

B)



is made of a clearly defined chemical medium.

C)



is sterile.

D)



is a population of identical cells.


26)



Martinus Beijerinck was the first to isolate

26)


______

A)



certain sulfate-reducing bacteria.

B)



certain nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria.

C)



green algae.

D)



all of the above.


27)



Chemolithotrophy involves

27)


______

A)



oxidation of inorganic compounds.

B)


metabolic autotrophy.

C)



reduction of organic compounds.

D)


oxidation of organic compounds.


28)



Developments in the fields of immunology and medical microbiology were practical extensions of the work of

28)


______

A)



Joseph Lister.

B)


Robert Koch.

C)



Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.

D)


Sergei Winogradsky.


29)



Microbial control in wastewaters would most logically be a part of

29)


______

A)



aquatic microbiology.

B)


microbial genetics.

C)



microbial technology.

D)


bacterial energetics.


30)



Robert Koch contributed to the field of microbiology by being the first person to

30)


______

A)



use agar as a solidifying agent in growth media.

B)



develop the tuberculin test.

C)



formulate four postulates for definitively linking a specific microorganism to a specific disease.

D)



all of the above.


31)



The science of grouping and classifying microorganisms is known as

31)


______

A)



microbial systematics.

B)


metabolomics.

C)



microbial physiology.

D)


proteomics.


32)



Mycobacterium tuberculosis is very difficult to stain because of the

32)


______

A)



location of the DNA within the cell.

B)



presence of ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

C)



large amounts of a waxy lipid present in its cell wall.

D)



lack of a cell wall.


33)



Louis Pasteur's most famous success was his work on

33)


______

A)



the rabies vaccine.

B)


Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

C)



optical isomers.

D)


fermentation in the winemaking process.


34)



Microorganisms play key roles in the cycling of important nutrients in plant nutrition, particularly those of

34)


______

A)



nitrogen.

B)


carbon.

C)



sulfur.

D)


carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.


35)



Microbial ecology is the study of

35)


______

A)



microorganisms in their natural environments.

B)



microbial processes in the soil that benefit plant growth.

C)



the diversity and activities of marine microorganisms.

D)



the grouping and classifying of microorganisms.


36)



The structure that confers structural strength on the cell is known as the

36)


______

A)



cell wall.

B)


ribosome.

C)



cytoplasm.

D)


cytoplasmic membrane.


37)



Which part of the human body does not contain a significant normal microbial flora?

37)


______

A)



stomach

B)


oral cavity

C)


skin

D)


large intestine


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

38)



Without microorganisms, all higher life forms on Earth would cease to exist.

38)


______


39)



Most microorganisms are pathogenic.

39)


______


40)



All microorganisms require molecular oxygen to carry on life functions.

40)


______


41)



Metabolism is common to all cellular organisms.

41)


______


42)



According to our present understanding, each of the major domains has what is known as its own universal ancestor.

42)


______


43)



Microbiology as a distinct science did not develop until the eighteenth century.

43)


______


44)



The environment in which a microbial population lives is its habitat.

44)


______


45)



Differentiation occurs only in multicellular organisms.

45)


______


46)



The discipline of microbiology is intimately associated with biochemistry and genetics, because cells are both biochemical catalysts and genetic coding devices.

46)


______


47)



Smallpox is a major killer in parts of the developing world.

47)


______


48)



Sergei Winogradsky worked with bacteria involved in cycling nitrogen and sulfur.

48)


______


49)



Treponema pallidum, a bacterium associated with syphilis, is not considered a pathogen because to date it remains unculturable in the lab, and, therefore, Koch's postulates are unable to be fulfilled.

49)


______


50)



Marine microorganisms likely control many important global parameters, including climate and atmospheric chemistry.

50)


______


SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

51)



A microbial cell's membrane is considered ________, because its internal constituents are maintained within the cell, however it also imports and exports other molecules in response to its environment.

51)


_____________


52)



Some microorganisms can undergo ________ in which various cell types can become specialized and arise from one parent cell type.

52)


_____________


53)



Cyanobacteria and purple bacteria both obtain energy from light, however only the ________ are capable of releasing ________.

53)


_____________


54)



The process whereby microorganisms are used to help clean up pollution created by human activities is known as ________.

54)


_____________


55)



An ecosystem could be defined as ________ along with their ________.

55)


_____________


56)



Robert Koch received the 1905 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for ________.

56)


_____________


57)



The three major bioenergy products of microorganisms are ________, ________, and ________.

57)


_____________


58)



Microbial biochemistry involves the discovery of ________ and the ________.

58)


_____________


59)



DNA sequencing to study organisms' entire nucleotide sequences initially brought about the field of ________, which has itself spawned the subdisciplines of ________ and ________ that represent more functional-based approaches.

59)


_____________


60)



The ________ is the fundamental unit of life.

60)


_____________


61)



The disease anthrax is caused by the pathogenic bacterium ________, which produces heat-resistant structures known as ________.

61)


_____________


62)



Groups of cells derived from a single parent cell by successive cell divisions are known as ________ and which live in environments known as ________.

62)


_____________


63)



The first documented description of a microorganism was of a ________ by ________.

63)


_____________


64)



________ produced by microbial fermentation of glucose from sugarcane or cornstarch is becoming a more important component of biofuels in the United States, and specialized ________ microbiologists are needed to make this a commercially available product.

64)


_____________


65)



________ was the first to describe microorganisms, while ________ was the first person to see bacteria.

65)


_____________


66)



A population of identical cells is known as a(n) ________.

66)


_____________


67)



________ described the first virus and the basic principles of virology.

67)


_____________


68)



The discoveries of Martinus Beijerinck and Sergei Winogradsky led to practical advances in the field of ________.

68)


_____________


69)



Bioremediation ________ by introducing pollutant-consuming microorganisms or specific nutrients that help microorganisms degrade pollutants.

69)


_____________


70)



________ was the first to identify a new form of autotrophy in which energy is obtained from oxidizing inorganic compounds called ________.

70)


_____________


ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

71)



Explain the nature and function of an enrichment culture.


72)



Why is it incorrect to say that an object is partially sterile?


73)



Microbes were first formally observed during the mid-1600s, but the cell theory was not enunciated until 1839. Write a brief essay explaining why microbiology did not become a formally recognized science until Louis Pasteur's and Robert Koch's time.


74)



List three contributions of Ferdinand Cohn to the development of microbiology.


75)



Compare and contrast the works of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch in terms of both applied and basic science.


76)



Explain why microbial cells are excellent models for understanding cell function in higher organisms.


77)



Compare and contrast the leading causes of death in 1900 with the leading causes of death today. What roles have microbiologists played in the dramatic changes that are evident?


78)



Explain how you would use Robert Koch's postulates to determine that Streptococcus pyogenes is the causative agent of streptococcal pharyngitis ("strep throat").


79)



The text states that antibiotics are derived from microorganisms. What is the benefit to an antibiotic-producing microorganism of producing an antibiotic in its natural habitat?


80)



Describe beneficial and harmful ways in which microorganisms interact with agricultural crops.


81)



Provide evidence supporting the statement that an ecosystem is controlled by microbial activities.


82)



Explain why only anaerobic bacteria inhabited Earth for the first two billion years of its existence.


83)



How would the presence of endospores in Louis Pasteur's nutrient solutions have affected his conclusions about spontaneous generation?


84)



Using specific examples, explain why it is sometimes impossible to satisfy Robert Koch's postulates.


85)



Explain why infectious diseases are much less lethal in developed countries than in underdeveloped countries.


86)



Describe two capabilities of microbes that exemplify their dynamic nature.


87)



Compare and contrast the functions microbes serve in the digestive systems of both humans and rumens (e.g., cattle).

1)

D


2)



D

3)



D

4)



C

5)



D

6)



D

7)



A

8)



D

9)



B

10)



A

11)



A

12)



A

13)



D

14)



C

15)



D

16)



D

17)



A

18)



C

19)



C

20)



C

21)



B

22)



D

23)



C

24)



D

25)



D

26)



D

27)



A

28)



B

29)



A

30)



D

31)



A

32)



C

33)



A

34)



D

35)



A

36)



A

37)



A

38)



TRUE

39)



FALSE

40)



FALSE

41)



TRUE

42)



FALSE

43)



FALSE

44)



TRUE

45)



FALSE

46)



TRUE

47)



FALSE

48)



TRUE

49)



FALSE

50)



FALSE

51)



semi-permeable

52)



cellular differentiation

53)



cyanobacteria / oxygen

54)



bioremediation

55)



living organisms (biotic) / chemical and physical environments (abiotic)

56)



his contributions on tuberculosis

57)



biodiesel / methane / ethanol (any order)

58)



microbial enzymes / chemical reactions they perform

59)



genomics / proteomics / metabolomics (second and third in either order)

60)



cell

61)



Bacillus anthracis / endospores

62)



(microbial) populations / (microbial) habitats

63)



mold / Robert Hooke

64)



Ethanol / industrial

65)



Robert Hooke / Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

66)



pure culture

67)



Martinus Beijerinck

68)



agricultural microbiology

69)



accelerates the natural cleanup process

70)



Sergei Winogradsky / chemolithotrophy

71)



Answers will vary, but an enrichment culture uses media, chemicals, or culture conditions to select for or enhance specific characteristics of an organism.

72)



Answers will vary, but sterile means the absence of living organisms. Something is either sterile or it is not.

73)



Answers will vary, but a theme should be the lack of powerful microscopy tools.

74)



Answers could possibly include: founding bacteriology as a separate science, studying Beggiatoa, discovering the genus Bacillus (along with its endospore formation and its life cycle), devising methods to prevent contamination, and founding a major scientific journal.

75)



Answers will vary, but should highlight the differences between basic scientific research in which fundamental ideas are discovered opposed to the usage of microbiological principles to solve larger questions. Examples of Pasteur's basic science contributions are his work showing that fermentation was mediated by microorganisms and the preferential metabolism of particular optical isomers by microbes. Pasteur also applied his ideas to develop sterilization techniques. Robert Koch focused more on the application of microbiology to identify the cause of tuberculosis by developing pure culturing techniques and the four postulates to link microbes to a disease.

76)



Answers will vary but should include commonality of function, biochemical and genetic similarities, and ease and speed with which they can be grown in large quantities.

77)



Answers will vary, but a focus should be that pathogens that killed people in the early 1900s are now treatable due to knowledge learned from microbiologists.

78)



Answers will vary but will need to detail how S. pyogenes will be subjected to all four postulates.

79)



Answers will vary, but it must first be stated the antibiotic-producing microbe would need to be resistant to the antibiotic. This should then follow into a discussion on how antibiotic production could be viewed as a way to persist in the environment, such as maintaining dominance in a community over others.

80)



Certain microbes are beneficial to crops when they produce nutrients (e.g., NH4+, SO42-) usable by a crop from a substrate that was unusable. Other microbes can cause diseases in plants, much like pathogens cause disease in humans.

81)



Answers will vary, but one example could be oxygen depletion, where a loss of oxygen would then favor anaerobic microorganisms.

82)



Answers will vary, but the key idea is an anoxic environment will not allow aerobic organisms to survive.

83)



Answers will vary, but ultimately this could have confounded Pasteur if the endospores sometimes went into a vegetative growth phase and other times no growth was observed.

84)



Answers will vary, but one issue is the consideration for a model animal host that will react to the (human) pathogen in the same manner as in a human host. For example, a chicken would not show flu-like symptoms when infected with the influenza virus.

85)



Answers will vary but should emphasize ways in which increased knowledge about microbial pathogenesis has influenced preventative care (e.g., sanitation) and treatment (e.g., antimicrobial drugs).

86)



Answers could possibly include cell-cell communication, ability to move (motility), and exchange of materials (any two).

87)



Answers will vary but should focus on humans having a high cell localized density in the colon (large intestine), whereas rumens have higher microbial populations in the rumen.



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