What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?



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The Resource Packet

  1. What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?...................................................p. 2



  1. Using summaries and quotations from outside sources: Verb choices to introduce the outside source………...p. 2



  1. The Quote Sandwich: 3 Steps…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…p. 2



  1. Transitional Phrases…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...p. 3



  1. General MLA Guidelines and Proper Steps for Formatting………………………………………………………………………….p. 4-5



  1. Works Cited Examples………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………….…p.6



  1. MLA Outline Tips………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….p. 7






  1. What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing? (from Purdue.owl: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/

Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. Remember that quoting should be done only sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when you decide to do so.

Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.

Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.

  1. Using summaries and quotations from outside sources: Good verb choices to introduce the outside source. (from They Say, I Say)

Making a claim

Expressing agreement

Questioning or disagreeing

Making recommendations

argue

believe


claim

emphasize

insist

observe


remind us

report


suggest


acknowledge

admire


agree

celebrate the fact that

corroborate

do not deny

endorse

extol


praise

reaffirm


support

verify


complain

complicate

contend

contradict



deny

disavow


question

refute


reject

renounce


repudiate

advocate

call for


demand

encourage

exhort

implore


plead

recommend

urge

warn


X claims that, “………………….”

X acknowledges that,……….”

X rejects the idea that, “…….”

X demands that, “………”




  1. The Quote Sandwich: 3 Steps (from They Say /I Say p. 43-44)

Steps 1 and 2: Introduce Source and Give Quotation


X states, “……………………..”

According to X, “……………………..”

In X’s view, “……………………..”

X agrees when he/she writes, “……………………..”

In his/ her article, X writes, “……………………..”

As the prominent philosopher X puts it, “……………………..”

In the New York Times, X urges that, “……………………..”
Step 3: Explain/analyze quotations (44)
Basically, X is saying ………………………………

In other words, X believes ………………………………

In making this comment, X argues that ………………………………

X is insisting that ………………………………

X’s point is ………………………………

The essence of X’s argument is ……………………………



  1. Transitional Phrases: (from About.com- (http://grammar.about.com/od/developingparagraphs/a/cohsignals.htm)

The website, About.com, in an article titled “Coherence Strategies- Using Transitional Words and Phrases” makes the case that a “strong paragraph is more than just a collection of loose sentences. Those sentences need to be clearly connected so that readers can follow along, recognizing how one detail leads to the next.” The following phrases help to make for a unified collection of thoughts:



1. Addition Transitions:

and
also


besides
first, second, third
in addition
in the first place, in the second place, in the third place
furthermore
moreover
to begin with, next, finally

2. Cause-Effect Transitions:

accordingly
and so
as a result
consequently
for this reason
hence
then
therefore
thus

3. Comparison Transitions:

by the same token
in like manner
in the same way
in similar fashion
likewise
similarly

4. Contrast Transitions:

but
however
in contrast
instead
on the contrary
on the other hand
still
yet
5. Conclusion and Summary Transitions:

and so
after all


at last
finally
in brief
in closing
on the whole
to conclude
to summarize
6. Example Transitions:

as an example


for example
for instance
specifically
thus
to illustrate
7. Insistence Transitions:

in fact
indeed


no
yes

8. Place Transitions:

above
alongside
beneath
beyond
farther along
in back
in front
nearby
on top of
to the left
to the right
under
upon
9. Restatement Transitions:

in other words


in short
in simpler terms
that is
to put it differently
to repeat
10. Time Transitions:

afterward


at the same time
currently
earlier
formerly
immediately
in the future
in the meantime
in the past
later
meanwhile
previously
simultaneously
subsequently
then
until now



5. Follow the steps below for proper MLA format:
Step 1. Double-space the entire essay: Format/Paragraph/Double/Okay

Step 2. Change the margins to one inch: File/Page Set-Up/Left 1.0 Right 1.0/ Okay

Step 3. Insert Headers: View/Header and Footer/Align Right/ Type Last Name/ Space/ Click on # in bar/Close

Step 4. In the upper left hand corner type: Student Name/Enter, Teacher Name/Enter, Class Name/Hour/Enter, Date/Enter (08 March 2012)

Step 5. Center and then type the title of the paper/Enter: Do not underline, bold, italicize, put in quotation marks, etc.

Step 6. Align Left/Tab once to indent the paragraph and begin typing the paper. Subsequent paragraphs need to be indented as well.
It is also important to remember:

1) In-text citations require a note in parentheses to identify the source of each passage or idea you use. The author’s last name and the page number of the source “are separated by a single typed space” (Smith 42). Electronic sources with no author are cited by the title of the article (“Writing for Fun”). Punctuation follows the parentheses in short quotes or paraphrases.
2) Sources mentioned in the paper must be included in the Works Cited page. At the conclusion of the essay:

  • Click Insert, Break, Page Break to insert a new page

  • Center and type Works Cited at the top of the page: do not underline, bold, italicize, etc.

  • Then Enter/Align Left so your sources are not centered

  • Alphabetize sources based on the author’s last name. If there is no author, alphabetize based on the title of the article.

  • The second line of an entry needs to be indented using the TAB key

Basic In-Text Citation Information

In MLA style, in-text citations, called parenthetical citations, are used to document any external sources used within a document (unless the material cited is considered general knowledge). The parenthetical citations direct readers to the full bibliographic citations listed in the Works Cited, located at the end of the document.

Use of Authors' Names- Always mention the author's name—either in the text itself or in the parenthetical citation—unless no author is provided. See the guidelines below on how to cite sources without an author.



If the author's name is mentioned in the text introducing the source material, then cite the page number(s) in parentheses. (If it is an electronic source, you may omit the page number IF it is not provided.)Example: Miller argues that "it's a good idea to lurk (i.e., read all the messages without contributing anything) for a few weeks, to ensure that you don't break any of the rules of netiquette" (7) when joining a listserv.

If the author's name is NOT mentioned in the text introducing the source material, then include the author's last name in the parenthetical citation before the page number(s). Note that no comma appears between the author's name and the page number(s). Example: The modern world requires both the ability to concentrate on one thing and the ability to attend to more than one thing at a time: "Ideally, each individual would cultivate a repertoire of styles of attention, appropriate to different situations, and would learn how to embed activities and types of attention one within another" (Miller 97).

If the book, article, journal, webpage, etc. does not have an author, then the title of the book, article, journal, webpage, etc. needs to be mentioned- either in the text itself or in parenthetical citation. Example: “Many people think of plagiarism as copying another's work, or borrowing someone else's original ideas” (“Plagiarism in the Digital Age”).



Placement of Citations

*Place a citation as close to the quoted or paraphrased material as possible without disrupting the sentence. Parenthetical citations usually appear after the final quotation mark and before the period.

*An exception occurs, however, in quotes of four or more lines since these quotes are presented as block quotes: that is, they are indented and use no quotation marks. In such cases, the parenthetical citation goes after the period.

*A good rule to remember is that whatever (author’s name, title of article on a web page, name of the webpage, etc.) is cited in parentheses in the essay needs to be the first piece of information given for that source on the Works Cited page.





6. MLA Works Cited Examples: UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED, ALL EXAMPLES ARE FROM THE PURDUE.OWL 2009 MLA WORKS CITED EXAMPLES AND EXPLANATIONS

A BOOK BY ONE AUTHOR

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.


A BOOK BY TWO OR THREE AUTHORS
Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Logan, UT:
Utah State UP, 2004. Print.
A WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY, REFERENCE, OR COLLECTION
Lastname, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of
entry. Medium of Publication.
A WORK PREPARED BY AN EDITOR
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Ed. Margaret Smith. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print.
AN INTRODUCTION, PREFACE, FORWORD, OR AFTERWORD
Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Introduction. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose. By Kenneth Burke. 1935. 3rd ed. Berkeley: U
of California P, 1984. xiii-xliv. Print.

A PERSONAL INTERVIEW

Purdue, Pete. Personal interview. 1 Dec. 2000.



AN ENTIRE WEB SITE: “Remember to use n.p. if no publisher name is available and n.d. if not publishing date is given”
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the
site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.
A PAGE ON A WEBSITE
"How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow.com. eHow, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2009.
AN ARTICLE IN A WEB MAGAZINE
Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. A List Apart Mag., 16 Aug. 2002.
Web. 4 May 2009.
AN ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE DATABASE (OR OTHER ELECTRONIC SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE)
Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal 50.1 (2007): 173-96. ProQuest. Web.
27 May 2009.

7. MLA Outline Tips: To begin typing the outline: Click on View- then on Outline *use the green arrows to move left/right, not the indent or space bar. Follow the format below inserting the Roman Numerals, letters, etc.

Title


I. Introduction

A. Background information

B. Thesis

II. Body


A. 1st category of support/reason/evidence

1. Supporting Detail

a. More Detail

b. More Detail

2. Supporting Detail

a. More Detail

b. More Detail

B. 2nd category of support/reason/evidence



  1. Supporting Detail

  2. Supporting Detail

  1. Conclusion

A. Review of the three categories of support

B. Restate Thesis




At the conclusion of typing the outline:

1) highlight the entire outline

2) change the size to 12

3) change the font to Times New Roman



4) and un-bold/un-italicize the entire outline

Remember: 1) to either use either all complete sentences OR all topic/phrases in the outline. It is incorrect to have a mixture of both! 2) If you have an A you need a B, if you have a 1 you need a 2, if you have an a , you need a b, etc. etc.











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