Q. 1: How is it that star seldom finds another star near it?
Ans: A star seldom finds another star near it because there is a distance of millions of miles between the two stars. Moreover, space is immensely vast and each star is bound to travel in its own orbit.
Q. 2: What happened when, according to Sir James Jeans, a wandering star, wandering through space came near the sun?
Ans: When a wandering star came near the sun, it raised tides on the surface of the sun. These tides formed a high mountain on the surface of the sun that we can hardly imagine.
Q. 3: What happened when the wandering star came nearer and nearer?
Ans: When the wandering star came nearer and nearer the sun, the mountain on the surface of the sun rose higher and higher and was, finally, torn into pieces.
Q. 4: What are planets and how did they come into existence?
Ans: The planets are the broken parts of the sun. They came into existence due to tidal pull caused by some star on the surface of the sun.
Q. 5: Why is there no life on the stars?
Ans: There is no life on the stars because the stars are balls of fire and they have intense heat. Therefore, the stars are too hot for life to exist on them.
Q. 6: Write a note on the beginning of life on earth?
Ans: When the earth gradually became cooler and cooler. Life started in very simple organisms which had ability to reproduce themselves before dying. In the end, it produced the most complicated organisms like man who has feelings and ambitions.
Q. 7: Why is the universe so frightening?
Ans: The universe is so frightening because of immense stretches of time, extreme loneliness and absence of life on other planets.
Q. 8: What should be the conditions necessary, for the kind of life we know to exist on other heavenly bodies? Do such conditions generally exist?
Ans: Life can exist only in some suitable physical condition like moderate temperature, air and water. Such conditions do not exist on other heavenly bodies except the earth. Therefore, there is no life on other heavenly bodies.
Q. 9: How do the stars travel in the universe?
Ans: The stars travel in the universe either in groups or mostly they travel alone. They travel at vast distance from one another
Q.10: What are the temperature belts?
Ans: The temperature belts are zones that surround each hot star at a certain distance. The temperature there is neither too hot nor too cold. Life can exist on such temperature belts.
2. USING THE SCINETIFIC METHOD
Q. 1: How has the scientific method helped us in our fight against disease?
Ans: The scientific method has helped us in knowing the causes of diseases and their prevention. It has also enabled us to make life saving drugs.
Q. 2: Write a note on the better sanitary conditions available in our cities today and compare them with what they were like a hundred years ago?
Ans: Today, our city streets are paved and well drained. They are cleaned regularly. Garbage and sewage is disposed properly. A hundred years ago, the streets were unpaved and poorly drained. Household garbage and other refuse were thrown in the streets. So, today sanitary conditions are far better than a hundred years ago.
Q. 3: What are sanitary conditions like our villages today and how would you improve them?
Ans: Today, our villages are poorly drained, outdoor toilets are common and streets are unpaved. We could improve them by awaring people about better sanitation and its positive effect on their health.
Q. 4: How has scientific method helped us in the production and preservation of foods?
Ans: Through scientific method, we get more production of food. Modern methods of selecting, grading and processing have helped us a lot in the preservation of food.
Q. 5: We are less fearful than our ancestors. What were our ancestors afraid of?
Ans: We are less fearful than our ancestors because we have left believing superstitions. Our ancestors were afraid of black cats, broken mirrors and the number 13.
Q. 6: How has the scientific method enabled us to get over the old fears?
Ans: Scientific method has made us reasonable. Now, we know there is a sound reason behind every happening. In this way, the scientific method has enabled us to get over the old fears.
Q. 7: What part did astrology play in the lives of men and women in the past? Give examples?
Ans: In the past, astrology played important part in the lives of men and women. People used to consult astrologists before marriages and other important matters of life.
Q. 8: Describe some of the superstitions still current in our country. How do they affect the lives of those who believe in them?
Ans: Still some people believe in wearing charms and other superstitions like them. They affect the lives of those according to belief.
Q. 9: What were the survival chances two hundred years age?
Ans: Two hundred years ago, seven out of eight babies died before reaching their first birthday.
Q. 10: What do we mean by the word attitude?
Ans: By attitude we mean the way we feel and think towards an idea or an event.
Q.11: What is meant by superstitions?
Ans: Feelings which involve fears are called superstitions. Black cats, broken mirrors and number 13 are some common superstitions.
Q.12: How did thrifty housewives preserve food in the past?
Ans: Thrifty housewives preserved their home-grown vegetables and fruits by canning, pickling, or drying them for use during the cold weather. Meats were preserved by salting and drying or by freezing.
Q.13: How scientific method has improved our ways of life?
Ans: Scientific method has improved our ways of life by solving health problems, by increasing production and preservation of food and by bringing positive changes in our attitude.
Q.14: What is the purpose of this lesson?
Ans: This lesson helps us to understand how the use of scientific method has improved living conditions and changed our attitude.
3. WHY BOYS FAIL IN COLLEGE
Q. 1: According to the author there are some boys who fail because they do not try. Who are they? Can we help them?
Ans: They are those boys who do not have any aim in life. They do not try to pass and fail. They join college just for fun. They should be guided towards the aim of their life as a student.
Q. 2: How do mistaken ambitions on the part of boys and their parents lead to the failure of the boys?
Ans: Mistaken ambitions of the parents lead to the failure because the students do not take any interest in the subject chose by their parents. They stop hard work in their studies. As a result they fail.
Q. 3: There are some boys who have done well at school but fail to make their mark at college. Who are they? Do you have such boys in college in your country?
Ans: These are boys who are bright and intelligent but not hard working. They become over confidant and fail in college. Such boys could be found in the colleges of every country. Ours is no exception.
Q. 4: How does financial pressure lead to the failure of students described in the lesson? Do you have similar cases in your country?
Ans: Poor students have to do some job to meet their educational expenses. This dual exertion affects both their health and studies and so they fail. Yes, we do have such cases in our country.
Q. 5: To what extent does the question of health lead to failure at college? How far can the college authorities with their medical officers help students in such cases?
Ans: Both physical and mental health is very important factor for students. If a student is suffering from some disease, he can not concentrate on his studies. As a result, he fails.
Q. 6: What place would you accord to sportsmen in college?
Ans: The main purpose of college is to impart education. Sportsmen should be given respectable position in the college. But they should not be allowed to neglect their studies at any cost.
Q. 7: There are some students who join college for the fun of it. Should they be allowed to stay?
Ans: Students who join college for fun, they should not be allowed to stay. Because, they can spoil other students as well.
Q. 8: Who are lazy bluffers? What should be done about them?
Ans: Lazy bluffers are students who join college without any purpose. They should be left to the cold merciless world.
Q. 9: What should be the role of college dean?
Ans: The college dean should be like a doctor. He should diagnose the cause of failure among the students. In this way, he can save the boys from failure through foolishness, sickness and sin.
Q.10: Why is the proper cooperation needed between the teaching staff and the college doctor?
Ans: It is necessary so that the boys are clinically examined regularly to maintain their physical and mental health.
Q.11: What are common diseases among college students?
Ans: The common disease among college students are tuberculosis, bad tonsils, sleeping sickness, poor digestion and nervous forms of mental difficulties.
Q.12: What is the heartrending spectacle?
Ans: To see boys undergoing transfusion of blood to get money for food and books is a heartrending spectacle.
Q.13: Can we help the student suffering from nervous habits?
Ans: No, we can not help the students suffering from nervous habits. Nervous habits are not easy to uproot, they cannot be eradicated by anyone but the boy.
4. END OF TERM
Q. 1: What was Daiches attitude towards the week end as a school boy? Why did he long for it?
Ans: As a school boy, he felt joy at the arrival of week-end. He walked home like an escaped prisoner. He longed for it to get rid of daily burden of school.
Q. 2: What was his general view of school life?
Ans: He was a good student and often enjoyed the actual class room work. School life was full of labour and tough competitions. Teachers gave them a lot of home work. This daily grind of school made him long for holidays.
Q.3: He liked holidays for their freedom- freedom for what?
Ans: He liked holidays for their freedom-freedom from waking up early in the morning, from large number of classes and from grind of routine school work.
Q. 4: How did he spend his summer holidays?
Ans: The summer holidays were a long period of bliss. He spent his summer vacation in his village with his grand parents. He played cricket in July sunshine; he enjoyed these holidays very much.
Q. 5: Wishes don’t come true in this life, writes Daiches. What are the things he longed for but could not have?
Ans: He wished to get a tricycle in his early childhood and later a bicycle. He wished to get ice-cream and sweet free of cost. His these wishes did not come true.
Q. 6: What did he do with his pocket money?
Ans: He kept his savings in money-box because he was not allowed to spend his pocket-money.
Q. 7: Why was the Friday morning rose coloured for the writer?
Ans: Friday morning was positively rose coloured because it was a week end. Moreover, they were going to have two consecutive holidays to enjoy themselves.
Q. 8: What were unexpected respites?
Ans: Unexpected respites mean sudden dismissal of school before usual time due to some crises, celebration and football match. But these were few and far between.
Q. 9: When did he buy his first bicycle?
Ans: He bought his first bicycle at the age of 21 with the prize money he won at Edinburgh University.
Q.10: What was the most frightening day of the week for Daiches?
Ans: Monday was the most frightening day of the week for Daiches. Waking up on Monday morning was a dismal experience for the writer.
Q.11: What were the feelings of the writer on Saturday and Sunday?
Ans: Saturday night had the charm for the holiday between it and the Monday morning. But Sunday night was full of the threat of Monday morning.
Q. 1: What sorts of books were presented by the British public to soldiers?
Ans: Most of the books sent to soldiers were ordinary and suitable. But they were also presented oddest books such as twenty years old magazine, guides to lake district and back numbers of Whitaker’s almanac.
Q. 2: Was it interest of soldiers that prompted their action, it was wish to get rid of the useless books?
Ans: No, it was not the interest of soldiers. In fact, they want to get rid of their old and useless books. So they sent them to the soldiers.
Q. 3: Why should bad books be destroyed?
Ans: Bad books should be destroyed so that there should be space for good and new books in the shelves. Moreover, it saves one’s heir from the trouble of sorting them out and storing them.
Q. 4: Why is it difficult to destroy books?
Ans: It is difficult to destroy books because they die hard. We do not have proper place to burn them. They are like cats and it is difficult to find a scaffold for them.
Q. 5: Why could not the author burn the unwanted books?
Ans: The author could not burn the unwanted books because he had no cooking range and he could not burn them on gas cooker.
Q. 6: How did he decide to get rid of them?
Ans: He decided to get rid of them by throwing them into the river. He stuffed them into a sack and went to the river to throw them.
Q. 7: Describe the authors midnight venture to throw the books in the river and the suspicion which his action were likely to arouse?
Ans: At midnight, the author stuffed the books in a sack. He shouldered them and went to fling them into the river. He was terribly frightened at the sight of a policeman and a stranger. At last, he threw the books into the river after many difficulties.
Q. 8: How did he muster up courage at last to fling them into the river?
Ans: The writer was hesitant to throw them. Then he abused himself for his cowardice. At last, he mustered up courage and threw the sack into the river.
Q. 9: Did he come to have a feeling for those books once he had got rid of them?
Ans: He was sad after throwing the books. He thought that poor books met a fate worse than they deserve.
Q.10: What did the writer think about the splash?
Ans: The writer thought that people would catch him. They would think that he had thrown a baby into the river. Therefore, he was afraid of the splash of the sack.
Q.11: Give the names of the books that the writer threw into the river?
Ans: The names of the books are Odes to Diana, Sonnets to Ethel, Dramas on Love of Lancelot and Stanzas on a first Glimpse of Venice.
Q.12: What did the writer think when he saw the policeman on the way?
Ans: When he saw a policeman on the way, he became afraid. He thought that he would consider him a thief and arrest him. But the policeman did not take any notice of him.
Q. 1: How did Jerome K. Jerome come to suspect that his liver was out of order?
Ans: He came to suspect so after reading a patent liver-pill circular and concluded that his liver was out of order.
Q. 2: What was the disease he discovered he didn’t have?
Ans: He discovered that he did not have ‘housemaid’s Knee’. He was much disappointed for not having it.
Q. 3: Was he pleased to find he didn’t have it?
Ans: No, he rather felt hurt for not having it. He was mush disappointed at his finding.
Q. 4: What was his first reaction?
Ans: He was frozen with horror that he was the patient of all the diseases. He thought that he would be an interesting case from medical point of view.
Q. 5: Why should he be an acquisition to the medical class?
Ans: He should be an acquisition to the medical class because students would have no need to walk around the hospital to know about different diseases as he was a hospital himself.
Q. 6: Describe his visit to the medical man?
Ans: When he went to the doctor he told him all about his diseases. The doctor at once understand the real matter. He checked him completely. He hit over his chest and head and then gave him a prescription.
Q. 7: He thought he was doing the doctor good turn by going to him .why?
Ans: He thought so because the doctor was going to get more practice out of him than seventeen hundred common patients. Therefore, he thought he was doing the doctor good turn by going to him.
Q. 8: What was the prescription given to him by the doctor?
Ans: The prescription ran:
“11 lb beef steak, every 6 hours.
10 miles walk every morning,
Bed at 11 sharp every night.
And don’t stuff your head with things
You don’t understand”.
Q. 9: Describe his visit to the chemist?
Ans: He went to chemist gave him the prescription. The chemist replied if he had a cooperative store and a family hotel combined he would have been able to oblige him.
Q. 10: What is the significance of the doctor’s advice: don’t stuff your head with things you don’t understand?
Ans: This is a very important advice. Generally, people start to think about those things for which they have no concern. As a result, they draw false conclusion and get worried. The writer followed the advice and become healthy.
Q. 11: How had the writer walked into the reading room of the British Museum and how did he returned?
Ans: The writer walked into the reading room as a happy and healthy man. But he returned as a despaired patient.
Q. 12: Had the heart of Jerome really stopped beating?
Ans: No, in fact he was confused. When he did not feel his heart beating in his chest, he patted himself all over his front. He felt his pulse which was very fast.
Q. 13: Why did the writer go to the British Museum?
Ans: He went to the British Museum to read the treatment of hay fever.
7. MY FINANCIAL CAREER
Q. 1: What light do the following expressions throw on Leacock’s state of mind when he entered the bank? Looked timidly round’ Shambled in?
Ans: These expressions reflect the confused state of writer’s mind. He was fully confused and could not express his matter properly.
Q. 2: Why did the manager come to think that Leacock had an awful secret to reveal?
Ans: The manager came to think that Leacock had an awful secret to reveal because he insisted to meet manager alone.
Q. 3: What was the attitude of the manager towards Leacock on learning that he only wished to deposit 56 dollars in the bank?
Q. 4: What other blunders did Leacock commit after leaving the manager’s office?
Ans: After leaving the manager’s office, Leacock made a number of blunders. First, he stepped into an iron safe. Then he wrote fifty six instead of six on the cheque. Then instead of admitting his mistake, he pretended to be angry on being insulted by someone.
Q. 5: After this misadventure in the bank where did Leacock keep his money?
Ans: After this misadventure, kept cash money in his trousers pocket and savings in silver dollars in socks.
Q. 6: Give as many examples as you can to show that Leacock was feeling completely lost in the bank all the time he was there?
Ans: Leacock was completely lost in the bank. He made many mistakes there. First, he stepped into an iron safe. Then he wrote fifty six instead of six on the cheque. Then instead of admitting his mistake, he pretended to be angry on being insulted by someone.
Q. 7: How much was the writer’s salary raised?
Ans: The writer’s salary was raised to 50 dollars per month. He wanted to save it for his future use. Therefore, he decided to keep it in the bank.
Q. 8: Who was Mr. Montogomery?
Ans: Mr. Montogomery was the accountant in the bank. He was a tall, cool devil. The very sight of him rattled the writer.
Q. 9: What was the reaction of the bank staff when he author rushed out of the bank?
Ans: When the author rushed out of the bank, the bank staff made a roar of laughter at his blunders.
Q. 10: Why did people think he was some invalid millionaire?
Ans: They thought him some invalid millionaire because some body gave him a Cheque book, and some one told him how to write it.
8. China’s Way to Progress
Q. 1: Why has the world changed its attitude towards china?
Ans The world has changed its attitude towards China because of its great progress. After independence in 1949, China made immense progress in social, agricultural and industrial fields.
Q. 2: Discuss Chinese agriculture system?
Ans: In China, agricultural land has been divided into small sectors known as communes. These communes are further divided into production brigades. The Chinese still carry on their traditional labour along with modern agricultural machinery.
Q. 3: How does China rely on its own resources?
Ans: China relies on its own resources by using all sorts of products and machines prepared in China. Such products and machine are easily available. They are cheaper than foreign machines.
Q. 4: Describe a day in the life of a Chinese student?
And: Je Wen Siurepresents the students in China. She gets up early in the morning, does some domestic chores, takes breakfast and goes to the school at 8. After 11 am, she comes back home takes her lunch and goes back to the school. She . and revises his lesson. After 4 o clock he takes rest reads the news-paper and enjoys the radio.
Q. 5: Write a note on the Chinese women?
Ans : Chinese women are hard working. They lack feminity. They do not use beauty products. They enjoy many social security benefits. They enjoy free hospitalization and medical facilities.
Q. 6: What are the social security benefits provided to the Chinese workers?
Ans : Workers in China enjoy complete social security benefits. It means the state is responsible for their comforts and needs in society. They are provided housing and medical facilities. They enjoy easy terms of service in factories and the facility of assistance schemes.
Q. 7: “It is the people and not the things that are decisive” Discuss.
Ans : According to the writer, there are two worlds: one is the world of facts and figures and the other is the world of faith. Mao the Chinese leader believed that number of people or economic facts and figures does not count, people themselves are important if they have the faith for the benefit of the people.
Q. 8: “The heart of the matter is the need to root out selfishness” Discuss.
Ans : According to this statement, everyone should work for the betterment of others. The secret of China’s progress lies in this principle. They work for the benefits of all.
9. Hunger and population Explosion
Q. 1: What does hunger mean on large scale as viewed by the author?
Ans: Hunger does not mean missing one meal. It means never having enough to eat . after one meal there is no surety of another meal.
Q. 2: Describe some great famines of the past.
Ans : The Nile remained dry for seven years and the Egyptians had to face the famine. Likewise, China and England faced great famines and millions of people died in Russia because of famine in 1921. A worst famine of the century struck India in 1964-65.
Q. 3: How do famines occur?
Ans: Some of the causes of famines are over population, failure of crops, shortage of food and lack of rains. If the food available is not enough for the people to eat there may spread a famine. In such cases people starve to death.