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Communication

Understanding and communicating ideas



Critical Thinking

Understanding and dealing with reality



THE 4 C’S OF 21ST- CENTURY SKILLS

?

Collaboration

Working with others



Creativity

Producing high quality work

7 How important is it for students from the 21st century to keep these 4 C’s in mind?

Professor/a, espera-se que os/as estudantes percebam que as habilidades de pensamento crítico, comunicação, colaboração e criatividade são importantes porque eles/elas precisam utilizar as informações às quais têm acesso para resolver problemas, comunicar-se com pessoas de diferentes culturas por meio da tecnologia e trabalhar em equipe, ajudando os/as colegas e aprendendo com eles/elas, além de entender melhor a realidade e tentar encontrar soluções criativas para os problemas que possam surgir.

8 Think beyond studying. How may the 4 C’s enable you to perform better in life?



Respostas pessoais.

Discuss

In your opinion, what makes a good student?

Do you consider yourself a good student? Why?

What do you do to make your learning process more effective?


Página 188

PROJECT

Running a social campaign

Phase 4 Giving a speech

Objective: In this phase, you are going to develop a speech to promote the ideas and arguments of your social campaign.

1 If you look at some well-known speeches, you will notice that most of them have very basic traits. These steps will help you make your first considerations about speeches.

I Find videos or podcasts of famous people giving a speech. Then watch/listen to some of them and choose one that you consider particularly effective.

II Why do you consider it an effective speech? In your notebook, take notes of its key elements.

III Finally, discuss these questions with your group.

a What was the topic of the speech?

b Who did the speech target?

c What were the arguments? How were they developed?

d During the speech, did the speaker use body language to convey the message? How?

IGOR AOKI

2 Now you will go through the process of preparing a speech. Follow these steps.

I Plan the speech carefully. Its topic, objective and supporting points must be clear. If you need to revise these aspects, go back to phase 1 and read out activity 3 (page 54).

II Make sure the speech has an introduction stating the topic and providing an overview of the speech, a body with the supporting points and a conclusion that restates the topic.

III Write the speech. It is a good idea to start with a catchy sentence to grab the audience’s attention. You may use one of the quotes you researched in phase 2 (page 102) as a hook.



Professor/a, por este ser o momento de preparação dos discursos, é importante acompanhar de perto o trabalho de cada grupo.

IV Decide whether you are going to write out your speech or write an outline of it on index cards. To make this decision, consider how familiar you are with the topic of the speech. If you feel comfortable, you may opt for the outline with concise sentence fragments or even single key words. If you feel insecure about the speech, write out the whole speech as you will deliver it.

3 Now deliver the speech to the rest of your group, who will evaluate it and suggest adjustments. This is a rehearsal for the delivery of the speech in the upcoming campaign rally in the final phase. It’s also time to decide which speech will be delivered that day and who will deliver it. Follow these steps.

Professor/a, o discurso só será pronunciado na fase final do projeto, mas esta atividade é uma oportunidade para que cada membro do grupo pronuncie o seu, tanto como ensaio quanto para que seja escolhido o discurso a ser pronunciado no dia do evento. Neste momento, os demais membros do grupo ajudarão atuando como o público e sugerindo eventuais ajustes.

I Practice your speech.

II Establish eye contact and look around the audience and not at a single point. Also, deliver the speech calmly and remember to pronounce words clearly. Pay attention to your tone of voice and body language too.

III At the end, interact with the audience in a question and answer session. Remember to prepare yourself for this part.

IV Decide who in the group will deliver the speech.

Rally

“A gathering, especially one intended to inspire enthusiasm for a cause […].”

“A large gathering of people for a common purpose, especially for some political cause […]”

Available at . Accessed on March 9, 2016. Suppressions for pedagogical purposes (omission of excerpts with inadequate language level or advertising) marked with […].



4 In your group, discuss the speech delivery. This feedback should be used for adjusting and improving the speech.

ALEX KALMBACH/ ISTOCKPHOTO


Página 189

REFLECTING ABOUT WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED

People who make a difference

ANSWER THE QUESTIONS IN YOUR NOTEBOOK!

1. What topics have you learned about in this unit?

2. What did you like or didn’t like about this unit? Why?

3. What linguistic elements (grammar and vocabulary) have you learned in order to talk about these topics or understand more about them?

4. How can the study skills you have learned in this unit help you both at school and outside it?

5. How can you apply what you have learned in this unit in your life (personal life, future studies and professional career) and in your community?

6. How can the study of the topics in this unit help you improve society?

7. Discuss your notes with your teacher and classmates. How can they help you make the most of your learning? And what can YOU do?

ART: AMANDA SAVOINI; PHOTOS: 1- FOTORRO/SHUTTERSTOCK, 2- J EVERYTHING/SHUTTERSTOCK, 3- HINTAU ALIAKSEI/SHUTTERSTOCK, 4- SUBJUG/ISTOCKPHOTO, 5- THINKSTOCK

Professor/a, esta seção deve funcionar como um registro de aprendizagem dos/as estudantes e, ao mesmo tempo, como um momento de reflexão sobre os conhecimentos adquiridos e de análise de sua aplicação pessoal, social e profissional. Sugere-se reservar um tempo da aula para esta discussão, de forma que eles/elas possam compartilhar suas anotações e discuti-las com os/as colegas. Esta atividade pode servir como um estímulo aos/às estudantes, que se sentirão ouvidos/as, além de ser um instrumento para que você possa refletir sobre o processo de ensino e apredizagem e perceber eventuais ajustes necessários ao andamento das aulas.

Unit...

1) I’ve learned...

2) I...

Date...
Página 190

PROJECT



Running a social campaign

Final Phase Holding a campaign rally

Objective: In this final phase of the project, you will organize a rally event to promote all the campaigns that have been developed.

1 Now start planning the event. Together with the whole class, discuss these questions to decide on the basics of organizing a rally.



Professor/a, se necessário, pedir aos/às estudantes que voltem à página 188 e revejam a definição de “rally”.

a What goals do you seek to achieve with the rally? It will depend on the objectives of the other groups’ campaigns.

b What is it going to be called?

c Who do you want to reach?

d How many people are expected to attend?

e Where at school is the campaign rally taking place?

2 Next you need to draw up the schedule. Get together with your classmates to make the decisions. Follow these steps.

I Answer these questions. They are meant to help you with the schedule. Take notes of the answers in your notebook.

a What is the best date for the rally?

b What part of the day do you think would be a good time to meet? Morning, afternoon or evening?

c What activities will the event have?

d What time will the activities take place?

Among the activities, you should include the exhibition of the videos produced in phase 1, the display of the posters from phase 2, the handing out of the leaflets created in phase 3 and the delivery of the speeches prepared in phase 4. Also, invite a guest speaker to open the event. Choose someone who has made a difference in a social cause.

II Have someone make the schedule of the event based on the decisions made. The schedule must bring information about the time the rally is supposed to start and finish, as well as the list of activities in the event and their corresponding time.

III When the first draft of the schedule is ready, have everyone take a look at it. Make suggestions if you feel it needs improvement.

Tip

Here is a suggestion of schedule for the rally:

The event would start at a given time, with a 15-minute lecture by a guest speaker. He/she would be introduced by the master of ceremony.

Following the lecture, people would have the chance to get to know the campaigns as they watch the video and read the posters.

IV Edit the schedule and work on the layout. Information should be easy to find and follow. Then share the final draft of the schedule with your classmates for approval.

V On the day of the event, copies of the schedule should be available at the place where the event is happening.



ALEX KALMBACH/ ISTOCKPHOTO



REPRODUCTION


Página 191

3 Another important aspect of a campaign rally is to advertise the event. Follow these steps.



Professor/a, pode ser interessante mostrar aos/às estudantes que eles/elas podem utilizar os conhecimentos sobre gêneros textuais e discursivos estudados ao longo do ano letivo para auxiliar na produção do material de divulgação.

I With all your classmates, think of ways to spread the word about the rally. Remember to advertise it all over the school and its surroundings. Here you will find some suggestions:

Send e-mails to people who would be interested in the event.

Create an event on a social media platform.

Write posts for social media networks.

Post on free newspaper websites and blogs.

Make posters and leaflets with information about the rally, such as date, time and place. You should use what you have learned in phases 2 and 3 to produce them.

IGOR AOKI

II Pick your choice(s) of advertising.

III Consider what you will need to get ready to advertise according to what you chose in step II. This may include creating materials or adjusting some you may already have. Also, it is important to decide who will be in charge of posting online, if necessary.

IV Now spread the word.

4 The next lines are meant to give instructions for the day of the event. They may be used as a checklist.



Professor/a, sugere-se conscientizar os/as estudantes de que é importante se preocupar não apenas com o produto final do evento, mas com todo o seu processo, desde a montagem e o acompanhamento do seu desenvolvimento até a avaliação.

Before the event starts, …

I arrive early and get the place ready.

II put signs up so that people know where to find rooms.

III make copies of the schedule available. They could be placed on a table at the entrance, on the walls or they could be handed out.

IV check if all materials are available, according to what will be needed and/or has been requested (computer, cables, cords, stationary, glasses, bottles of water etc.).

While the event is happening, …

V be available to help out throughout the event.

VI walk around to help solve issues and make sure the event is happening as expected.

After the event has finished, …

VII get back to people to thank them for their participation and ask for feedback on the rally. It can be done through e-mail, paper or social media platforms.

VIII Together with your classmates and teacher, assess the event. You may use the following questions:

a How did the event go? Were your expectations met?

b What do you feel were some positive aspects of the event?

c Did anything go wrong? What? Why? What could have been done to avoid or to fix it?

d What was the general feedback from the audience?



Professor/a, é possível ler o conteúdo do panfleto na página 129, caso necessário.

COURTESY OFFICE OF PUBLIC WORKS, IRELAND



KERKLA/ISTOCKPHOTO


Página 192

Exams



Inferencing

1 What do you consider important when reading and interpreting a text? In pairs, discuss the alternatives.



Professor/a, todas as alternativas são importantes para a leitura e a interpretação de textos. Sugere-se que, após os/as estudantes discutirem em duplas as alternativas, estas sejam debatidas com toda a turma, de forma a checarem sua compreensão sobre elas.

a Understanding what the words mean in context.

b Reading between the lines.

c Considering prior knowledge about the theme/topic of the text.

d Using context clues to help figure out meanings, such as definitions, examples and restatements, in a passage.

e Infering meaning from metaphors, connotative words, proverbs and sayings etc.

2 In order to interpret a text, a reader has to rely on literal and inferential meanings. In your notebook, match them to their definition.

Professor/a, ao falar sobre inferência, é importante ressaltar para os/as estudantes que qualquer informação não explícita em um texto só pode ser considerada em uma interpretação se for consistente com ele, isto é, se a informação inferida for coerente com as informações explicitadas no texto.

a Literal meaning

b Inferential meaning

I “Based on interpretation; not directly expressed.” b

II“Conforming or limited to the simplest, nonfigurative, or most obvious meaning of a word or words.” a

Available at ; . Accessed on March 9, 2016.

3 Which alternatives from activity 1 help get the literal meaning in a text? What about the inferential meaning?

Literal meaning: a, d Inferential meaning: b, c, e

4 Read the cartoon in activity 6. What literal meaning can be understood from it?



Respostas possíveis: A man is in a psychologist’s office. He is lying on a couch, having a conversation with the psychologist. The professional seems to be listening attentively. The quote reads that the man was replaced by a smartphone app (technology) created by a teenager.

Tip

You can get the literal meaning by describing what you see in the picture and referring to explicit written information.

5 Go to the cartoon in activity 6 and answer these questions.

a What do you know about psychology sessions and psychologists’ offices?



Respostas pessoais. It is believed that people see psychologists when they want to work on a problem. The psychologist will listen attentively to the patient’s issue and help him/her understand it and work on it. In a psychologist’s office there will probably be a couch so that patients feel more comfortable and therefore freer to talk.

b What information can be inferred when the patient refers to his job by using the past tense?



It can be inferred that the patient used to have a job, but doesn’t have it anymore.

c Reflecting on technology and its impact on jobs, what do the patient’s words “was replaced by a [smartphone] app” suggest?



Respostas possíveis: The patient’s words refer to one of the negative impacts of technology on jobs, which concerns the substitution of humans for machines.

d What is the main point of the cartoon?



Through the use of satire, the cartoon criticizes the negative impacts of technology on jobs.
Página 193

6 Now read the exam question. Then answer these questions in your notebook. Universidade de Brasília (UnB) — Vestibular UnB/2014



©AARON BACALL/CARTOONSTOCK

At my job I was replaced by a smartphone app that was created by a teenager.”

Internet: < http://www.cartoonstock.com>



29 From the cartoon above, it can be deduced that

A the patient is jobless.

B the teenager replaced the man in his job.

C most teenagers are able to produce smartphones.

D smartphones make people redundant.

a What is the correct alternative?



Alternative “a”.

b What makes the other alternatives incorrect?



The other alternatives are incorrect because they mention information that is not consistent with the visual and written texts in the cartoon. The quote reads that a smartphone app, not a teenager, replaced the patient. Also, the written text says that a teenager created an app, but there is no evidence that supports the idea that most teenagers can produce smartphones. Furthermore, it is not possible to generalize the patient’s experience and say that smartphones make people redundant; if modals were used in the statement, that could make it true, because the statement would be tentative, not assertive.

7 Cartoons frequently use comical effects to convey their message by expressing something different from, and often opposite to, their literal meaning. This is known as irony. How is it created in the cartoon in activity 6?



The man was fired from his work because of the “work” of a teenager, who developed an app that can supposedly replace his function.

8 Get together with a classmate and, in your notebook, answer the questions about the following cartoon. Use your knowledge on literal and inferential meanings and do not read the exam question yet.


Página 194

Universidade de Brasília (UnB) — Vestibular UnB/2014



© MORRIS/BUSINESS CARTOONS

What we need in this organisation is more personal contact.”

30 The cartoon suggests that

A the boss sets a good example when he claims there should be more personal contact.

B the staff doesn’t think more face-to-face conversation is needed.

C the cartoon presents a contradiction.

D the organisation is about to fail because people don’t socialize.

a Where are these people? Who are they? How do you know that?



They are in a meeting room (the round table and the glasses on it help set that context). They seem to be businesspeople, as they are all wearing suits, and the window behind them shows the view of factories, which may relate to a business environment. That is also confirmed by the word “organisation” in the written text.

b What are they doing? What were they expected to be doing?



They are having a video conference. As the boss is emphasizing the importance of personal contact, it would be expected that the meeting was face to face.

c What do the words in the cartoon imply?



The words imply that they lack personal contact.

d How do the words relate to the picture? Do they match?



The meaning of the words and of the picture do not match, but mean opposite things. The idea of personal contact is denied by the image of people having a video conference.

e What is the main point of the cartoon?



The cartoon criticizes the negative impact of technology on human relationships, even at the business level.

9 Which questions in activity 8 can be answered based on literal meaning? Which are based on inference? Questions “a” and “b” can be answered based on literal meaning; questions “c”, “d” and “e” require the use of inference.

10 Now read the exam question and, in your notebook, choose the best alternative. Then, say what is wrong with the other alternatives.

The best alternative is “c”. The other alternatives present information that do not relate to the cartoon. Alternative “a” is wrong because the boss does not set a good example of personal contact, as he talks to his employees using technology instead of face-to-face communication; “b” is wrong because there is no information in the cartoon that supports the idea that the staff do not think face-to-face conversation is needed; “d” is wrong because nothing in the cartoon would allow inference about the bankruptcy of the organization.

Discuss

How has learning about inference helped you answer the questions?

Besides answering exam questions, in what other situations can you use inference?

UnB/20 14 (questão 29): A. UnB/2014 (questão 30): C.


Página 195

Language reference

UNIT 1Expressing future time (I)

Future simple

The future simple expresses predictions about the future which are not based on present evidence (many of them are decisions made at the moment of speaking). Therefore, sentences in the future simple refer to future events as possibilities.

Overall, most Americans anticipate that the technological developments of the coming half-century will have a net positive impact on society.”

“U.S. Views of Technology and the Future”, Reading literacy, page 22. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Affirmative form

Affirmative sentences in the future simple have the following structure: subject + will (or ’ll) + main verb in the base form.

Almost everyone will be temporarily or permanently impaired at some point in life, and those who survive to old age will experience increasing difficulties in functioning.”

“Understanding disability”, Audio literacy, page 14. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, World Report on Disability. Geneva, 2011, p. 3. Available at . Accessed on April 5, 2016.

Negative form

In negative sentences will not (or won’t) is used. The structure, then, is subject + will not (or won’t) + main verb in the base form. Another possibility is using the adverb never instead of not.

It’s important to remember that sometimes just because we have access to new technologies does not mean that older technologies won’t suffice.”

“The Right Technology May Be a Pencil”, Study skills, page 53. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

The mission is a one-way trip, and those who are selected to go will never return to Earth.”

“These People Have Volunteered to Live and Die on Mars”, Reading literacy, page 43. Available at . Accessed on March 3, 2016.

Interrogative form

Interrogative sentences present an inversion in position between will and the subject, i.e., will comes before the subject.

What will our cities be like? How will we eat? Will global warming trigger catastrophic changes, or will we be able to engineer our way out of the climate crisis?”

Available at




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