Veronese's Paintings in the National Gallery Technique and Materials: Part II nicholas Penny, Ashok Roy and Marika Spring



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National Gallery Technical Bulletin Volume 17, 1996

Veronese's Paintings in the National Gallery Technique and Materials: Part II

Nicholas Penny, Ashok Roy and Marika Spring




Introduction

In the first part of this article published in Volume 16 of the ‘Technical Bulletin’, Veronese's early painting of ‘Christ with a Kneeling Woman’, his mature altarpiece for San Benedetto Po near Mantua of ‘The Consecration of Saint Nicholas’, and one of the greatest of all his heroic ‘narrative’ paintings, ‘The Family of Darius before Alexander’, were examined. Although the last of these three works is not dated, it seems to us likely to be a work of the 1560s and in this second part of the article we will examine the series of four ‘Allegories of Love' (NG 1318, 1324–6) and the painting of ‘Saint Helena’ (NG 1041) which belong, we believe, to the 1570s, as well as ‘The Adoration of the Kings’ (NG 268) which is dated 1573.



The Allegories of Love

Veronese, after initial successes in his native Verona and elsewhere in the mainland provinces of Venice in the 1540s, moved to Venice in the 1550s to paint canvases for ceilings in the Ducal Palace and in the sacristy and nave of the church of San Sebastiano. He was also one of the group of artists chosen to paint canvases for the roundels in the ceiling of the Marciana Library and his were esteemed the finest of these and awarded a prize by Titian. Although he painted important altarpieces in Venice, it was perhaps his skill as a ceiling painter which first made a great impression on his contemporaries. If we exclude works in public buildings, nothing of this kind survives in good condition in a palace or villa with the exception of the ceilings frescoed by him in the Villa Barbaro at Maser. But we may feel sure that the four approximately square canvases in the National Gallery originally served, or were intended to serve, as ceiling decoration.


These four paintings were first recorded in a posthumous inventory of the collection of the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II (note 1). They were not included in an earlier inventory, perhaps because they were not regarded as portable items but were incorporated into a ceiling in Prague Castle (or set aside with the intention of being incorporated). In Venice ceiling compartments were generally more complex shapes and no ceiling of four square compartments, or even four principal compartments, is recorded (note 2), so Veronese may have been working to the plans of Rudolph's architect, or may have considered that there was some virtue in simplicity when working for a site he could never have seen. That the paintings were intended for a ceiling, rather than for display high on a wall, is confirmed by two features. Firstly, the architectural elements within them are shown tilted at an angle, which always looks awkward in paintings hung more or less vertically. Secondly, the lower part of the compositions seem to have been cut, and in several cases the feet of some of the figures are invisible. This is usual in a ceiling painting, but very disconcerting in paintings hung on a wall.
The composition of each picture forms a strong diagonal, which would help on a ceiling to relate the paintings to each other but could serve no such purpose on a wall. This device is obvious enough in all four pictures, but is most ingenious and most subtly dramatic in the painting of the naked man being beaten by a cupid ('Scorn') where there is a double diagonal – the line of the bank and the outstretched arm of the statue is paralleled by the thigh and forearm of the principal woman, the wings of the cupid and the broken statue of a faun – against which the women's heads, the head and body of the cupid, the raised arm of the man and the tree trunk are contrasted. Veronese's love of diagonals is evident in paintings by him of all types, but what is distinctive here is the relative unimportance of verticals and horizontals.
A sheet of preliminary figure studies in pen and ink with wash includes designs for figures and figure groups in all four paintings, which shows that the compositions were developed simultaneously (note 3). It also shows that the compositions were essentially figure groups – trees and architecture, which might be fundamental scaffolding for a composition, are here accessories. The drawing also suggests one other practice of great interest. The wedded couple in 'Happy Union' were originally conceived as advancing from the left – the more usual direction for action in a picture – but were then reversed in the painting, presumably to balance the diagonal movement in the other pictures.
Rudolph, who is known to have admired Veronese's paintings intensely (note 4), is likely to have commissioned these four allegories soon after he became emperor in 1576 and it is tempting to suppose that they were made to decorate a marriage bedchamber, for the subjects, although they have never been completely and convincingly explained, are certainly connected with the trials and rewards of love (note 5). They are as obscure and elaborate as the subjects Rudolph usually favoured, but rather more edifying, with lust explicitly subdued in one scene, restraint apparently exercised in another, monogamy perhaps selected in a third and fidelity certainly celebrated in a fourth. If the paintings did play a part in such a setting then the centre of the ceiling would certainly have been likely to display the couple's united arms. And it has been ingeniously observed that the men in each picture may have been intended to gaze at such an heraldic centrepiece (note 6). Certainly some explanation has to be found for them staring out of the paintings. The only problem – a very considerable one – is that the Emperor never married.
The fact that these paintings were intended for a ceiling explains some passages of very broad and summary handling, especially in the foliage, but also in the lights on the drapery. Clearly these passages might have been left to studio assistants. However, work such as this, although rapidly executed, needed to be carefully judged, and would surely have been delegated with reluctance. Gould felt that some areas were inferior and described the putto on the extreme left by the clavichord in 'Unfaithfulness' as 'coarsely modelled' when compared with the other putto (note 7). He was, however, distrustful of dividing responsibility for the pictures between the artist and his studio, and rightly opposed to the categorical distinctions between paintings 'wholly' by the artist (NG 1318 and 1324) and others by the studio such as are found in earlier catalogues (note 8). It should be added that both the condition of parts of the pictures and the way they are displayed would inhibit assessments of quality. Slight abrasion of the globe in 'Happy Union' diminishes its rotundity. And anatomical infelicities in the nude woman enthroned upon this globe might seem brilliantly calculated were the painting to be exhibited on a ceiling.

Technique and materials


Since Veronese's four canvases constitute a series, it might be expected that the painting technique would show close similarities from one painting to another; this is born out in fact. Three of the series (NG 1324–6) were studied during cleaning in 1982; (note 9) 'Unfaithfulness' (NG 1318) was examined subsequently. Initial results of pigment and layer structure analysis acquired in the early 1980s using microscopical methods (note 10), LMA (note 11), XRD and preliminary media analyses by GC have been supplemented more recently with SEM-EDX studies and HPLC identification of lake pigment dyestuffs, particularly of the reds, using techniques described on pp. 59–63 of this ‘Bulletin’. New organic analytical results for glazes suspected to be of the 'copper resinate' type have been obtained by Jennifer Pilc using FTIR (note 12), a method that had not been available during the earlier studies. A summary of the results is presented in the Table for ease of comparison between the four compositions.
It is often suggested that these canvas paintings were painted in a technique, if not wholly simulating the appearance of ‘buon fresco’ or ‘fresco secco’, then at least of the general tonality of fresco painting, for which Veronese was justifiably admired by this late stage of his career (note 13). Working on canvas in this way would reproduce the effects attainable in fresco in paintings which could be transported to their eventual setting with relative ease. However, the painting techniques of the Allegories, as revealed by examination of samples, show more complex intentions on Veronese's part: in the use of glazes – which are not a fundamental method of fresco painting and particularly not of ‘buon fresco’ – and in the general construction of colour in the four paintings, which rests on an unexpectedly rich and varied palette.
One difficulty in interpreting Veronese's conception for this group of compositions is the extent to which the colours have changed. The likely loss of a once more powerful blue in the skies is perhaps most immediately striking, but as has been noted in an earlier account of one of the compositions, 'Respect', there are other colour changes, equally dramatic and distorting, which cannot be assessed by casual observation. The apparently inconsistent behaviour of the green glazes, some of which are well preserved whereas others are not, is one such example (note 14).
Also, there is evidence for fading in the reds where the paint layers contain red lake (dyestuff) pigments (note 15). In addition to these changes which result from alterations to pigments, there are the effects of wearing in the paint layers and the visual consequences of old, harsh relining methods used for canvases which are not only fragile but sensitive to darkening as a result of their gesso ground structures. Some of these changes serve to render the pictures darker overall; others, particularly fading of pigments, result in a general lightening of tone.
Rearick has suggested that the greyish appearance of the skies was a deliberate method of Veronese's to decrease perspectival depth in compositions designed to be seen from below; he comments on the tonality of the ‘Allegories’: 'Colour is muted to a restrained harmony of earth tones against a pallid sky of a slightly lilac hue, an unusual device and often used by Paolo in 1550 to reduce the suggestion of deep, empty space and focus attention on the foreground figures. '(note 16) But it is quite clear also that the smalt pigment used in all four paintings for the sky has suffered loss of colour, since a proportion of individual pigment particles show, under the microscope, a blue core and a decolorised periphery, characteristic of progressive loss of colour as the cobalt content is leached from the outer edges of the particles (note 17). Further, where smalt is used on its own in oil, and is therefore more vulnerable to loss of colour, as in, for example, the underlayers for the cupid's azurite-containing wing in 'Scorn', decolorisation of the smalt is total and only the yellow-brown colour of the dried oil medium is evident in the paint layer and in samples under the microscope.
Firm evidence for other colour changes comes from examination of thin paint cross-sections by transmitted light. These changes include surface embrownment of green copper-containing glazes, particularly that used for the brocade design covering the central square column in 'Respect' (note 18), when compared with constitutionally similar glazes protected on canvas edges turned over the stretcher. Similarly, a red lake glaze from the curtain, also in 'Respect', which had been protected from light under old patches of repaint, proved deeper in colour than the surrounding, exposed paint.
The basic structure of the four pictures follows many of the standard Venetian methods for painting on canvas (note 19). Although they were painted fairly late in the sixteenth century, Veronese retained the technique of applying thin gesso grounds bound in animal glue to the canvases. These are plain-weave (tabby) linen, medium in weight with average thread counts of 13 by 13 threads/cm (measured on the X-ray photographs). The canvases are fairly accurately square in format and although the dimensions now differ from one another by a few centimetres, varying amounts of the painted surfaces are turned over the present stretchers. All four compositions have a horizontal seam joining two widths of canvas roughly along the central axes of the paintings, each strip being close to the maximum standard loom width (roughly one metre) often found for Venetian canvases made up of sewn sections (note 20).
Over the gesso in each case is a thin light greyish-brown ‘imprimitura’, largely composed of lead white lightly tinted with a finely ground black pigment and some correspondingly fine warm brown, probably an earth such as umber. No large-scale or complete drawings for the series are known, although as we have noted the sheet in New York shows some ink and wash figure studies for the series (note 21). Infra-red photographs of the paintings reveal very little underdrawing in any kind of infra-red absorbing material. However, several cross-sections show a thin layer of a black dry drawing material directly on the ‘imprimitura’ and this is occasionally visible through the paint on top where it is sufficiently thin, as in, for example, the sloping profile of the tree-trunk to the left in 'Scorn'. Much of the compositional design appears to have been executed by 'drawing' with a brush using dilute dark paint, either of black, a warm dark brown or a reddish brown, depending on the compositional context, perhaps reinforcing an earlier light linear sketch in a dry medium. Very dark paint can be seen to follow the outlines of the figures, for example in the profiles of the man stretching out his arm in 'Respect' and the woman holding the olive branch in 'Happy Union'. The X-ray photographs show areas of the flesh painting usually held in reserve, the reserves indicated by this kind of 'drawing' in fluid paint. Drawing in a warmer brown paint is particularly clear in the head and torso of the woman to the left of centre in 'Scorn', while the position of her golden necklace is sketched on to the flesh paint of her upper chest in a thin line of red-brown paint.
Examination of the surfaces of the paintings in the studio and X-ray photographs of sections of the compositions do not show a great number of significant pentimenti (note 22) – most of the adjustments to the compositions apparently having been made at the brush-drawn stage of design, by shifting and correcting outlines and modifying certain other compositional relationships, mainly in architectural and foliage details. Thereafter the designs seem largely fixed, except in the precise placing of a figure, the edge of a drapery, or of the volume of a figure or an object. A clear example of a modification of this type can be seen in the backwards tilted head of the man in 'Respect' where the surrounding sky has been extended to cover the earlier outline for the crown of the head; similarly, a patch of red drapery conceals part of the cupid's wing in a minor modification to the design lower down. There are other cases, such as the outline of the dog's head in 'Happy Union'.
The binding media for the paint layers has been identified as linseed oil for some passages, with walnut oil employed in others, but use of the nut oil medium is more restricted. There is no clear pattern in the division of the two drying oils in Veronese's practice generally (note 23) and although walnut oil, believed to yellow less with age, was detected only in light-coloured areas, for example in white and in pale yellow drapery passages in 'Respect' and 'Happy Union', other white and light-coloured paints were found to contain linseed oil as the binder. The results of medium analyses of the ‘Allegories’ have been reported in earlier issues of the ‘Bulletin’ (note 24), but they are re-summarised in the Table here for convenience.
Veronese's method of painting for the ‘Allegories’ is bold, broad and free in its handling: an approach consistent with compositions planned to be seen from a distance. Even so there are brilliant touches executed on a small scale – highlights on jewellery, hair and dress – which can be appreciated only at close quarters, but presumably Veronese found these demonstrations of his highly developed painterly skills irresistible. The flesh paints show very clearly the broad nature of the technique. They are most often worked up in three incompletely blended values of shadow, middle tone and highlight. Vermilion provides the principal red component for these mixed paints and a variety of earths is incorporated to impart darker and browner hues. Green pigment, generally an olive-coloured variety of ‘terra verde’, occurs in the cooler, greener shadows of flesh, particularly where the paint is intended to have a translucent quality. The rather lean, dragged brushstrokes of desiccated looking lighter passages which contain a high proportion of white or pale yellow – a common consistency of the paint in Veronese's large later works on canvas – is the tonal aspect that most strongly recalls the look of fresco. Set against these areas, however, are the more saturated glaze-like parts of the compositions, finished in the powerful cold dark greens of 'copper resinate' glaze and turbid-looking red semi-glazing paints, which combine the translucency and colour intensity of deep red lakes with the body and density of vermilion.
The four ‘Allegories of Love’ show much of the richness of palette familiar in Venetian painting and the wide colour range of desirable and valuable materials available to painters. Lapis lazuli ultramarine, frequently employed on a grand and lavish scale in Venice, however, is not found here, but in Veronese's work this clearly does not relate to the importance of the commission or the client (note 25). Other than the smalt of the skies, blue is rarely used except for some natural azurite, laid over smalt, for the wings of the cupids both in 'Respect' and 'Scorn' and as a more widespread component of the mixed green paints employed for foliage, particularly that in 'Unfaithfulness'.
A generous use of and reliance on red lake pigments is also a characteristic of Venetian painting; in the ‘Allegories’ the deep purple-red glazes have been identified as based on the dyestuff extracted from cochineal (see p. 63 and p. 71 of this ‘Bulletin’). Although no other red lake type was detected, Veronese has constructed a considerable colour range in the reds by superimposing red glazes over pink or red underlayers consisting of white, red lake and vermilion in varying combinations and proportions, occasionally adding red lead to widen the colour range further. He has also incorporated vermilion into the red lake glazes, producing hotter, more orange-toned paints. The variation in colour and density in the reds is seen to best effect in the draperies surrounding the recumbent woman in 'Respect' and in the contrast between the hanging drapery to the right and the pinkish-red costume of the man to the left in 'Unfaithfulness'.


Painting

Paolo Veronese, ‘Allegory of Love, I’ (‘Unfaithfulness’) (NG 1318), 1570s. Canvas, 189.9 x 189.9 cm.

Ground

Gesso (note 1) + light grey-brown ‘imprimitura’ (note 2)

Medium

Linseed oil: two samples (white sheet; foliage)

Sky

Smalt (note 3) + white (note 4)

Flesh paints

Pink of woman's back: vermilion + white

Greenish shadow: white + ‘terra verde’ (note 5) (black, earths, red lead)

Darker flesh of right-hand man's neck: vermilion, red lake, red lead (note 6) (black, earths)

Mid-tone, left-hand cupid: lead white + haematite (note 7) over mixed underlayer



Red draperies

Deep red shadow on left-hand man's sleeve: red lake (note 8) + vermilion over red lake + white

Mid-tone red of left-hand man's sleeve: red lake (note 8) + vermilion over vermilion + white

Shadow of drapery, right-hand side: red lake + vermilion

Mid-tone of drapery, right-hand side: scumble of red lake + vermilion over red lake + white



Green draperies

Dark bluish-green drapery beneath woman: azurite over smalt (note 9) + white

Yellow and orange draperies

Yellow embroidery highlight on left-hand man's coat: lead-tin yellow (II) (note 10)

Darker yellow embroidery highlight: lead-tin yellow (II) (note 10)

Yellow-brown lacing on right-hand man's tunic: lead-tin yellow (II) (note 11) + vermilion (red lead)

Deep lemon yellow light of right-hand man's drapery: lead-tin yellow (I) (note 12)

Yellow-brown shadow of right-hand man's drapery: white, lead-tin yellow (I) + earths

Brightest orange of right-hand man's tunic: orpiment (note 13) + realgar (note 14)

Red-brown shadow on right-hand man's tunic: orpiment, vermilion, red lake (earths, black)

Red-brown lacing on tunic: orpiment + realgar



White and grey draperies

Pure white of drapery beneath woman: lead white

Mid-grey shadow on drapery: carbon black (note 15) + white (red lead)

Darkest grey-black shadow on drapery: scumble of black over dark grey


Foliage

Mid-yellow green highlight on leaf: browned green glaze (verdigris/'copper resinate') (note 16) over lead-tin yellow + azurite

Solid mid-green of leaf: lead-tin yellow + ‘terra verde’ (yellow lake, verdigris)

Dark brownish-green leaf, left-hand side: verdigris + yellow lake (‘terra verde’)

Dark translucent brown foliage, centre, left: verdigris/'copper resinate' (discoloured) over brown underlayer containing earths





Painting

Paolo Veronese, ‘Allegory of Love, II’ (‘Scorn’) (NG 1324), 1570s. Canvas, 186.6 x 188.5 cm

Ground

Gesso (note 1) + light grey-brown ‘imprimitura’ (note 2)

Medium

Linseed oil (?): four samples (sky; pale pink of woman's sash; orange-brown border; foliage)

Sky

Smalt (note 3) + white (note 4)

Flesh paints

Mid-pink of man's finger: vermilion + white over darker underlayers

Brownish shadow on cupid's arm: white with red lake, haematite (black, ‘terra verde’)



Red draperies

None

Green draperies

Bright green of woman's drapery, left-hand edge: verdigris/'copper resinate' (note 16) glaze over verdigris, malachite + white

Yellow and orange draperies

Brightest yellow highlight on man's drapery: lead-tin yellow (I) (note 12)

Yellow over orange of drapery, right-hand side: lead-tin yellow (I) highlight over red lead (note 6) underlayer

Lighter orange drapery, right-hand side: lead-tin yellow + red lead Deepest red-brown of drapery, right-hand side: intense red-brown earth (note 17)


White and grey draperies

Grey-blue stripe on woman's dress: azurite + red lake scumble over light grey comprising white, fine black and smalt

Pure white of same dress: lead white



Foliage

Dull yellow-green on right-hand turnover: azurite + earths Brown tree-trunk, left-hand turnover: browned green glaze (note 18) over lead-tin yellow + verdigris



Painting

Paolo Veronese, ‘Allegory of Love, III’ (‘Respect’) (NG 1325), 1570s. Canvas, 186.1 x 194.3 cm.

Ground

Gesso (note 1) + light grey-brown ‘imprimitura’ (note 2)

Medium

Linseed oil: three samples (red curtain, right; deep green of sash; browned green brocade). Walnut oil: two samples (white of sheet; pale yellow drapery)

Sky

Smalt (note 3) + white (note 4)

Flesh paints

Shadow of man's forearm: earths, red lake, black, brown ‘terra verde’ (lead-tin yellow [II](note 11)) Mid-tone of forearm: vermilion, white, brown, black Lightest tone on forearm: white, vermilion (earths, black)

Red draperies

Glazed area of curtain, right: red lake (note 8) (black) Browner red of curtain: thin red lake (note 8) + vermilion over red lake (white)

Mauver pink of curtain: thick red lake glaze over red lake and white underlayer

Denser red of curtain: vermilion + red lake + white over red lake + white

Highlight on drapery on which woman is lying: red lake + vermilion over red lake, vermilion and white. Red lake (red lead, black) underneath



Green draperies

Moss green of drapery on man's chest: 'copper resinate'/verdigris glaze over white

Darker green drapery at shoulder: 'copper resinate'/verdigris over two layers of verdigris + white

Darkest shadow of drapery near chin: 'copper resinate'/verdigris over two layers of verdigris + white

Brown background to brocade textile on column: lead-tin yellow, earths, black over grey-brown underlayer

Deep brown glaze-like brocade background: 'copper resinate'/verdigris glaze, browned at surface over dark grey-brown underlayer

Thin area of glaze design: 'copper resinate'/verdigris glaze, heavily discoloured



Yellow and orange draperies

Brightest. yellow of skirt of tunic: lead-tin yellow (II) + white

Brownish yellow of lining: lead-tin yellow (II) (note 11), white (umber (note 19))



White and grey draperies

White of sheet: lead white



Painting

Paolo Veronese, ‘Allegory of Love, IV’ (‘Happy Union’) (NG 1326), 1570s. Canvas, 187.4 x 186.7 cm

Ground

Gesso (note 1) + light grey-brown ‘imprimitura’ (note 2)

Medium

Linseed oil: five samples (bright green glaze on man's tunic; white of dog; bright yellow cloak; orange drapery left; red glaze on woman's dress). Walnut oil: one sample (pale yellow drapery)

Sky

Smalt (note 3) + white (note 4)

Flesh paints

Shadow of palm of man's hand: earths, vermilion, white (black, ‘terra verde’)

Pinkish mid-tone of finger: white, vermilion (red lake, red lead) Highlight on man's forearm: white (translucent brown, vermilion)



Red draperies

Red glaze from brocade dress: red lake (note 8) (black, white) Pink of dress: red lake + white in two layers

Green draperies

Yellow-green highlights of woman's drapery, left: lead-tin yellow (I) (white, red lead, verdigris) with thin, partially browned glaze. Red lake layer with black beneath

Deep green of man's sleeve: 'copper resinate'/verdigris glaze with some white over solid green of verdigris + white

Darker green of sleeve: 'copper resinate'/verdigris glaze (note 18), browned at surface

Criss-cross pattern on man's tunic: thin, severely browned green glaze over lead-tin yellow + verdigris underlayer



Yellow and orange draperies

Brightest yellow of man's cloak: lead-tin yellow (II)(note 10) + white

Yellow brocade highlight on woman's dress: lead-tin yellow (II) (note 10) + white

Brightest orange: orpiment (note 13) over realgar (note 14)

Brownish orange of drapery on stone globe: orpiment, realgar, red lake

Deep orange drapery on stone globe: pararealgar (note 20)


White and grey draperies

None

Foliage

Mid-green of olive leaf: verdigris, white + earths with 'copper resinate'/verdigris glaze, rather browned


Notes to the Table


Pigments cited in brackets are minor proportions of the paint layer. Media results are given in ref. 24.

1. Calcium sulphate identified by EDX; SEM micrographs show tabular texture characteristic of gypsum (calcium sulphate dihydrate). Insufficient material was available for confirmation as gypsum by XRD.

2. The ‘imprimitura’ layer entirely covers the gesso ground in each painting. It is composed principally of lead white with a little fine black and warm brown (umber). Staining tests indicate an oil binder.

3. Smalt (blue potash glass containing cobalt) confirmed by EDX (Si, K, Co; also As, Fe). Decolorised smalt had a lower cobalt content than that in the blue particles.

4. Lead white (basic lead carbonate) containing some neutral carbonate was the only white pigment detected in the paint layers. Confirmed by XRD in several cases (JCPDS file No. 13–131).

5. Earth pigment containing glauconite or celadonite. Identification by microscopy and EDX (K, Si, Al, Fe, Mg).

6. Red lead refers to lead tetroxide (Pb3O4) or ‘minium’.

7. Crystalline dark red-brown iron oxide pigment; microscopically characteristic.

8. Dyestuff identified by HPLC as derived from cochineal, probably the New World insect (Dactylopius coccus Costa); see also p. 71 of this ‘Bulletin’. EDX analysis of the red lake substrates shows the presence of Al, Ca, Si, K.

9. The smalt, mixed with white and protected from light beneath an upper paint layer, is relatively undiscoloured here.

10. Lead-tin yellow (II) has the composition Pb(Sn, Si)O3, cubic in structure, confirmed by XRD (see ref. 29).

11. Individual pigment particles in cross-sections confirmed as lead-tin yellow (II) by EDX (Pb, Sn, Si) guided by back-scattered electron images in the SEM (see ref. 30).

12. Lead-tin yellow (I) has the composition Pb2SnO4, tetragonal in structure, confirmed by XRD (see ref. 31 and JCPDS file Nos. 11–233 and 24–589).

13. Orpiment, yellow arsenic(III) sulphide (As2S3), confirmed by EDX (As, S) and XRD (JCPDS file No. 19–84). The particle form in some specimens indicated the mineral variety, showing characteristic large striated lemon-yellow flakes, with a waxy sheen.

14. Realgar, orange-red arsenic(II) sulphide (AsS), confirmed by EDX (As, S) and XRD (JCPDS file No. 41–1494). See also note 20 below.

15. Fine, slightly rounded and faceted shiny particles suggest a vegetable black pigment, not wood charcoal.

16. In many of the green glazes, undissolved or unreacted verdigris particles are detectable under the microscope; a number of particle types are present (see ref. 32). FTIR-microscopy of several samples indicated verdigris and oil with added resin, but weaker resin bands than true 'copper resinates'. EDX analysis in all cases, including browned surface glazes, showed a high copper content; in certain cases chloride was also detected in the greens and may result from the method of preparation for verdigris (see ref. 33). Lead (as added lead white) is a common component of the more turbid semi-glazes.

17. This area contains a particularly strongly coloured pure red-brown natural earth pigment of very uniform tone and grain size. EDX showed Fe, Si, Ca (low Al).

18. True 'copper resinate' confirmed by the detection by GC-MS of pine-resin components derived from dehydroabietic acid in the glaze (see refs. 24 and 34).

19. Iron and manganese detected by EDX.

20. Strongly coloured orange-yellow fine-grained pigment, identified as pararealgar by XRD (JCPDS file No. 33–127) (see ref. 35).
The pictures make significant use of richly applied green glazes based on copper-containing pigments, in some cases true 'copper resinate' in which the resinous content has been confirmed by analysis; (note 26) in other areas, glaze-like paints contain verdigris as the colouring matter, apparently without added resin. These deep saturated greens, often very well preserved in Veronese's work, are generally applied over underlayers which have a significant influence on the final colour and, it has been noted in an earlier account of the glazes in 'Respect', on the state of their preservation (note 27). The strongest, brightest greens result from glazes applied over solid underpaints of lead white and lead-tin yellow combined with verdigris or verdigris and malachite mixtures as in, for example, the man's deep green sash and cape in 'Respect'. The foliage paints, on the other hand, range from dull greens to browner tones and are constructed using more variable methods. They are rather thinly painted in comparison to the draperies and incorporate a wider range of pigments, including azurite, earths, yellow lakes and black, as well as malachite, verdigris and translucent copper-containing greens, these final glazes sometimes showing signs of discoloration to brown.
As in the reds there is also a remarkable variation in tonal range in the dense yellows and orange colours, principally in the drapery paints. For these, Veronese exploits an unusually broad selection of pigments, and this must be for their particular colour qualities. Both types of the two varieties of lead-tin yellow occur (note 28), which differ in their colour from the light primrose yellow of pure 'type I' to the much deeper, rather more golden slightly acid hue associated with 'type II'. Golden-yellow mineral orpiment and mineral realgar, ranging from orange to red-brown, are used, and also red lead (lead tetroxide, ‘minium’), brick red in colour, as well as combinations of these pigments with vermilion, red lake, earths and others (see Tables).
The overall effects in the pictures, although they are simply and broadly constructed, are as rich and varied as any in Veronese's career, and show all the advantages in materials that the painters in Venice commanded and could pass on to their patrons.



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