Accessed on February 1, 2016. Suppressions for pedagogical purposes (omission of excerpts with inadequate language level or advertising) marked with […].
Which quotes do you agree with the most? Why?
Which one is your favorite? Why?
Which ones do you disagree with the most? Why?
2 The author of the text in activity 3 presents some questions about education. Discuss them with a partner.
Respostas pessoais. Professor/a, embora não haja respostas exatas para a maioria das perguntas apresentadas, é importante incentivar a discussão entre os/as estudantes. O texto da atividade 3 sugerirá respostas para elas.
a When does education begin?
b When does it end?
c Is education something to “have” or is it something that is “done”?
d What does it mean to be educated?
3 Scan the text. Were your answers to the questions in activity 2 similar to the ones the book presents?Respostas pessoais.
“Education_and_Democracy'>CHAPTER ONE On Education and Democracy
Everyone seems to have an opinion about education: whether it is worth having; whether it is necessary; whether they’ve had enough of it, not enough of it, or too much of it; how bad it is; how to make it better or less expensive; or how to make a profit from it. But even though everyone seems to have an opinion about it, few stop to reflect about what education might actually be.
The Latin root, ēducātiō, refers merely to the process of bringing up children. And, of course, the upbringing of children begins when they are born and ends when they are recognized as adults. This idea that education is the process of raising children into adulthood remains one of the major uses of the term in English today, but it is hardly the only way the term education is used in contemporary English. At least since the sixteenth century, English speakers have used the term to refer to the cultural development of knowledge, understanding, and character.
John Dewey began his 1887 educational manifesto, ‘My Pedagogic Creed’, by stating,
I believe that all education proceeds by the participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the [human] race. This process begins unconsciously almost at birth, and is continually shaping the individual’s powers, saturating his consciousness, forming his habits, training his ideas, and arousing his feelings and emotions. Through this unconscious education the individual gradually comes to share in the intellectual and moral resources which humanity has succeeded in getting together. He becomes an inheritor of the funded capital of civilization. […]
Dewey’s understanding of education adds some specificity and clarity to the traditional understandings mentioned above. He understands education to be something that begins at birth and does not require schools. He also understands education as a process by which individuals become members of a larger community. Typically, of course, this refers to children who wish to become members of good standing in the adult community within which they are raised, but a careful reading of the above quotation suggests that Dewey’s community includes all humanity, which, it would seem, requires all of us to pursue education throughout our lives as our circle of humanity widens as we grow, age, and learn. To ‘share in the intellectual and moral resources which humanity has succeeded in getting together’ is surely a lifelong project. Dewey’s conception of education also clearly refers to the process through which individuals become integrated into human society. It is a process that seeks the development of the whole person in a multitude of knowledge, skills, habits, and attitudes. It is primarily, though not exclusively, intellectual and moral. It is the preparation of the individual to accept their responsibility and perform their part in continuing the ever-evolving improvement and growth of our communities. It is the process by which human civilization itself grows and progresses.
All societies educate their young, even if they don’t have schools. They teach their young the customs, language, traditions, myths, and knowledge that their society upholds as true, good, or normal. Similarly, these societies teach their young what they believe to be false, bad, or abnormal. Traditional societies use educational practices that are mostly integrated into everyday life, controlled closely by the members of the local community, and only sometimes situated outside of daily life. […]
On the other hand, even though modern societies certainly have many educational practices in the everyday family and community life of the child (such as dietary and moral education), modern societies rely heavily on institutions that are removed from the practices of family and community life, such as schools and the media. In traditional societies, the customs, language, traditions, and knowledge considered true or false, good or bad, and normal or abnormal arise in the daily practices of interacting with one’s parents and other adults integrated into a common culture. In these societies, education is assumed to be an integral part of daily life. But in modern societies, much of what is learned takes place outside of the family, in a public space controlled by public institutions, such as schools and the media, leading many people to equate education with formal institutions, as something separate from ordinary daily living. Equating education with schooling, however, is inappropriate; traditional societies may not have schools, but they have education. Also, much of the education in the contemporary, modern world still occurs in the ordinary daily life of families and communities.
If we follow Dewey’s reasoning as explained above, to be educated involves a lifelong process of learning and growth; to be schooled is a formal process of instruction organized by a particular institution (typically the state, but sometimes religious or other private organizations) and usually lasting for a limited time in a person’s life span. In the contemporary world, schooling is typically compulsory, sequential, and ends in young adulthood. To become an educated person, however, requires learning after schooling ends. It is a long-term, lifelong goal. If a person has received good schooling, he or she will have developed the knowledge, skills, reasoning, creativity, and dispositions necessary to continue the process throughout life. If all a person received through schooling is a set of acquired knowledge and skills, that schooling will not have prepared her or him well for a life in pursuit of education. […]”
QUANTZ, R. A. Sociocultural Studies in Education: Critical Thinking for Democracy. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2015, p. 3-5.
4 In your notebook, answer these questions about the text.
a Where was this text taken from?
It was taken from a book named Sociocultural Studies in Education: Critical Thinking for Democracy, written by Richard A. Quantz.
b What type of text is it and what is its purpose?
It is an academic text – an excerpt from a chapter of a book – whose purpose is to present and discuss particular topics that interest a specialized audience (in this case, probably educators and social researchers) or other readers who are curious about the field.
c Which alternative best describes the style of language employed throughout the text?
I Formal: impersonal tone, absence of contractions and the first person (singular or plural).
II Neutral: non-emotional approach to the topics presented, moderate use of contractions, some interactive language (e.g. us, our).
III Informal: conversational tone, extensive use of contractions and the first person, constant employment of slang and figurative language.
Richard A. Quantz
Professor of Social Foundations of Education at Miami University in Ohio, United States.
5 Now read the text again and decide if these statements are true or false. Write the answers in your notebook, correcting the false statements.
a Education is a topic not widely debated in society.
False. Many people seem eager to present their opinions and judgements about education, even if only few of them stop to reflect about what it actually is.
b The author refers to etymology in order to explain the concept of education. True
c Education means exclusively the process of helping children make their transition into adulthood.
False. Education as the upbringing of children is only one of the possible uses of the term, particulary tied to the origin of the word.
d Education is not necessarily attached to schooling; it can happen even if no institutions of formal instruction are available. True
e Modern societies transfer the task of educating their children completely to external institutions, such as schools and the media.
6 In your notebook, choose the best answer for these questions.
False. Modern societies do delegate some part of the educational task to external institutions, but they also engage in educational practices inside the family and the community.
a What could be classified as “good schooling”?
I The transmission of knowledge and skills already accumulated by certain people throughout history, as a kind of “kit”.
II Students’ development of authentic knowledge, skills, creativity and reasoning which are essential for the continuity of the educational process.
Resposta: II Página 63
b How important can good schooling be for the process of education?
I Good schooling contributes to engagement in the process of education, even after the period of formal instruction. This can mean a continuing development of the person as a full citizen, who can participate in what society has already achieved in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes, and also actively contribute to social transformation.
II Good schooling increases an individual’s chances of going to university, which represents the highest achievement one can have in terms of education. Holding a university degree means the person has accumulated the most valuable educational experiences society has developed throughout the years and is therefore fully capable of taking positions of leadership in different occupations.
7 Look at the words/expressions highlighted in the text and answer the questions in your notebook.
a Which words do they refer to?
“Everyone”, “individual” and “person”, respectively.
b Do these words have a specific gender?
Except for “his”, which refers to males, the others may refer both to males and/or females.
c What can you conclude about the choice of pronouns that refer to gender-neutral words?
Professor/a, recomenda-se chamar a atenção dos/as estudantes para escolhas políticas feitas no uso da língua. Tradicionalmente, no inglês (assim como no português e em diversas outras línguas), pronomes masculinos são usados para fazer referência a termos genéricos, que abarcam entidades tanto masculinas quanto femininas (comoeveryone,individualeperson). No entanto, estratégias linguísticas mais inclusivas, como o uso dehe or sheou até mesmo do genéricotheysem necessariamente se referir a um termo no plural, vêm sendo adotadas como esforços em busca de uma maior igualdade de gênero.
8 Which of the quotes from activity 1, on page 59, best relate to these excerpts? Match them in your notebook.
Professor/a, as respostas indicadas são apenas sugestões. Recomenda-se aceitar e discutir diferentes contribuições dadas pelos/as estudantes.
a “English speakers have used the term [education] to refer to the cultural development of knowledge, understanding, and character. […] It is a process that seeks the development of the whole person in a multitude of knowledge, skills, habits, and attitudes. It is primarily, though not exclusively, intellectual and moral.” I
b “It is the preparation of the individual to accept their responsibility and perform their part in continuing the ever-evolving improvement and growth of our communities. It is the process by which human civilization itself grows and progresses.” VI
c “To become an educated person, however, requires learning after schooling ends.” II
d “If a person has received good schooling, he or she will have developed the knowledge, skills, reasoning, creativity, and dispositions necessary to continue the process throughout life. If all a person received through schooling is a set of acquired knowledge and skills, that schooling will not have prepared her or him well for a life in pursuit of education.” III, VII
e “He [Dewey] understands education to be something that begins at birth and does not require schools. He also understands education as a process by which individuals become members of a larger community. […] Dewey’s community includes all humanity, which, it would seem, requires all of us to pursue education throughout our lives as our circle of humanity widens as we grow, age, and learn. To ‘share in the intellectual and moral resources which humanity has succeeded in getting together’ is surely a lifelong project.” IV, V, VIII
9 Following all the discussions held in this section, come up with your own quote about education. Write it in your notebook and share it with your classmates.Respostas pessoais.
10 Read the following quote and discuss in small groups: what does it mean “to turn mirrors into windows”?
Professor/a, espera-se que os/as estudantes percebam que uma das interpretações possíveis para a frase de Sydney J. Harris é entender o espelho como uma metáfora do reflexo de si (o indivíduo que só enxerga a si próprio, suas crenças, seus pensamentos e suas emoções) e a janela como uma representação do exterior (a visão do outro, o conhecimento da alteridade). Dessa forma, a educação teria como objetivo possibilitar a passagem do indivíduo de uma posição em que apenas reproduz suas próprias convicções e saberes antigos para o conhecimento do outro, de formas diferentes de ser.
“The whole purpose of education is to turn mirrors into windows.”
Sydney J. Harris, 1917-1986, American journalist
Available at . Accessed on January 19, 2016.
1 Look at the pictures. What do they represent? Match them to the correct description.
Professor/a, sugere-se chamar a atenção dos/as estudantes para a palavrabrickna descrição da imagem “b”, pedindo a eles/elas que relacionem seu significado (“tijolo”) às imagens apresentadas.