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. Accessed on March 17, 2016.

Reported or indirect speech

Reported speech is not placed between quotation marks and is introduced by reporting verbs, which can either be more neutral (such as say or tell) or can present or imply some information regarding the content of the speech (such as ask, complain, demand etc.). These reporting verbs may or may not be followed by that.

Direct speech:

Nelson Mandela admitted, “Torture has taken place in detention camps, but the practice has been stopped.”

Indirect speech:



Last year, the congress’ leader, Nelson Mandela, admitted that torture had taken place in detention camps, but said the practice had been stopped.

Available at . Accessed on March 19, 2016.

As reported speech is used to talk about something that has already been said, it may present changes in the verb tenses, which often move a tense back towards the past in comparison to the one used in the original speech (a process called backshift).

Direct speech:

We are looking forward to participating in the Summit,” replied the ASEAN leaders.

Indirect speech:



In response, the ASEAN leaders replied that they were looking forward to participating in the Summit.

Available at . Accessed on March 17, 2016.

However, this change in verb tense does not take place when the language user wants to emphasize that the information presented in the original speech is still true in the present (at the moment it is being reported).
Página 202

When it comes to women’s quota, 41 percent of the overall sample said they agree with the proposed women’s quota with fixed 15 seats, while 29 percent said they prefer women’s quota to remain open as in the current law.

Available at . Accessed on March 19, 2016.

Other changes might be necessary when reporting someone else’s speech, especially concerning references of time and place and elements referring to the original speaker/interlocutor, such as possessive adjectives and personal pronouns.

Direct speech:

I want you to go with me to the office now,” said the man. “I will go tomorrow,” said the woman.

Indirect speech:



The man said he wanted her to go with him to the office there and then but [she] said she would go the following day.

RIEKER, M.; ALI, K. A. Gendering Urban Space in the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, p. 146.

When reporting questions, language users will make an affirmative sentence (one that narrates what another person has asked) instead of asking a question, so it is important to remember that the use of auxiliaries and the inversion in position between subject and verb/ auxiliary does not take place.

a In the case of yes/no questions, if or whether will be used to report it.

Direct speech:

Shiloh Jolie-Pitt asked “Are Malala’s parents crying? How are they handling the news?”

Indirect speech:

Shiloh Jolie-Pitt, six, […] also asked if Malala’s parents were crying and how they were handling the news.”

Available at . Accessed on March 19, 2016.

b In the case of wh- questions, the wh- word will be repeated in the affirmative sentence.

Direct speech:



He asked Darwin, “What do you think of Wallace’s paper?”

Indirect speech:



In 1855 he asked Darwin what he thought of Wallace’s paper in an academic journal on how domestic races of animals developed into species […].

Available at . Accessed on March 19, 2016.



References

HALLIDAY, M. A. K.; MATTHIESSEN, C. Halliday’s Introduction to Functional Grammar. New York: Routledge, 2014.



LOCK, G. Functional English Grammar: An Introduction for Second Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Glossary

A

account for — ser responsável por

achievement — conquista, realização

advancement — avanço

aerospace — aeroespacial

agricultural — agrícola

aide — ajudante

airspace — espaço aéreo

allot — alocar, destinar

allow — permitir

alone — sozinho/a

aptitude — aptidão

arm — braço

atmosphere — atmosfera

attitude — atitude, jeito; posição, postura

augment — aumentar

award — prêmio; premiar

B

background — contexto

barrier — barreira

be willing to — estar disposto/a a

believe — acreditar, crer

bin — lata de lixo

biochemist — bioquímico/a

biofuel — biocombustível

blizzard — nevasca

boost — apoiar, estimular

bottle — garrafa

brick — tijolo

built — construído/a

built-in obsolescence — obsolescência programada

burst — romper

C

can — lata; poder, ser capaz de

carbon dioxide — dióxido de carbono

cardboard — papelão

caregiver — cuidador/a

carpenter — marceneiro/a

Chemistry — Química

child labor — mão de obra/trabalho infantil

cleaner — faxineiro/a

clerk — atendente

closed-minded — intolerante, tacanho/a

coal — carvão

cold wave — onda de ar frio

collect — coletar

cooking glass — recipiente de vidro que suporta altas temperaturas (usado para cozinhar)

cope — enfrentar, lidar; superar

counselor — conselheiro/a coup d’etat golpe de estado

curb ramp — rampa de acesso para deficientes

custodian — zelador/a

D

dam — barragem, represa

decreased — reduzido/a

deforestation — desmatamento

desertification — desertificação

diagnose — diagnosticar

disability — deficiência

discussion — discussão
Página 203

disposable — descartável

drought — seca, estiagem

E

early life — primeira infância

earthquake — terremoto

electrician — eletricista

electronics — eletrônica; aparelhos eletrônicos

endangered species — espécie em extinção

engagement — engajamento

engineer — engenheiro/a

enhance — aumentar; melhorar

enjoy — apreciar, gostar; desfrutar

enough — suficiente

environment — meio ambiente

equality — igualdade

erosion — erosão

eruption — erupção

essayist — ensaísta

exoskeleton — exoesqueleto

F

feasible — possível, praticável

feed — alimentar

feminism — feminismo

finding — achado, descoberta

flood — enchente

fog — nevoeiro

foreign — estrangeiro/a

freedom — liberdade

G

game developer — desenvolvedor/a de jogos

gender — gênero

geothermal — geotérmico/a

guidance — orientação

H

hailstorm — chuva de granizo

heat wave — onda de calor

heavy — pesado/a

high — alto/a

high school — Ensino Médio

hire — contratar

hole — buraco

homeless — morador/a de rua

human trafficking — tráfico de pessoas

hunger — fome

hurricane — furacão

hydroelectric — hidrelétrico/a

hydrogen — hidrogênio

hydropower — energia hidrelétrica

I

illiteracy — analfabetismo, falta de instrução

illness — doença, enfermidade

impaired — que apresenta alguma deficiência

indigenous — indígena

inequality — desigualdade

installer — instalador/a

interview — entrevista; entrevistar

inventory — estoque; inventário

issue — edição, número (de uma publicação); problema, questão

IT analyst — analista de tecnologia da informação

K

kindergarten — escola infantil, jardim de infância

knowledge — conhecimento

L

lack — falta de; faltar

landfill — aterro sanitário

landslide — deslizamento de terra

language — idioma, língua; linguagem

lawyer — advogado/a

lead — conduzir, guiar, levar; liderar

leadership — liderança

leaflet — folheto, panfleto

leak — vazamento

lecture — palestra

light bulb — lâmpada

look like — parecer

lower — de baixo, inferior; menor

lung — pulmão

M

maintenance — manutenção

management — administração, gestão

manufacturing — fabricação

mass destruction — destruição em massa

master builder — mestre de obras

mechatronic — mecatrônico/a

mediate — mediar

medicine — medicina; remédio

methodology — metodologia

mind — intelecto, mente

mining — mineração

misandry — aversão/ódio a homens, misandria

misogyny — aversão/ódio a mulheres, misoginia

mobile app developer — desenvolvedor/a de aplicativos para celular

mobility — mobilidade

N

nonliving — inanimado/a

nurse — enfermeiro/a

nursery school — escola infantil

O

offspring — filhos/as, prole

oil — petróleo

outlaw — criminoso; tornar ilegal

overcome — superar

overconsumption — consumo excessivo

P

patience — paciência

patriarchy — patriarcado

personal — pessoal

personnel — equipe, pessoal

plumber — encanador/a

pollution — poluição

poor — pobre

poverty — pobreza

prediction — previsão

preschool — pré-escola

primary — primário/a

psychologist — psicólogo/a

R

recovery — recuperação

recycle — reciclar

recycling — reciclagem

reduce — reduzir

refugee — refugiado/a

refuse — negar(-se), recusar(-se)

regain — recuperar

report — relatório, trabalho; informar, relatar

researcher — pesquisador/a

resort — recorrer, utilizar, valer(-se)

restore — recuperar, restaurar

reuse — reutilizar

review — crítica, resenha; revisão; revisar

rock — pedra, rocha

S

scarcely — mal, pouco; raramente

schedule — cronograma; agendar, programar

schooling — educação, instrução formal

sci-fi (science fiction) — ficção científica

secondary — secundário/a

security — segurança

segregation — segregação

servant — criado/a, servo/a

severe — grave, severo/a

sexism — sexismo

shatter — estilhaçar

shortage — escassez

shredded paper — papel picado

single-use —descartável

skin — pele

slavery — escravidão

social worker — assistente social

soil — solo

solar panel — painel solar

solve — resolver, solucionar

somersault — cambalhota, salto; dar cambalhota

sore — dolorido/a

special — especial

spill — derramamento, vazamento

spine — coluna, espinha dorsal

split second — fração de segundo, instante

staff — equipe, pessoal

steel — aço

stipend — auxílio financeiro, salário

strength — força; ponto forte

strong — forte

struggle — luta; esforçar-se, lutar

subject — assunto; matéria escolar; sujeito (gramática)

suffrage — direito ao voto, sufrágio

supply — suprimento; fornecer, suprir

survey — enquete, pesquisa

sustainability — sustentabilidade

T

take care — cuidar de; tomar cuidado com

teamwork — trabalho em equipe

technician — técnico/a

tertiary — superior (educação); terciário/a

thought — pensamento

threaten — ameaçar

tool — ferramenta

training — instrução, treinamento

trigger — engatilhar; causar, precipitar

U

unattainable — inacessível, inatingível

upper — de cima, superior

V

vacation — férias

view — opinião, ponto de vista; paisagem; visão

vocational — vocacional

vocational school — escola técnica

volcanic — vulcânico/a

volunteer — voluntário/a; fazer trabalho voluntário

W

wall — muralha, muro; parede

waste — desperdício; lixo, resíduo; desperdiçar

weakness — fraqueza; ponto fraco

whole — inteiro/a, todo/a

wildfire — incêndio florestal

wind — vento; eólico/a

witness — testemunha; testemunhar

writer — escritor/a
Página 204

Irregular verb list

Irregular verb list

Base form

Past simple

Past participle

Translation

be

was, were

been

estar; ser

beat

beat

beaten

derrotar, vencer; superar

become

became

become

tornar-se

begin

began

begun

começar

bring

brought

brought

trazer

build

built

built

construir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

catch

caught

caught

capturar; pegar

choose

chose

chosen

escolher

come

came

come

vir

cut

cut

cut

cortar

do

did

done

fazer

draw

drew

drawn

atrair; desenhar, traçar; tirar

drive

drove

driven

conduzir; dirigir

eat

ate

eaten

comer

feel

felt

felt

sentir

fight

fought

fought

brigar; lutar

find

found

found

encontrar

forget

forgot

forgotten

esquecer

get

got

got/gotten

adquirir; conseguir, obter; receber

give

gave

given

dar

go

went

gone

ir

have

had

had

ter

hear

heard

heard

ouvir

keep

kept

kept

manter

know

knew

known

conhecer; saber

learn

learnt/learned

learnt/learned

aprender

leave

left

left

deixar; sair

let

let

let

deixar, permitir

lie

lay

lain

deitar; jazer

lose

lost

lost

perder

make

made

made

fazer

meet

met

met

conhecer; encontrar

pay

paid

paid

pagar

put

put

put

colocar

read

read

read

ler

run

ran

run

correr

say

said

said

dizer

see

saw

seen

ver

sell

sold

sold

vender

send

sent

sent

enviar

set

set

set

ajustar; marcar; pôr em determinada condição

show

showed

shown

mostrar

sing

sang

sung

cantar

speak

spoke

spoken

falar

spend

spent

spent

gastar; passar (tempo)

spread

spread

spread

espalhar

stand

stood

stood

estar/ficar em pé

steal

stole

stolen

roubar

swim

swam

swum

nadar

take

took

taken

pegar

teach

taught

taught

ensinar

tell

told

told

contar, relatar

think

thought

thought

acreditar; pensar

throw

threw

thrown

arremessar

understand

understood

understood

entender

wear

wore

worn

usar, vestir

win

won

won

ganhar, vencer

write

wrote

written

escrever

Página 205



Transcript

UNIT 1

Track 2 — page 13

Introduction Funding for “Think” comes from SMU master and doctor of Liberal Studies programs.

Lauren Silverman You’re listening to “Think” on KERA. I’m Lauren Silverman, sitting in this week for Krys Boyd. Most of us don’t remember taking our first steps. But if you’ve ever seen the smile on a baby’s face when she learns to lift a leg and tilt forward, you know the joy it must bring. The feeling of freedom is contagious. Walking means power, independence. Losing that ability, being wheelchair-bound, can be pretty disheartening. It can also make it more difficult to stay healthy. Technology, though, is changing what it means to walk, and Amanda Boxtel knows that better than anyone. She’s executive director of the Bridging Bionics Foundation, which aims to connect mobility with bionic technology. She wrote about her experimentation with exoskeletons in July’s issue of the Scientific American. Amanda, welcome to “Think”.

Amanda Boxtel Thank you so much for having me, Lauren.

Lauren Silverman So take us back for a second to February of 1992.

You were in your twenties, very active, uh, and one day you went skiing.



Amanda Boxtel Yes, it was a, uh, an emotional day for me. I just wasn’t feeling right. And a wave of, uh, just swept through my body as if I had no business being on the mountain that day, crack-of-noon club. I’m not really an early riser. I’ve learned to be over the years. I rode the chair lift as if… I looked at the view as if I was looking for the last time. I skied down on purpose to remain visible beneath the chair lift. I stopped, I looked at the view again, and it was just, uh, an intermediate run. I took off and, as if in slow motion, I crossed my tips, I did a somersault, I landed on my back, I shattered four vertebrae in a split second. An electric current zapped through my legs, they crumbled on top of me as if there was… as if a light switch had been turned off. There was nothing, no movement below my pelvis, and no sensation. I was paralyzed — can happen to anybody — and my life was forever changed.

Lauren Silverman Now, of course being paralyzed from the waist down, it means you can’t walk, but it’s more than that.

Amanda Boxtel Oh, it’s so much more than not being able to walk. And often, when we sustain a chronical spinal cord injury, a chronic spinal injury such as mine, people just assume, oh, they see the physicality, they see the visible disability that, “oh, she can’t walk”. But it’s the loss of my sexuality, it’s the loss of my ability to void urine and use my bowels on my own, it’s decreased circulation on my legs. I’m prone to edema, to secondary complications, to — possibly, if I sit in the same position — to getting a pressure sore, uh… These are secondary complications that can, however, be avoided today with the, uh, newness of technology and the introduction of exoskeleton technology.

Extract from the audio available at . Accessed on January 11, 2016.



Track 3 — page 13

Lauren Silverman So what exactly is exoskeleton technology? Because it’s, uh, it sounds very foreign.

Amanda Boxtel It does. It sounds like, uh, something from a sci-fi movie, right? So, uh, augmenting human potential and strength and mobility is no longer a stretch of the imagination. We have the ability to get someone who has lower extremity weakness or paralysis, to get them up standing and walking in a very natural gate. So, back then, when I was 24 years old — I’m not, I’m now 47, so I’ve been paralyzed for 23 years, yet I’ve maintained my mobility, my range of motion and flexibility —, but, back then, the doctor said those words to me, “Amanda, you will never walk again”. And I have reason to believe that doctors now have no excuses. They can say, “Yes, well, it’s going… you’ve got a challenging road ahead, but there is a possibility for you to get up on your own two legs with the advent of new technology. And, so it will just look a little different and feel a little different, but let’s show you how”.

Extract from the audio available at . Accessed on January 11, 2016.



UNIT 3

Track 5 — page 133

Mr. Yellow Hi! I’m Mister Yellow and I’m here to help you with six quick tips to recycle right this year. Tip one: glass can be recycled forever. But only the right types of glass can be recycled. Most bottles and jars are perfect. Just be careful: other types of glass, such as light bulbs, cooking glass, drinking glasses or window glass, [don’t make their] way in, as these aren’t recycling-friendly. Tip two: did you know that every year enough steel finds its way into our landfills to rebuild the Sydney Harbour Bridge? Incredible, but true! All steel cans are recyclable, including aerosol cans. How good is that? Tip three: speaking of metals, currently only half of aluminum cans are being recycled. And recycling just one aluminum can saves enough energy to power a TV or computer for three hours! Tip four: plastic is another terrific recycling material. All rigid plastic bottles and containers can be recycled! Just make sure you don’t put your recyclables in plastic bags, as these can’t be recycled and can spoil the lot. Tip five is not to forget to put your household paper and cardboard in your recycling bin, as even window-faced envelopes can be recycled. Just remember: no shredded paper. Lastly, tip six: the biggest tip is to recycle as part of your everyday habit, as recycling is not only good for our environment; it saves money, resources and is fun to do. That’s all from me. Happy recycling from Mr. Yellow.

Audio available at . Accessed on January 13, 2016.


Página 206

Track 6 — pages 139, 140

Prince Ea Dear future generations, I think I speak for the rest of us when I say sorry. Sorry we left you with our mess of a planet. Sorry that we were too caught up in our own doings to do something. Sorry we listened to people who made excuses to do nothing. I hope you forgive us. We just didn’t realize how special the Earth was. Like a marriage going wrong, we didn’t know what we had until it was gone. For example, I’m guessing you probably know what is the Amazon desert, right? Well, believe it or not, it was once called the Amazon rainforest and there were billions of trees there, all of them gorgeous and… Oh, you don’t know much about trees, do you? Well, let me tell you trees are amazing. I mean, we literally breathe the air they are creating, they clean up our pollution, our carbon, they store and purify water, give us medicine that cures our diseases, food that feeds us, which is why I’m so sorry to tell you that we burned them down, cut them down with brutal machines, horrific, at a rate of forty football fields every minute. That’s fifty percent of all the trees in the world gone in the last hundred years. Why? For this. And that wouldn’t make me so sad if [there] weren’t so many pictures of leaves on it. You know, when I was a child, I read how the Native Americans had such consideration for the planet that they felt responsible for how they left the land for the next seven generations. Which brings me great sorrow, because most of us today don’t even care about tomorrow. So I’m sorry. I’m, I’m sorry that we put profit above people, greed above need, the rule of gold above the golden rule. I’m sorry we used nature as a credit card with no spending limit, overdrafting animals to extinction, stealing your chance to ever see their uniqueness or become friends with them. Sorry we poisoned the oceans so much that you can’t even swim in them. But most of all I’m sorry about our mindset, ’cause we had the nerve to call this destruction “progress”.

Extract from the audio available at . Accessed on January 13, 2016.



UNIT 4

Track 7 — page 180

Gracie Hall For the past four months, sophomore Trajan Tushka has spent his time giving back to the community. On weeknights, Trajan volunteers at Mission Hope for Kids, a local organization that works to serve and tutor underprivileged students.

Trajan Tushka I tutor the elementary kids, I help them in their homework and, uh, projects.

Gracie Hall The adult administrators at Mission Hope for Kids say that they are grateful for Trajan’s help and service.

Nelle Thomas Trajan is excellent with the elementary-age students, and actually, after the first time that he served here, I asked him how it went and he [said] “I absolutely love the kids”, and he did it with such enthusiasm and excitement and so… It shows not in just the way he, uh, works with the students, but the way the students respond to him; they love “mister Traj”.

Trajan Tushka That’s fine.

Joe Deaton He really enjoys it and works well with the kids. Kids really look up to… They like us older folks, but they really look up to young people. It’s pretty neat to have a highschool kid, high-school person that’s working with them, so they really, they really respond well to him, and he’s set a great job.

Gracie Hall According to executive director Nelle Thomas, Mission Hope for Kids is constantly looking for eager and willing volunteers like Trajan Tushka, who, she says, is a big help to the community and a role model to young kids.

Trajan Tushka These kids look up to me and, you know, I’m always there for them.

Gracie Hall For HCEC TV, I’m Gracie Hall reporting for Mission Hope for Kids.

Audio available at




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