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  • Academic Misconduct
  • The Academic Skills Unit
  • The Business School

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Academic Misconduct

  • Categories in the Student Handbook
  • Cheating
  • Collusion
  • Falsification
  • Ghosting
  • Personation
  • Plagiarism
  • Plagiarism is taken very seriously in UK Higher Education. If even a small section of your work is found to have been plagiarised, it is likely that you will be assigned a mark of '0'.
  • In some cases, plagiarism may even lead to your being expelled from the university.
  • From : Gillett, A. (2003) Academic Writing: Avoiding plagiarism [online]. Available at: [Accessed 7 February 2003].

Plagiarism

  • Reproduction of published or unpublished (e.g. work of another student or your own work) material without acknowledgement of the author or source;
  • Presenting information from electronic sources such as the internet without acknowledgement of the source;
  • Paraphrasing by, for instance, substituting a few words or phrases or altering the order of presentation of another person's work, or linking unacknowledged sentences or phrases with words of one's own.
  • From: University of Huddersfield (2007) Students’ Handbook of Regulations. Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield. p. 19.

Plagiarism

  • Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional

How do you avoid it?

  • Get a copy of the library referencing guide
  • Develop good habits – always take down the full reference when you make notes and page numbers if you intend to quote directly
  • Be careful when you paraphrase – your version needs to have the same meaning but it needs to be your own words, if it is too close to the original and contains some phrases that are exactly the same it is plagiarism.

Choose all that apply Why do we reference?

  • To give authority to our writing
  • To acknowledge the work of other people
  • To add support to our arguments
  • To allow readers to follow up the sources we have used and find out more
  • To show how new knowledge builds on existing knowledge
  • To evidence the points we make

Why do we reference?

  • All of these apply

Choose all that apply What needs to be referenced?

  • Common knowledge
  • Direct quotations
  • Statistics, figures, charts, tables, pictures, graphs produced by other people
  • Paraphrases
  • Ideas expressed orally
  • Your own ideas and thoughts

What needs to be referenced?

  • Direct quotations
  • Statistics, figures, charts, tables, pictures, graphs produced by other people
  • Paraphrases
  • Ideas expressed orally

True or False

  • If it was a genuine mistake and I didn’t mean to plagiarise it will be okay.

Yes or No

  • Information on the internet is shared freely and no-one really owns it, so if I cut and paste into my essay it is okay and I don’t need a reference.

True or False

  • You can re-use parts of your own work because you wrote it so you are not plagiarising.

You’ve read lots for an essay, you want to use some notes but can’t remember where you got them. What are your choices?

  • Find the source again and get the reference
  • Make an informed choice, as long as every source you used is in the reference list it will be okay
  • Paraphrase it rather than directly quoting and then it doesn’t matter if the reference isn’t exactly right
  • Leave it out of the essay

You’ve read lots for an essay, you want to use some notes but can’t remember where you got them. What are your choices?

  • Find the source again and get the reference
  • Leave it out of the essay

When paraphrasing you need to….

  • Change most of the vocabulary
  • Make sure that the main words are different
  • Change the vocabulary and the grammar completely
  • Take a few sentences from several sources and put them together

How are reference lists ordered?

  • Chronologically by date
  • Alphabetically by title
  • By order in which they appear in your essay
  • Alphabetically by author’s surname

Which of the following is a correctly formatted entry in a reference list?

  • John Smith (2007) I’ve got it right! UK: Made Up Books Ltd.
  • Smith, J. I’ve got it right! (2007) UK: Made Up Books Ltd.
  • Smith, J. (2007) I’ve got it right! UK: Made Up Books Ltd.
  • Smith, J (2007) I’ve got it right!

Which of the following is a correctly formatted entry in a reference list?

  • C) Smith, J. (2007) I’ve got it right! UK: Made Up Books Ltd.

Referencing a journal: What order?

  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Diehl, M. and Stroebe, W(1991) ‘Productivity loss in idea-generating groups: tracking down the blocking effect’, Vol.61, no.3: pp.392-403.
  • Diehl, M. and Stroebe, W. ‘Productivity loss in idea-generating groups: tracking down the blocking effect’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.61, no.3: pp.392-403
  • Diehl, M. and Stroebe, W. (1991) ‘Productivity loss in idea-generating groups: tracking down the blocking effect’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,Vol.61, no.3:pp.392-403.
  • ‘Productivity loss in idea-generating groups: tracking down the blocking effect’, (1991) Diehl, M. and Stroebe, W

Referencing a journal: What order?

  • Diehl, M. and Stroebe, W. (1991) ‘Productivity loss in idea-generating groups: tracking down the blocking effect’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,Vol.61, no.3:pp.392-403.

Referencing a website: What order?

  • Unilearning (2000) Academic Writing: Referencing [online].[Accessed 16 December 2002].
  • Unilearning (2000), Academic Writing: Referencing [online]. Available at: [Accessed 16 December 2002].
  • Unilearning (2000),
  • (2000), Unilearning Academic Writing: Referencing [online].

Referencing a website: What order?

  • Unilearning (2000), Academic Writing: Referencing [online]. Available at: [Accessed 16 December 2002].

Clerehan & Walker (2004, p.44)

  • “Student perceptions indicate that a significant number do not see themselves as being particularly well prepared for the academic assignment writing tasks required at university. Furthermore, a number appear reluctant to take the initiative when they face problems with assignments and it appears that a range of strategies may be required to overcome these issues. Universities need to be more proactive in addressing the transition problems faced by first-year students, including those coming directly from high school, as well as international students. Key issues identified by this work for faculty and language and academic skills staff to address include the helpfulness of assignment guidelines and advice given by tutors; the importance of developing students’ conceptions of research in the subject; and the role of time management.”

Yes or No

  • Student A in 2005
  • It seems to be true that universities need to be more proactive in addressing the transition problems faced by first-year students, including those coming directly from high school, as well as international students.
  • Is this plagiarism?

Student A

  • Yes, this writing is the third sentence of the original text but is presented so that the reader thinks that it is student A’s words and idea. Quotation marks should be placed around the copied sentence and the citation (Clerehan & Walker, 2004, p.44) included.

Yes or No

  • Student B in 2005
  • Clerehan & Walker (2004, p.44) suggest that some students “appear reluctant to take the initiative when they face problems with assignments”
  • Is this plagiarism?

Student B

  • This writing is fine. It has a citation showing the idea is not Student B’s and the copied language is in quotation marks.

Yes or No

  • Student C in 2005
  • HE institutions must be more positive in facing the issues encountered by new entrants (Clerehan & Walker, 2004).
  • Is this paragraph plagiarism?

Yes, but why?

  • It should be a direct quote
  • It is a lazy paraphrase. The vocabulary has changed but not the grammar.

Yes or No

  • Student D in 2005
  • “a number appear reluctant to take the initiative when they face problems with assignments” (Clerehan & Walker, 2004, p.44).
  • Is this plagiarism?

Student D

  • This is not plagiarism. However, on its own it is not acceptable since we do not know the subject of the sentence. It is better to paraphrase or use square brackets ([ ] = word or words have been inserted to make a direct quote meaningful or comprehensible). “a number [of students] appear reluctant to take the initiative when they face problems with assignments” (Clerehan & Walker, 2004, p.44).

Yes or No

  • Student E in 2005
  • Clerehan & Walker (2004) claim that the difficulties new students have in adapting to higher education should be dealt with by the institutions.
  • Is this plagiarism?

Student E

  • This is not an example of plagiarism. The sentence represents the paraphrased idea of the authors. It uses different grammar and vocabulary.

Yes or No

  • Student F in 2005
  • Clerehan & Walker (2004, p.44) have found important concerns
      • for faculty and language and academic skills staff to address include the helpfulness of assignment guidelines and advice given by tutors; the importance of developing students’ conceptions of research in the subject; and the role of time management.
      • Is this plagiarism?

Student F

  • This is not an example of plagiarism. However, long direct quotes such as this should be used only when absolutely necessary. More than a few of these will mean there is little room for your ‘voice’ and does not demonstrate that you have understood what you have read.

Yes or No

  • Student G in 2006
  • Clerehan & Walker (2004, p.44) suggest that some students “appear reluctant to take the initiative when they face problems with assignments”
  • Is this plagiarism?

Student G

  • This has been plagiarised from the work of student B. It would also be considered plagiarism if student B had submitted it.

Yes or No

  • Student H in 2006
  • Clerehan & Walker (2004) discuss the difficulties experienced by new students entering university and how the institutions might approach these problems.
  • Is this plagiarism?

Student H

  • This is not plagiarised. This represents a brief summary of the paragraph.

Yes or No

  • Student I in 2006
  • Many undergraduates do not feel ready for writing at university and seem reluctant to take the initiative when facing problems (Clerehan & Walker, 2004). These problems can be solved by better preparation by schools and colleges before students enter university (Clerehan & Walker, 2004).
  • Is this plagiarism?

Yes. What is wrong? Choose all that apply.

  • There is evidence of plagiarism in the first sentence.
  • The paraphrase doesn’t change the grammar.
  • The second sentence misrepresents the original idea.
  • It all should be in direct quotes.

Cast your vote…

  • I have never plagiarised
  • I have plagiarised

Full Reference

  • Clerehan, R. & Walker, I. (2004). Student perceptions of preparedness for first-year university assignment writing: The discipline of marketing. In K. Dellar-Evans & P. Zeegers (Eds.). In the future ... Refereed Proceedings of the 2003 Biannual Language and Academic Skills in Higher Education Conference (pp. 37-46). Adelaide: Student Learning Center, Flinders University.

Follow up

  • Go to the Academic Matters Course on Blackboard and do the quizzes.
  • Have a look at the Academic Matters Social Network
  • Still unsure?
    • Book an appointment with Chris, Gill or Halina. FS2/09.
    • c.j.ireland@hud.ac.uk
    • g.byrne@hud.ac.uk
    • h.harvey2@hud.ac.uk


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