Voices Plus Rogério Tilio (organizador) Richmond Página 1 voices plus 3 rogério tilio

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3 This text explores some of the main formal stages and types of education across the world. Read it and complete its missing parts in your notebook with the words from the box. Some words can be used more than once.

indigenous / open / preschool(s) / primary

secondary / special / tertiary / vocational

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may alsoeducate themselves.


Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.

Education [is commonly] divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and then college, university, or apprenticeship.

A right to education has been recognized by some governments, including at the global level: Article 13 of the United Nations’ 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognizes a universal right to education. [2] In most regions education is compulsory up to a certain age. [...]

Lecture at the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, CTU, in Prague

School children sitting in the shade of an orchard in Bamozai, near Gardez, Paktya Province, Afghanistan



“______ Preschools provide education from ages approximately three to seven, depending on the country, when children enter primary education. These are also known as nursery schools and as kindergarten, except in the US, where kindergarten is a term used for primary education. […]”


“[…] In general, ______ primary education consists of six to eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. […]”

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c “In most contemporary educational systems of the world, ______ secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors to the optional, selective tertiary, ‘postsecondary’, or ‘higher’ education (e.g. university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period, or a part of it, may be called ______ secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. […] The purpose of ______ secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education, or to train directly in a profession. […]”

d “Higher education, also called ______ tertiary, third stage, or postsecondary education, is the [noncompulsory] educational level that follows the completion of a school such as a high school or secondary school. ______ Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. […] Individuals who complete ______ tertiary education generally receive certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. […] University education includes teaching, research, and social services activities, and it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as ______ tertiary education) and the graduate(or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Universities are generally composed of several colleges. […]”

e “______ Vocational education is a form of education focused on direct and practical training for a specific trade or craft. ______ Vocational education may come in the form of an apprenticeship or internship as well as institutions teaching courses such as carpentry, agriculture, engineering, medicine, architecture and the arts.”

f “In the past, those who were disabled were often not eligible for public education. Children with disabilities were repeatedly denied an education by physicians or special tutors. These early physicians [...] set the foundation for ______ special education today. They focused on individualized instruction and functional skills. In its early years, was only provided to people with severe disabilities, but more recently it has been opened to anyone who has experienced difficulty [in] learning. […]”______ special education

g “______ Indigenous education refers to the inclusion of ______ indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal and [nonformal] educational systems. Often in a post-colonial context, the growing recognition and use of ______ indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of ______ indigenous knowledge and language through the processes of colonialism. Furthermore, it can enable ______ indigenous communities to ‘reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures, and in so doing, improve the educational success of ______ indigenous students.’”
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“In 2012, the modern use of electronic educational technology (also called e-learning) had grown at 14 times the rate of traditional learning. Open ______ education is fast growing to become the dominant form of education, for many reasons such as its efficiency and results compared to traditional methods. […]”

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