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Discuss

• Do you think the predictions about space colonization will come true? Will life on Mars be ever possible?

In your opinion, will Musk’s prediction come true? Can you foresee people buying land and houses on Mars?

• In your opinion, how important is it to live on Mars? Are there other projects in life you consider more relevant?

• Whose interest is it to colonize space? Do you think society shares the same interest? Would Brazil be interested in colonizing Mars or any other planet?

Professor/a, sugere-se que, nesta questão, os/as estudantes reflitam criticamente sobre os interesses que estão em jogo ao financiar projetos de colonização do espaço, seja por parte do governo ou de empresas privadas. Seria interessante contrapor os investimentos orçamentários que algumas agências espaciais fazem ao fato de o Brasil não ter um projeto semelhante de exploração espacial.

• Will space-related scientific and technological advancement impact society for better or worse? Why?


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LINGUISTIC LITERACY

Expressing future time (II)

Professor/a, o uso do tempo futuro é sistematizado no “Language reference”, página 196. Sugere-se usar a seção a seu critério.

1 Read this excerpt from the text “Will We Ever Colonize Mars?”, on pages 39 to 41. Then answer the questions.

“With human populations exploding all over Earth, a new destination that offers plenty of room to expand is going to look like a good investment. And once transportation issues are worked out, savvy investors are likely to start buying up land.”

a What evidence or signs are there that a new destination with lots of room for people is a good investment?



“Human populations exploding all over Earth”, that is, the increase of the world’s population.

b With the increase of human populations, what may happen if people do not look for more space?



There will not be enough room for everyone.

c What kind of investment is the excerpt referring to?



Real estate (buying up land on Mars).

d If transportation to Mars is available, is this kind of investment likely to happen or not?



Investment is likely to happen.

2 What does the phrase in bold express?

a A simple prediction.

b A prediction which is likely to happen because of present evidence.

3 Think about your answer to activity 2 and say: which verb structure is used?

Verb to be + going to + verb in the base form.

4 In your notebook, match a-b to I-II.

a future simple (will + verb) I

b future in present (be + going to + verb) II

I Used for simple predictions.

II Used for predictions based on present evidence.

5 Look at the Mars One’s timeline and answer the questions.

Respostas pessoais.

MARS ONE’S AMBITIOUS TIMELINE

2015 Mars One selects candidates for full-time training.

2018 A demonstration mission is sent to Mars to test technologies, while a satellite is placed into Martian orbit. No development appears to have started on either, though.

2020 A rover is launched to Mars to find a settlement location. Again, little seems to have been shown about this rover – aside from a few concept images.

2022 Mars One sends a second rover, two living units, two life support systems and a supply unit to Mars, to form the habitat. Companies like Lockheed Martin and SpaceX will apparently help build these – but neither have confirmed this.

IGOR AOKI


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2023 The ‘outpost’ becomes operational.

2024 The crew departs for Mars and lands near the outpost in 2025. There’s no information on how the crew will pass through the atmosphere and land on the surface, though. Or even what will [take] them, how it will work, who will build it and so on.

2026 A second crew departs from Earth and arrives in 2027. ‘They are welcomed by the first crew,’ claim Mars One in their official timeline.”

IGOR AOKI

Available at . Accessed on January 14, 2016. Occasional linguistic adjustments to fit standard language marked with [ ].

a Why do you think Mars One’s timeline is being referred to as ambitious?

b What do you think of Mars One’s schedule? Is it feasible?

Exploring further

Go online and find out more about Mars One’s schedule. Look for information on the steps that were already taken, the ones yet to be followed and if the program is keeping on schedule. Share your findings with your classmates and discuss with them how likely it is for this mission to be completed.

6 Now, in your notebook, answer these questions based on the timeline.

a What does the timeline show?


I It shows that the Mars One project knows the activities they are to develop.
II It shows that Mars One has no details about activities in the future.
III It shows that the future is totally unknown, therefore, not worth planning.

Resposta: I

b Which verb tense is mostly used?


I Present simple.
II Present progressive.
III Future simple.

Resposta: I

c In this context, what is the present simple used for?


I Reporting facts.
II Describing one’s routine.
III Reporting something scheduled or arranged.

Resposta: III

d In the timeline, what does the present simple refer to?


I Past.
II Present.
III Future.

Resposta: III
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7 Now read these sentences from the text on pages 44 and 45. Then answer the questions in your notebook.

“We’re sending the best smart people to Mars […].”

“We are not sending average people to Mars […].”

a What do the sentences mean in context?

Mars One seeks to select people who fit in an adaptable context; people who are healthy and have low risk of disease; smart people that can be sent to Mars and develop the skills to survive there.

b Which verb tense is used: present simple, present progressive or future simple?



Present progressive.

c In this context, does this verb tense refer to the present or to the future?



It refers to the future.

8 What is the verb tense identified in activity 7 used to?

a To describe an activity that is happening at the moment of enunciation.

b To refer to plans or arrangements in the future.

c To talk about temporary events.

Resposta: b

9 We are going to review this verb tense’s negative and interrogative structures. In your notebook, decide whether these sentences are true or false.



Professor/a, recomenda-se orientar os/as estudantes para que, com base em exemplos de ocorrências das formas negativa e interrogativa, eles/elas consigam inferir as regras gramaticais. Se eles/elas apresentarem dificuldade, sugere-se mostrar alguns exemplos de sentenças negativas e interrogativas.

a In negative statements, not is positioned after the verb to be and before the main verb. True

b In questions, the auxiliary verb comes before the subject. True

c In the interrogative form, question words (what, when, who, how etc.) come before the auxiliary verb. True

d In negative statements, not can be contracted with the verb to be in informal situations. True

LINGUISTIC LITERACY

Expressing levels of probability: modal auxiliaries and adverbs

Professor/a, o uso de auxiliares modais e advérbios que expressam probabilidade é sistematizado no “Language reference”, página 197. Sugere-se usar a seção a seu critério.

1 Read these excerpts about colonization on Mars, taken from texts you read in this unit, and focus on the words in bold. Then, in your notebook, decide whether the statements are true or false and correct the false ones.



Professor/a, os excertos foram extraídos dos textos “Will We Ever Colonize Mars?” e “It’s Not Going to Be Big Brother on Mars”, disponíveis na seção “Reading literacy”.

I “Who knows what we might find once planetary surveys really start to open up!”

II “In short, one day, there could be real Martians — and they would be us!”

III “So unless some tragic accident happens on Mars, which would reduce life expectancy, they’ll probably be older than average humans on Earth.”

IV “But regardless of the method, possibilities exist for transforming Mars’ environment [in a way that] could make it more suitable for humans in the long run […].”

V “[…] there is likely to be a market for scientific research on Mars for centuries to come.”

VI “There may come a day when, after generations of terraforming and numerous waves of colonists, Mars will begin to have a viable economy as well.”
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VII “[…] a recent paper submitted by a group of MIT researchers — which analyzed the Mars One plan to colonize the planet beginning in 2020 — concluded that the first astronaut would suffocate after 68 days, while the others would die from a combination of starvation, dehydration, or incineration in an oxygen-rich atmosphere.”

a In sentence I, “might” indicates a remote probability. In the sentence, this refers to the idea of finding things in Mars as something remotely probable to become reality. True

b In sentence II, “could” and “would” are both used to express the probability of humans being Martians in the future.



False. In sentence II, “could” expresses the probability of Martians existing, whereas “would” is used to express the probability of humans being Martians.

c In sentence III, “probably” points to a very high degree of probability and, if omitted, the meaning of the sentence would not change.



False. “Probably” points to a medium degree of probability and, if omitted, the meaning of the sentence would change. In the excerpt, the adverb “probably” lessens the degree of probability regarding the prediction that humans in Mars will be older than average humans on Earth.

d The use of “could” in sentence IV infers that transforming Mars’ environment guarantees a more suitable place for humans to live in the long run.



False. “Could” does not guarantee that transforming Mars will result in a suitable place for humans to live. Actually, it adds the meaning of that as a weak probability.

e In sentence V, “likely” implies that a market for scientific research on Mars is a probable condition in the next centuries. True

f In sentence VI, “may” expresses the same degree of possibility as “might”; thus, it is possible to use them interchangeably. False. “Might” expresses a slightly lower degree of possibility than “may”.

g In sentence VII, “would” is used to build the probable hypotheses about the risks that astronauts from Mars One would run if sent to the planet. True

2 Modal auxiliaries are used to express levels of probability and they can be classified in terms of strength, ranging from weak to strong. In your notebook, draw a scale as presented below and place the modal auxiliaries from the box on it.

Professor/a, as respostas indicadas são apenas possibilidades, pois a interpretação da modalidade é altamente subjetiva.

can / could / may / might / should / will / would



AMANDA SAVOINI



↑ will
| would/should

↓ can may might/could

NOTEBOOK


3 Where would you place the following adverbs in the scale from activity 2?

Professor/a, as respostas indicadas são apenas possibilidades, pois a interpretação da modalidade é altamente subjetiva.

certainly / definitely / likely / maybe / perhaps / possibly / probably / unlikely



↑ Strong: definitely certainly
| Middle: probably likely
↓ Weak: possibly maybe perhaps unlikely

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CAREERS Sci-tech jobs

1 Can you think of any jobs related to science and technology? What are they?



Respostas pessoais.

2 Can you identify the jobs portrayed in the following pictures? In your notebook, use the words from the box to label them.



aerospace engineer / biochemist / computer engineer / electronics and communications technician / games developer / IT analyst / mechatronic engineer / mobile app developer / pharmacy technician / telecommunications technician / web designer









a. computer engineer b. games developer c. biochemist d. mechatronic engineer e. telecommunications technician f. IT analyst g. pharmacy technician h. aerospace engineer i. mobile app developer j. web designer k. electronics and communications technician

PHOTOS: A- OLGA MILTSOVA/SHUTTERSTOCK, B- TON KOENE/AGE FOTOSTOCK/AGBPHOTO LIBRARY, C- RAFE SWAN/GETTY IMAGES, D- BIBIPHOTO/SHUTTERSTOCK, E- HIN255/SHUTTERSTOCK, F- MIKHAIL STARODUBOV/ SHUTTERSTOCK, G- SYDA PRODUCTIONS/SHUTTERSTOCK, H- MONTY RAKUSEN/AGBPHOTO LIBRARY, I- RA2STUDIO/SHUTTERSTOCK, J- RAWPIXEL.COM/SHUTTERSTOCK, K- SCIENCE PHOTO/SHUTTERSTOCK


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3 In your notebook, match each picture from activity 2 to its corresponding job description.

I “[They] design, create, produce and maintain websites using relevant software packages. […]” j

II “[They] study the chemistry of living systems to increase scientific knowledge and develop ways to apply this knowledge in areas such as medicine, veterinary science, agriculture, environmental science and manufacturing. […]” c

III “[They] diagnose faults and repair electronic devices, including audiovisual, broadcast, business and medical equipment. […]” k

IV “[They] are involved in the installation, repair and servicing of computers and associated equipment. […]” a

V “[They] perform and supervise the design, development, manufacture and maintenance work of all types of flight vehicles. This may include military and civilian aeroplanes, helicopters, missiles, launch vehicles, spacecraft, satellites, and control and guidance systems. […]” h

VI “[They] create software for mobile devices. […]” i

VII “[…] [They] ensure medications are filled correctly in a specified window of time. […] They mostly assist in measuring, mixing, counting and labeling dosages of medications. […]” g

VIII “[They] design, create and produce computer or video games. They work in [game] development teams with artists, programmers, producers and marketing staff. […]” b

IX “[They] install, maintain and repair telecommunications and broadcasting networks and equipment. […]” e

X “[They] design and maintain machinery with electronic and computer control systems, such as aircraft, robots, motor vehicles, cameras, power generators and mining and chemical plant machinery. […]” d

XI “[They] define software requirements and specifications, and guide programme design and development. […]” f

Excerpts from the texts available at




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