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. Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Future perfect

The future perfect (also called past in future) is used to express events expected to happen or to be completed before a certain point in the future.

Scientists will have developed a way to teleport objects – that is, moving objects from one location to another without physically touching them.”

“Survey questions”, Reading literacy, page 18. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

This verb tense is often used with a time expression introduced by the preposition by, which indicates the moment in the future before which the event will be concluded.

By 2025, the Definition of ‘Privacy’ Will Have Changed

Available at . Accessed on March 6, 2016.

Affirmative form

Affirmative sentences in the future perfect have the following structure: subject + will (or’ll) + have + main verb in the past participle.

Henceforth developing countries will have donated a great deal in addressing the adverse global effects of climate change, for example global warming.”

ISHENGOMA, F. R.; MTAHO, A. B. “3D Printing: Developing Countries Perspectives”. In: International Journal of Computer Applications, New York, v. 104, n. 11, p. 30, out. 2014. Available at . Accessed on March 5, 2016.

Negative form

In negative sentences, the structure is will + not (or won’t) + have + main verb in the past participle.

Adenoviruses affecting humans are common, causing minor ailments like coughs and colds. But people won’t have been exposed to a chimpanzee adenovirus, so won’t have developed antibody responses that could minimise the effect of the vaccine.”

Available at . Accessed on March 6, 2016.

Interrogative form

Interrogative sentences present an inversion in position between will and the subject, i.e., will comes before the subject.

But when they have completed this amazing map, will they have solved the mysteries of the mind?”

Available at . Accessed on March 6, 2016.

Future progressive

The future progressive (also called present in future) expresses an event that will be in progress at a certain moment in the future.


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In 2052, only two countries, France and China, will be generating any electricity from nuclear energy at all […].”

“The Death of Nuclear”, Linguistic literacy, page 28. RANDERS, J. 2052: A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years. Vermont: Chelsea Green, 2012, p. 110.

Affirmative form

Affirmative sentences in the future progressive have the following structure: subject + will (or’ll) + be + main verb + -ing.

This Is What Students Will Be Doing in 2035”

Available at . Accessed on March 6, 2016.

Negative form

In negative sentences, the structure used is will + not (or won’t) + be + main verb + -ing.

Scientists will not be creating babies, with the modified embryos destroyed after seven days.”

Available at . Accessed on March 6, 2016.

Interrogative form

Interrogative sentences present an inversion in position between will and the subject, i.e., will comes before the subject.

We know it will land… but the only question is how fast will it be going?”

Available at . Accessed on March 6, 2016.

UNIT 1 Expressing future time (II)

Be going to

The future with be going to (also known as future in present) expresses events that have been planned or scheduled for the future, as well as predictions that are likely to happen because of present evidence.

Now I’m going to read you a list of things that may or may not happen in the next 50 years.”

“Survey questions”, Reading literacy, page 18. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Affirmative form

Affirmative sentences in this verb tense have the following structure: subject + verb to be in the present simple (am/is/are) + going to (or the informal form gonna) + main verb in the base form.

It’s not going to be Big Brother on Mars — it’s going to be the most exciting story of all time.”

“‘It’s not going to be Big Brother on Mars — it will be the most exciting story of all time: Mars One founder remains convinced he is going to the Red Planet”, Reading literacy, page 44. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Negative form

In negative sentences, not is added after the verb to be (so isn’t — in case the subject is he, she or it — or aren’t — in case the subject is you, we or they — can be used instead). The structure, then, is subject + verb to be + not + going to + main verb in the base form.

“‘We’re sending the best smart people to Mars, they’re not going to believe they’re on Mars if they’re in Earth gravity,’ he said.”

“‘It’s not going to be Big Brother on Mars — it will be the most exciting story of all time’: Mars One founder remains convinced he is going to the Red Planet”, Reading literacy, page 44. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Interrogative form

Interrogative sentences present an inversion in position between the verb to be and the subject, i.e., the verb to be comes before the subject.

How is it going to change the way we connect?”

Available at . Accessed on March 6, 2016.



Present simple

The present simple might be used to report scheduled or arranged events in the future which do not depend on the participant (sometimes called the timetable future).

A second crew departs from Earth and arrives in 2027.”

“Mars One’s Ambitious Timeline”, Linguistic literacy, page 46. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

The crew departs for Mars and lands near the outpost in 2025.”

“Mars One’s Ambitious Timeline”, Linguistic literacy, page 46. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Affirmative form

Affirmative sentences in the present simple have the verb in the base form (infinitive without to). However, if the subject is the third person singular (he, she or it), -s is added to the verb.

Mars One sends a second rover, two living units, two life support systems and a supply unit to Mars, to form the habitat.”

“Mars One’s Ambitious Timeline”, Linguistic literacy, page 46. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Negative form

In negative sentences with the verb to be, not is added after am, is or are (or the contracted forms isn’t or aren’t can be used for the last two forms). However, if the main verb is not the verb to be, an auxiliary is used to form negative sentences: do not (or don’t) or does not (or doesn’t) followed by the main verb in the base form.


Página 197

Because the train doesn’t leave for another five hours, they invite me to join them for lunch in town.”

Available at . Accessed on March 6, 2016.

Interrogative form

In interrogative sentences with the verb to be, there is an inversion in position between the subject and the verb to be, i.e., the verb to be comes before the subject. If the main verb is not the verb to be, interrogative sentences in the present simple are usually formed by placing an auxiliary verb (do ordoes) before the subject and using the main verb in its base form.

When does your flight leave and where from?”

Available at . Accessed on March 6, 2016.

Present progressive

The present progressive might be used to refer to plans or arrangements for the future which the participant considers very likely to happen.

“‘We are not sending average people to Mars, they will be very healthy,’ he said.”

“‘It’s not going to be Big Brother on Mars — it will be the most exciting story of all time’: Mars One founder remains convinced he is going to the Red Planet”, Reading literacy, page 44. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Affirmative form

Affirmative sentences in the present progressive have the following structure: subject + verb to be in the present simple (am/is/are) + main verb + -ing.

“‘We’re sending the best smart people to Mars, they’re not going to believe they’re on Mars if they’re in Earth gravity,’ he said.”

“‘It’s not going to be Big Brother on Mars — it will be the most exciting story of all time’: Mars One founder remains convinced he is going to the Red Planet”, Reading literacy, page 44. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Negative form

In the negative form, not is added after am, is or are (or the contracted forms isn’t or aren’t can be used for the last two forms).

We’re not just sending strangers, we’re sending our TV friends, and that’s going to be a big difference.”

Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Interrogative form

In interrogative sentences, there is an inversion in position between the subject and the verb to be, i.e., the verb to be comes before the subject.

Re-assessing the science wars: where are science studies now, and where are they going tomorrow?”

Available at . Accessed on March 6, 2016.



UNIT 1 Expressing levels of probability: modal auxiliaries and adverbs

Modal auxiliaries

In order to express different levels of probability, some modal auxiliaries can be used, each conveying a different degree of likelihood.

a Might/Could

In addition to asking them for their predictions about the long-term future of scientific advancement, we also asked them to share their own feelings and attitudes toward some new developments that might become common features of American life in the relatively near future.”

“U.S. Views of Technology and the Future”, Reading literacy, page 22. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Earth plants could eventually be grown in Martian soil too, assuming they get enough sunlight and carbon dioxide.”

“Will we ever colonize Mars?”, Reading literacy, page 39. Available at



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