Protest against the military dictatorship in 1979, Brazil
PHOTOS: A- PAUL FAITH/AFP, B- THOMAS IMO/PHOTOTHEK/GETTY IMAGES, C- GL ARCHIVVE/ALAMY/GLOW IMAGES, D- ROBERT WALLIS/SIPA/CORBIS/LATINSTOCK, E- HULTON ARCHIVE/GETTY IMAGES, F- THE TIMES OF INDIA, G- SIMON & SCHUSTER, H- DAVIDE DEL GIUDICE/DEMOTIX/CORBIS/LATINSTOCK, I- AF PHOTOGRAFIE/ALAMY/GLOW IMAGES, J- RALF HETTLER/ISTOCKPHOTO, K- BETTMANN/CORBIS/LATINSTOCK, L- ARIF ALI/AFP, M- DON CRAVENS/THE LIFE IMAGES COLLECTION/GETTY IMAGES, N- VALÉRIA GONÇALVEZ/ESTADÃO CONTEÚDO/AE, O- AP PHOTO/GLOW IMAGES, P- JUCA MARTINS/OLHAR IMAGEM Página 153
Professor/a, informações adicionais sobre as personalidades apresentadas nas fotos das páginas 152 e 153 encontram-se no Guia Didático, página 248.
People who make a difference
1 What do you know about the people and the events portrayed in the pictures on pages 152 and 153? Discuss with a partner.
Respostas pessoais. Professor/a, esta atividade busca ativar o conhecimento de mundo dos/as estudantes sobre as pessoas e os eventos retratados. É importante que eles/elas se sintam à vontade para compartilhar o que sabem. Nas atividades seguintes, eles/elas poderão confirmar suas respostas e enriquecer as discussões.
2 Answer these questions to identify the personalities in the pictures and their achievements. Check your answers to activity 1 and discuss with a partner if there is any extra information you know about them.
Professor/a, para a realização desta atividade, é necessário que os/as estudantes recorram ao seu conhecimento de mundo e ao que aprenderam em outras disciplinas, como História, Biologia e Física. Se eles/elas demonstrarem dificuldade para discutir os tópicos, é possível sugerir um trabalho conjunto com os/as professores/professoras dessas matérias.
a Who started a controversial vaccination campaign? Oswaldo Cruz
b Who refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger, disobeying a racial segregation law in Alabama? Rosa Parks
c Who spent 27 years in prison for fighting against the apartheid system in South Africa? Nelson Mandela
d Who saved approximately 2,500 Jewish kids from the Holocaust in Poland? Irena Sendler
e Who worked hard to guarantee access to books and other materials for visually impaired people? Dorina Nowill
f Who changed modern medicine by introducing the first natural antibiotic (penicillin)? Alexander Fleming
g Who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center of the universe? Nicolaus Copernicus
h Who developed the Theory of Evolution? Charles Darwin
3 Match the pictures of public demonstrations on pages 152 and 153 to their historical context. Write the answers in your notebook.
I In 1964, the Armed Forces took the government in Brazil, leading a coup d’état against president João Goulart, whom they accused of having leftist orientations in a period of strong political and economic instability. The military dictatorship restricted Brazilians’ civil rights (such as the right to vote and to freedom of speech) and responded violently to its opposition, torturing and killing numerous people and sending many others into exile. Lots of oppostion movements took place during this period. The most important one, Diretas Já, took the streets in 1984, demanding direct presidential elections in the country. These claims were met in 1985, marking the end of the military dictatorship, which had lasted for 21 years. p
II The Indian independence movement emerged at the beginning of the 20th century and, after World War I, activist Mahatma Gandhi started organizing passive-resistance campaigns against the British government. The discontent with the oppressive British rule increased during World War II and, in 1947, after the imprisonment of many national leaders, the Indian National Congress accepted the creation of the independent nation of Pakistan (which was also part of the Mogul Empire), allowing the Indian Independence Bill to be signed after 200 years of British rule. f
ARTS: AMANDA SAVOINI
III In the 19th century, women in most countries had very few civil rights. They were seen as responsible only for taking care of the house and the children, which meant that there was very little room for them in the public and political spheres and that most of them were not even allowed to vote. In the United Kingdom, organized campaigns for women’s suffrage emerged in the 1860s. They became more militant over time, but when World War I started, the movement scaled down. However, in 1918, Parliament passed the Representation of the People Act, guaranteeing women the right to vote (albeit still only if they met certain requirements). c
IV After World War II, the defeated German territory was divided into four occupation zones, controlled by the United States, the United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union. Despite being located in the Soviet zone, the capital of the country, Berlin, was equally divided into four territories. In 1961, Soviet authorities decided to erect a wall separating the eastern and western sections of Berlin, due to the massive emigration to West Germany and to the tensions caused by having a city as capitalist as Berlin inside the Soviet territory. After the borders were closed and the wall was erected, people could rarely go from one section to the other. On November 9, 1989, as the Cold War weakened, people were again allowed to cross the border between the two parts of Berlin and, at that same night, they started to tear the wall apart. d
V In a country in which religion (mainly conservative Catholicism) has always played a very important role in cultural and social life, homosexuals faced enormous prejudice and discrimination. Despite having decriminalized homosexuality only in 1993, Ireland promoted a referendum in 2015 and, as a result, became the rst country to legalize same-sex marriage by popular vote, with 62% of the electorate voting in favor of gay marriage. a
VI The abolition of slavery in the United States at the end of the 19th century did not guarantee African-Americans’ civil rights and equal opportunities. Segregation, prejudice and racial violence were still common in the 20th century, especially in the southern states. In the 1950s and 1960s, the civil rights movement gained momentum, promoting civil disobedience acts and nonviolent protests throughout the country. As a result, in the 1960s the government passed some legislation (such as the Voting Rights Act and the Civil Rights Act) with a view to guaranteeing African- Americans their civil rights (including the right to vote), enforcing desegregation in buses and public schools and outlawing discrimination based on race and skin color. k
VII In many Asian countries, women face discrimination and violence and are frequently victims of physical and psychological abuse, child marriage and murder. Although some progress in terms of protecting women and guaranteeing them some civil rights has been made in Pakistan after democracy was reinstated in 2008, women’s access to property, education, employment and other elements of public life remains low compared to men’s. l
VIII In 2010, France was the first country in the world to publish a decree stating that transsexuality was no longer considered a mental illness. However, transsexuals still face a lot of prejudice and are only allowed to change their legal sex if they have undergone sex reassignment surgery. h