10 What makes a report formal or informal? Build the chart in your notebook and complete it with the phrases from the box.
Few personal pronouns /Neutral verbs (non-emotive verbs) / Use of active voice / Use of passive voice / Use of personal pronouns (I, you, we etc.) / Verbs that show feelings (I think, we feel, I am pleased etc.)
Use of active voice Use of personal pronouns (I, you, we etc.) Verbs that show feelings (I think, we feel, I am pleased etc.)
Information available at . Accessed on January 12, 2016.
11 Based on this excerpt from the report “U.S. Views of Technology and the Future”, do the activities in your notebook.
“Overall, most Americans anticipate that the technological developments of the coming half-century will have a net positive impact on society. Some 59% are optimistic that coming technological and scientific changes will make life in the future better, while 30% think these changes will lead to a future in which people are worse off than they are today. Many Americans pair their long-term optimism with high expectations for the inventions of the next [half-century]. Fully eight in ten (81%) expect that within the next 50 years people needing new organs will have them custom grown in a lab, and half (51%) expect that computers will be able to create art that is indistinguishable from that produced by humans.”
a When reporting the results of a survey, the figures gathered should be given in the form of percentage, proportion and/or less exact expressions. Find in the text examples of each form.
Percentage: “81% [of Americans] expect that within the next 50 years people needing new organs will have them custom grown in a lab”; “51%[of Americans] expect that computers will be able to create art […]”.
Proportion: “Fully eight in ten […] expect that within the next 50 years, people needing new organs will have them custom grown in a lab”; “half […] expect that computers will be able to create art […]”.
Less exact expressions: “Many Americans pair their long-term optimism with high expectations […]”; “Fully eight in ten (81%) expect that within the next 50 years people needing new organs […]”.
b Find verbs that are used to report people’s ideas, thoughts and expectations.
“Anticipate”, “think” and “expect”.
12 Now write the first draft of the report of the survey you carried out in activity 4. Use the information you have learned in this section. These tips and useful language may help you too.
Tip • Use subheadings and bullet points when appropriate, but also include paragraphs with topic sentences.
• You may use the present tense, reported speech and passive voice when writing your report.
To introduce a topic The purpose/aim of this report is…
The questionnaire consisted of…
This survey was carried out/conducted by means of…
To generalize In general, …
On the whole, …
To refer to a fact In practice, …
The fact is that…
To conclude/summarize All in all, …
All things considered, …
In conclusion, …
The survey shows/indicates/demonstrates that…
To sum up, …
13 Exchange drafts with a partner. As you read his/her work, try to identify these elements in his/her report: background and objective; methodology; findings and discussion; and conclusion. Then give him/her some feedback, using this checklist to help you. Also, ask for your teacher’s feedback.
Structure and content
• Does it contextualize and state the objective of the research?
• Does it include the methodology in terms of participants and method of data collection?
• Does it contain details about the survey and their interpretation?
• Does it sum up the main points of the survey, as stated in the introduction and body, and/or make a recommendation?
• Does the report have a clear and concise language?
• Does it make use of formal language (passive voice, non-emotive verbs, few personal pronouns)?
• Does it use proper words/expressions (related to percentage, proportion, less exact expressions) to report the results of the survey?
• Were reporting verbs used appropriately?
• Are words spelled correctly?
ART: AMANDA SAVOINI; PHOTO: WDSTOCK/ISTOCKPHOTO
14 Now write the final version of your report, having in mind your teacher’s and your partner’s feedback and the checklist in the previous activity.Respostas pessoais. Página 34
15 Discuss these questions with your classmates in order to reflect on your writing production.
a What are the positive aspects of your writing process overall?
b What would you add when writing your next report?
c What aspects need improvement?
Share your report with your community, including the respondents of the survey (if necessary, provide them with a translation of the report in Portuguese). Ask people for feedback.
Write a summary of your report and post it online or, if you prefer, post your report in full. Then, share the link with your friends and have them share it with others. This way, your report reaches more people, and comments usually follow the post on online platforms.
Professor/a, recomenda-se que, após a discussão em grupos, ela seja estendida a todos/as os/as estudantes para que, assim, seja ampliada e aprofundada a partir de diferentes pontos de vista.
a How often do you hear or read about women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics)? What about male scientists? Respostas pessoais.
b What stereotypes are held about women and men regarding job positions? What is the reasoning behind those stereotypes?
Respostas pessoais. Professor/a, é importante discutir com os/as estudantes que estereótipos são ideias preconcebidas, generalizações sobre características ou comportamentos que, sem qualquer tipo de embasamento, acabam por legitimar (injustamente) determinados grupos em detrimento de outros. Por essa razão, estereótipos não podem ser representativos de pessoas e/ou situações.
2 In this section, you will be engaged in a discussion about women in science. Do you know the difference between a discussion and a debate? Read these statements and, in your notebook, decide whether they represent a discussion or a debate.
a It tends to contribute to the formation of an abstract notion of community. Discussion
b It is oppositional: two sides oppose each other and attempt to prove each other wrong. Debate
c It is often conducted with the primary goal of increasing clarity and understanding of an issue. Discussion
d It defends assumptions as truth. Debate
e It creates a closed-minded attitude, a determination to be right. Debate
f Winning is the goal. Debate
g It tends to encourage individual sharing, sometimes at the expense of listening to and inquiring about others’ perspectives. Discussion
h It can be open or closed-ended. Discussion
Information available at . Accessed on January 12, 2016.
3 Considering the distinction studied in the previous activity between discussion and debate, in your notebook, choose the alternatives that refer to attitudes expected in a classroom discussion.
a Be prompt to participate actively.
b Resort to pauses and silences to allow some time to think, when necessary.
c Make brief and clear statements and ask for clarification if you don’t understand what someone else has said.
d Argue for only one position.
e Hold the turn of speaking for a long time and prevent others from sharing their views. f Listen attentively to your classmates’ points.
g Be closed-minded and do not allow for viewpoints that differ from yours.
h Use examples to make complex ideas or concepts easier to understand.
i Try to convince others of the correctness of your view.
Information available at . Accessed on January 12, 2016.
Resposta: a; b; c; f; h
4 Now read this news article and answer the questions in your notebook.
“After asserting that female scientists should be segregated from their male peers because they distract them, fall in love with them and cry, British biochemist Tim Hunt issued a half-hearted apology Wednesday — and women in science are letting him have it.
Hunt, 72, a Nobel Prize winner and fellow with the United Kingdom’s prestigious Royal Society science body, came under fire this week for advocating for single-sex labs in a speech at the World Conference of Science Journalists in South Korea,
‘Three things happen when [women] are in the lab: You fall in love with them, they fall in love with you and when you criticize them, they cry,’ said Hunt.
Following a backlash, Hunt went on BBC radio Wednesday morning to say he’s ‘really, really sorry’ for offending people but that he was just telling it like it is.
‘I did mean the part about having trouble with girls,’ he said. ‘I have fallen in love with people in the lab and people in the lab have fallen in love with me and it’s very disruptive to the science.’
Inequality for women in science is a chronic problem. In 2012, researchers at Yale found that physicists, chemists and biologists are likely to favor a young male scientist over a woman with nearly identical qualifications and are more willing to offer the man a job, the New York Times noted. Researchers in the study observed that when women got hired, their salaries averaged nearly $4,000 less than what men are paid.
‘Girls’ in the science community meanwhile responded brilliantly to Hunt’s lunacy on Twitter. […]”
Excerpt from the text available at . Accessed on January 12, 2016.
a What is being discussed in the news article?
Inequality for women in science.
b Who wrote the article? Does it make a difference whether the author is a man or a woman? What may be the implications of that?
The author is a woman named Lydia O’Connor. Considering the topic is on inequalities for women in science, a woman writing about that would probably feel more engaging than a man, though it would be totally fine for a man to write about such issue, depending on his point of view on the subject.
c According to the article, who offended the female scientists? Would that have a different effect if it were a woman offending female scientists?
Tim Hunt, 72, offended the female scientists. It is different having a male scientist offending female scientists with sexist comments, as it reinforces ideologies such as the superiority of man and the claim that science is a male field.
d What does Hunt do? How does he compare to most female scientists in professional terms?
Hunt is a biochemist, Nobel Prize winner and fellow with the United Kingdom’s Royal Society science body. Compared to the female scientists, Hunt is in a more priviledged position (both because of his job and status and because of his gender, as he suffers less prejudice and has more chances than women), therefore he has more power. His offense is related to the exercise of power through dominant ideologies.
e What was Hunt’s offense?
Advocating single-sex labs because, according to him, female scientists distract men, fall in love with them, cause them to fall in love and cry.
f Hunt refers to female scientists as “girls”. Is that offensive? Why?
To refer to a grown woman as a “girl” may be sexist and offensive. It may have the connotation of infantilizing an adult (for example, when it is meant to say someone acts like a child), as well as diminishing and patronizing a woman.
g What stereotypes about men and women are legitimized in Hunt’s offense?
He generalizes women as being sensitive, emotional, sexy and attractive, thus not suitable to work in a science lab along with men (as women are “disruptive to science”). Women are blamed for disrupting science because of these features, not men, even though they are the ones who supposedly cannot concentrate and fall in love (and, even if that happens, it is still the woman’s fault). These stereotyped gender roles and behaviors also reinforce the ideology of men being more suitable to science than women.
h What are some of the inequalities for women that are mentioned in the text? Can you think of any other inequality not mentioned?
Women are less likely to get a job as a scientist when competing with men, even though they may have nearly identical qualifications. Besides, women get paid less than men in similar positions. Respostas pessoais.
i How would you have reacted?
5 Based on what you have read and your answers in activity 4, discuss the content of the text with your classmates.
Respostas pessoais. Professor/a, recomenda-se chamar a atenção dos/as estudantes para discursos machistas e preconceituosos, bem como para qualquer outro estereótipo que possa surgir na discussão, para que sejam problematizados e desconstruídos. Página 37
6 What concluding remarks wrap up the discussion you just had with your classmates? Do they reflect what you all think?
Respostas pessoais. Professor/a, a discussão desta seção tem, simultaneamente, caráter aberto e fechado. Espera-se que a abertura para as diversas perspectivas e ponderações convirja em um argumento final que desperte os/as estudantes para a desconstrução de estereótipos, fortalecendo, assim, o discurso crítico que permeia a reportagem.
7 What are some feasible ways to fight sexism at school, at work and in society as a whole?
Respostas pessoais. Professor/a, é importante que os/as estudantes listem ações antissexistas e de combate a estereótipos. Por exemplo, fazer uso consciente de expressões para se referir aos gêneros masculino e feminino (a exemplo da reportagem, que usa woman em vez de girl), participar de palestras e programas/campanhas que apoiem práticas antissexistas, denunciar casos de estereotipia e bullying etc.
8 To self-assess your participation in the discussion, reflect upon these questions. Then ask for your teacher’s comments.Respostas pessoais.
a Was your participation satisfactory? Why?
b What aspects do you need to improve for a better performance in your next discussion?
c Was the speaking activity closer to a discussion or to a debate? Why?
d Were the attitudes expected for a discussion, as seen in activity 3, followed? Were any of the attitudes not chosen in activity 3 adopted?
e What did you learn from the discussion?
f Did your opinion change throughout the discussion? How?