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PHOTOS: A- MELANIE STETSON FREEMAN/THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR/GETTY IMAGES, B- JAUNTY JUNTO/GETTY IMAGES, C- STEVE DEBENPORT/ISTOCKPHOTO, D- RENATO SOARES/PULSAR IMAGENS, E- GEBER86/ISTOCKPHOTO, F- MARCELO HIDE/FOTOS PÚBLICAS, G- SEAN GALLUP/GETTY IMAGES, H- KRIS CONNOR/GETTY IMAGES, I- CAIAIMAGE/GETTY IMAGES, J- FERNANDO FAVORETTO


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CONTEXTUALIZATION

Education and work: different possibilities

Professor/a, sugestão de atividade complementar para esta unidade encontra-se no Guia Didático, página 241.

1 Read the title of this unit. What comes to your mind when you think about education? What about work? Respostas pessoais.

2 In pairs, explore the pictures. What observations can you make about each of them?

Professor/a, diversos elementos podem ser observados nas imagens apresentadas, entre eles diferentes tipos de trabalho e instâncias de educação, particularidades culturais e profissionais percebidas nas vestimentas e nos adereços usados, bem como na decoração ou nas instalações dos ambientes etc. Neste momento, recomenda-se deixar que os/as estudantes dissertem livremente sobre aquilo que mais lhes chamar a atenção nas imagens, que serão trabalhadas novamente adiante.
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3 There are some examples of schooling, education and training in the pictures on pages 56 and 57. In small groups, match them to these descriptions.

I A primary school in Japan where students help clean their own classroom. f

II Volunteer work with refugees from South Sudan during a sewing circle meeting provided by a Friends of Refugees program in Georgia, United States. a

III A career and technical education school, which has as one of its objectives the development of students for the workforce. c

IV A carpenter at work. e

V Drumming and music theory program on Rikers Island, a jail complex in New York. h

VI Students celebrating their graduation. i

VII A school garden project for nutrition education developed with students, teachers and the surrounding community in Brazil. j

VIII A program that provides food to migrants. g

IX A man responsible for housework and childcare. b

X An example of formal indigenous education in Brazil. d

4 Look at the words in the box. Do you think they share the same meaning? Try to define them with a partner.

Respostas pessoais. Professor/a, é possível orientar os/as estudantes a fazer referência às imagens das páginas 56 e 57 como forma de exemplificação dos conceitos trabalhados.

education / schooling / training



Professor/a, espera-se que os/as estudantes façam uma diferenciação inicial entre educação, escolarização e treinamento. É interessante chamar a atenção deles/delas, nos trechos apresentados, para a ênfase técnica do processo de treinamento, cuja importância é inegável para o mundo atual, mas que necessita do acréscimo de uma perspectiva crítica sobre as próprias atividades conduzidas para se caracterizar também como um processo educacional. Já o que se entende por escolarização diz respeito à participação em sistemas formais de ensino de conteúdos e habilidades, ao passo que educação, como um fenômeno mais amplo, incorpora também instâncias de aprendizagem que ocorrem em ambientes não institucionalizados, como nas diversas interações humanas diárias (família, comunidade etc.).

5 Now copy these definitions in your notebook and complete them with the words from activity 4.



One of them is going to be used twice. Then compare them to your own definitions. Were they similar?

a “In today’s world, many people equate education with training, but education is much more. We can train a dog, but we cannot educate a dog. We can train a person, but we can also educate a person. […] (I) ______ Training is the process through which we learn a technique or a skill or a job. It is the process of learning to reason technically to solve given problems by applying set rules. It comprises specialized knowledge and technical learning. In (II) ______ training, we typically learn how to do very specific things, such as operate a computer or balance a budget.”

QUANTZ, R. A. Sociocultural Studies in Education: Critical Thinking for Democracy. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2015, p. 4.

b “Even though many people in today’s modern societies equate education and schooling, education is a larger concept. (I) ______ Education encompasses both informal and formal learning. It envolves our everyday lived experiences as well as what we learn in such formalized institutions as schools. (II) ______Schooling is an institutionalized system that we hope leads to education. Unfortunately, too often schools focus on training, on mere knowledge and skill acquisition, and not on a full education. […] In other words, schools have the potential to educate, but education does not always occur in schools.”

QUANTZ, R. A. Sociocultural Studies in Education: Critical Thinking for Democracy. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2015, p. 5-6.

6 Discuss_with_a_partner._Then,_read_the_following_excerpt_and_check_your_answer.'>How do you define “work”? Discuss with a partner. Then, read the following excerpt and check your answer. Respostas pessoais.


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“We can define work, whether paid or unpaid, as being the carrying out of tasks requiring the expenditure of mental and physical effort, which has as its objective the production of goods and services that cater to human needs.”

GIDDENS, A.; GRIFFITHS, S. Sociology. 5. ed. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2006, p. 741-742.

Discuss

Do you have a special interest in any occupations and fields of work?

Which one(s) call your attention the most?

READING LITERACY

The meaning of education

Before reading

Professor/a, sugere-se orientar os/as estudantes a analisar as legendas das pessoas nas fotos para associá-las às citações.

1 Match the people in the pictures to what they said about education.



a

John Dewey, 1859-1952, American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer III



V

b

Paulo Freire, 1921-1997, Brazilian educator and philosopher



VII

c

Maria Montessori, 1870- 1952, Italian physician and educator



VIII

d

Nelson Mandela, 1918- 2013, South African president and anti-apartheid militant



VI

e

Jean Piaget, 1896-1980, Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher



III

f

Martin Luther King Jr., 1929- 1968, American minister and civil rights activist



I

g

Albert Einstein, 1879-1955, German physicist



II

h

Maya Angelou, 1928-2014, American writer and civil rights activist



IV

PHOTOS: A- HULTON ARCHIVE/GETTY IMAGES, B- CLÓVIS CRANCHI SOBRINHO/ESTADÃO CONTEÚDO/AE, C- GAMMA-KEYSTONE/GETTY IMAGES, D- CHRIS JACKSON/GETTY IMAGES, E- HARCOURT/AFP, F- ROLLS PRESS/POPPERFOTO/GETTY IMAGES, G- POPPERFOTO/GETTY IMAGES, H- KEN CHARNOCK/GETTY IMAGES

I “The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. But education which stops with efficiency may prove the greatest menace to society. The most dangerous criminal may be the man gifted with reason, but with no morals. […] We must remember that intelligence is not enough. Intelligence plus character — that is the goal of true education.”

II “Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school.”

III “The principal goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done.”

IV “My mother said I must always be intolerant of ignorance but understanding of illiteracy. That some people, unable to go to school, were more educated and more intelligent than college professors.”

V “Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.”
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VI “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”

VII “Liberating education consists in acts of cognition, not transferals of information.”

VIII “We discovered that education is not something which the teacher does, but that it is a natural process which develops spontaneously in the human being.”

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