University of mumbai vidyalankar institute of technology

Chi-square test for independence of attributes

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Chi-square test for independence of attributes

And degree of freedom= (r-1)(c-1)


(critical)=12.592 (at 5% level of significance)


Since, (calculated)< (critical), therefore Do not reject H0

And Conclude that Type of accidents and the vehicle involved are independent of each other

Road Traffic Accidents, Prevention and Control

Road accidents are non random events occurring due to a complex mix of number of factors which amongst others include: (a) type of road users and colliding vehicles (b) environmental/road related factors: These include visibility, road design and geometry, access control, intersections (areas of traffic conflict) provision of segregation of NMT and heavy vehicle traffic (c) vehicle related factors – visibility of vehicles, use of protective devices (helmets and seat belts) by vehicle occupants; problems with head and tail lights, mechanical failure etc. (d) nature of traffic management : use of automatic signals, traffic calming devices (e) emergency care for accident victims.

The main thrust of accident prevention and control across the world has been on 4 E’s, viz. (i) Education, (ii) Enforcement, (iii) Engineering and (iv) Environment and Emergency care of road accident victims.

Educational approach: It relies on dissemination of road safety awareness and regulation through media, classrooms and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This approach takes a longer time to achieve the desired change in individual perceptions and attitudes. The WHO/World Bank Report on Road Traffic Injury prevention in the light of global experience about education has observed, “When used as a single, isolated intervention, do not deliver tangible and sustained reductions in deaths and injuries”.

Enforcement Approach: Its prime emphasis is on restraining road users from undertaking behaviours which expose road users and others to risk of accidents and injuries. The Indian Motor Vehicle Act of 1988 has Chapter 8 and portion of Chapter 13 devoted to many rules and regulations, viz. laws with regard to use of safety devices (helmets), speed limits, etc.

Environmental & Engineering Approach: This covers broad range of interventions to make road user safe through better road environment and safer vehicles. Safer vehicles by improving crash worthiness and safety of occupants – safety belts, airbags, laminated windshields, improving braking conditions, installing suitable lights to reduce glare; better roads through better road design, geometry and markings, traffic calming techniques, identification of accident black spots and their treatment, good visibility of roads with lighting, segregation of traffic into slow and fast moving categories.

Among the important environmental measures is better land use pattern which promotes shorter travel time and distance thus restricting demand for travel leading to reduced traffic congestion on roads. These measures are passive and one time efforts and are not dependent on actions of road users. These do not require constant monitoring and have been found to be quite effective worldwide. Their impact is easy to measure. However, these measures do require substantial resources, which developing countries may find it difficult to harness.

Emergency accident care: This covers organization, delivery of emergency accident care and logistic support for effective and coordinated delivery of health care to accident victims. WHO guidelines for “essential trauma care” recommend establishing achievable and affordable standards for injury care.

Road safety is essentially a multi-sectoral activity. It requires a systems approach with coordinated efforts of health, law, transport, police, insurance agencies and NGOs.

Recent Road Safety Initiatives by the Government of India

The safety of road users is primarily the responsibility of the concerned State Government. However, the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways has taken several steps to improve road safety for road users which are as under:

• It is ensured that road safety is the integral part of road design at planning stage.

• Various steps to enhance road safety such as road furniture, road markings/road signs, introduction of Highway Traffic Management System using Intelligent Transport System, enhancement of discipline among contractors during construction, road safety audit on selected stretches, have been undertaken by National Highways Authority of India.

• Refresher training for Heavy Motor Vehicle drivers in the unorganized sector is being implemented by the Ministry since 1997-98 under plan activities.

• Setting up of Model Driving Training Schools in the States by Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.

• Publicity campaign on road safety awareness both through the audio-visual and print media.

• Confernment of National Award on voluntary organizations/individuals for outstanding work in the field of road safety.

• Tightening of safety standards of vehicles like Seat Belts, Power-steering, rear view mirror etc.

• Providing cranes and ambulances to various State Governments/NGOs under National Highway Accident Relief Service Scheme. National Highways Authority of India also provides ambulances at a distance of 50 Km. on each of its completed stretches of National Highways under its Operation & Maintenance contracts.

• Widening and improvements of National Highways from 2 lanes to 4 lanes and 4 lanes to 6 lanes etc.

Refresher Training for heavy vehicle drivers: This Ministry has a scheme titled “Two days refresher training to heavy motor vehicle drivers in unorganized sector” to inculcate safe driving habits and to acquaint the drivers with the rules on roads. As against 15,740 drivers trained during Ninth Five Year Plan, 1,92,218 drivers were trained during Tenth Five Year Plan. The Ministry intends to train around 40,000 drivers during 2010-11 through Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), All India Motor Transport Congress (AIMTC), Automobile Association of Upper India; Krishna District Lorry Association, Vijayawada; Institute of Driving Training & Research (IDTR), Sarai Kale Khan, New Delhi; Training Institute on Driving and Research, Bellary, Karnataka; and DTI at Nagaland.

Model Driving Training Schools: Financial assistance is being given to States/ UTs for setting up of Model Driving Training Schools to produce good drivers as well as impart refresher training to on the job drivers. So far 13 proposals from States/NGOs in West Bengal, Assam, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, NCT of Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana have been sanctioned. Out of these, four schools in Andhra Pradesh, NCT of Delhi, Karnataka and Nagaland have become operational. During the11th Five Year Plan, this scheme was dropped by Planning Commission. Given its importance, the Scheme has been revived with the concurrence of Planning Commission and approved by Expenditure Finance Committee (EFC). States/UTs have been requested to send their proposals under the Scheme. Some States/UTs have sent their proposals which are being scrutinized.

National Highway Accident Relief Service Scheme (NHARSS): The scheme entails providing cranes and ambulances to States/ UTs/NGOs for relief and rescue measures in the aftermath of accidents by way of evacuating road accident victims to nearest medical aid centre and for clearing the accident site. So far, 307 ten ton cranes and 70 small/medium size cranes have been provided under the scheme. Besides, 437 ambulances have been provided to States/UTs/NGOs under the scheme. Also the Ministry intends to provide 40 ten ton cranes and 36 small recovery cranes for hilly areas to the States/UTs.

Road Safety Equipments: The scheme entails providing road safety equipments to States/ UTs for enforcement and implementation of various rules & regulations relating to road safety. Under this scheme, so far 24 Interceptors have been sanctioned for the purpose of detection of violation of rules by the road users such as over-speeding, drunken driving, lane– jumping, dangerous driving etc.

Publicity Measures and Awareness Campaign on Road Safety: With a view to raising road safety awareness among the general public, the Government has undertaken various publicity measures through Directorate of Audio Visual Publicity(DAVP) and professional agencies in the form of telecasting/broadcasting of T.V. spots/Radio jingles, display of cinema slides, hoardings, organizing Road Safety Week, Seminars, Exhibitions, All India Essay Competition on Road Safety, printing of handbills/stickers, posters, etc., containing road safety messages for various segments of road users viz. pedestrians, cyclists, school children, heavy vehicle drivers, etc., painting on road railings on themes of road safety, road safety games, calendars depicting road safety messages, etc. During the year 2010-11, there was a provision of Rs.30.00 crore under this head.

Creation of a dedicated body for Road Safety and Traffic Management: A Committee was constituted under the Chairmanship of Shri S. Sundar, Former Secretary, Ministry of Surface Transport to make recommendations for setting up a separate body on “Road Safety and Traffic Management” vide order dated 23.11.2005. The Committee submitted its report on 20.2.2007. The main recommendations of the Committee included:

• Creation of an Apex body i.e., National Road Safety & Traffic Management Board through an Act of Parliament to promote road safety and improve traffic management in India with members/experts from the field of Road Engineering, Automobile Engineering, Traffic Laws, Medical care etc.

• It would have regulatory as well as advisory functions.

• As far as regulatory functions are concerned, the Board would set standards, designs for mechanically propelled vehicles and also set safety standards in consultation with Indian Road Congress for the design, construction and operation of the National Highways including road infrastructure and furniture.

• In its advisory role, the Board will advise Government on various road safety activities.

• Conduct/commission road safety audits of National Highways, conduct/ commission black spot surveys and recommend treatment.

• The Board would promote road safety activities by laying guidelines.

• The Board would establish the methodology for multidisciplinary crash investigation, data collection, reporting and analysis and also the procedure and methodology for data collection, transmission and analysis at appropriate levels and define the role of different agencies involved in the process. The Board would also maintain a comprehensive database on road safety related matters.

• Enabling provisions have been suggested for creation of similar State level bodies.

• Creation of a dedicated road safety fund namely National Road Safety Fund by way of earmarking of 1% of the total proceeds of the cess on diesel and petrol.

Status of the report: The Bill was introduced in Lok Sabha on 4.5.2010, was referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee. Its recommendations are being examined in the Ministry.

National Road Safety Policy:

(i) A Committee under the Chairmanship of Shri S. Sundar, former Secretary (Ministry of Surface Transport) was constituted in the year 2005 to deliberate and make recommendations on creation of a dedicated body on road safety and traffic management. The Committee was also subsequently requested to finalise a draft National Road Safety Policy for consideration of the Government. The Committee while submitting its report in February, 2007, inter alia, recommended a draft National Road Safety Policy.

(ii) The Union Cabinet had approved the proposal of the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways to adopt the National Road Safety Policy. The National Road Safety Policy outlines the policy initiatives to be framed / taken by the Government at all levels to improve the road safety activities in the country. Broadly, it aims at:-

• To promote awareness about road safety issues.

• To establish a road safety information database.

• To ensure safer road infrastructure by way of designing safer roads, encouraging application of Intelligent Transport System etc.

• To ensure fitment of safety features in the vehicles at the stage of designing, manufacture, usage, operation and maintenance.

• To strengthen the system of driver licensing and training to improve the competence of drivers.

• To take measures to ensure safety of vulnerable road users.

• To take appropriate measures for enforcement of safety laws.

• To ensure emergency medical attention for road accident victims.

• To encourage human resource development and R&D for road safety.

• To strengthen the enabling legal, institutional and financial environment for promoting road safety culture in the country.

Motor Vehicles:

• Vehicle engineering also plays a very important role in improving safety on the roads.

• Rule making powers for construction and maintenance of vehicles are vested in the Central Government although limited delegation has also been made in the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 to the State Government.

• Vehicle construction has to conform to the requirements of both active and passive

safety i.e., to prevent accidents and also to save the occupants and other road users coming in contact with vehicle in the event of an accident.

• Norms for safety components such as safety belts, laminated safety glass for wind sheet, instrument panel and lighting system, rear view mirrors, power steering in case of buses and heavy commercial vehicles etc. have already been mandated.

• The thrust of the efforts is to gradually harmonize our standards with the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) standards. India has joined the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) by acceding to 1998 agreement on Global Technical Regulations in 2006. This has accelerated the pace of harmonization of the country’s standards with world standards.


  1. Which type of vehicle are you driving?

2 wheeler

4 wheeler

6 wheeler

  1. Have you ever met with an accident?



  1. Have you ever seen an accident?



  1. Do you think that road conditions in India are major cause of road accidents in India?

    1. Strongly agree

    2. Agree

    3. Neither agree nor disagree

    4. Disagree

    5. Strongly disagree

  2. Is drivers fault is a major cause for road accidents?

    1. Strongly agree

    2. Agree

    3. Neither agree nor disagree

    4. Disagree

    5. Strongly disagree

  3. How many time have you been caught breaking the traffic rules?

    1. Less than 5 times

    2. More than 5 times

    3. Specify if more than 10 times (………..)

  4. Which are the main accident prone areas in?

    1. Old Thana-Lonavala Road

    2. Nashik NH3

    3. Mumbai-Pune Express Highway

    4. Palm Beach


Road traffic fatalities have been increasing at about 8% annually for the last ten years and show no signs of decreasing. Two modelling exercises have attempted to predict the time period when we might expect fatality rates to start to decline in a range of countries9,15. Cropper and Kopits predicted that fatalities in India would reach a total of about 198,000 before starting to decline in 2042 and Koornstra predicted an earlier date of 2030 for the peak traffic fatalities in India. If we assume that the present growth rate of 8% per year declines in a linear manner to 0% by 2030, then we can expect about 260,000 fatalities by 2030. Neither of these projected dates (2042 and 2030) can be accepted as road safety goals for the country. An earlier report co-authored by the present author has a more detailed analysis of the road traffic situation in India and possible countermeasures. In summary, road safety policies in India must focus on the following issues to reduce the incidence of road traffic injuries: pedestrians and other non-motorist in urban areas; pedestrians, other non-motorists, and slow vehicles on highways; motorcycles and small cars in urban areas; over-involvement of trucks and buses; night-time driving; and wrong way drivers on divided highways. There is an urgent need to revamp police data collecting procedures so that necessary information is available for scientific analysis. India specific countermeasures will be possible through continuous monitoring and research, which will require the establishment of road safety research centers in academic institutions and a National Road Safety Board that could help move toward a safer future as outlined above.


  • Expert committee on auto fuel policy. Urban road traffic and air pollution in major cities. Volume 1: pp.1-395. New Delhi, Government of India. (2002).

  • CRRI. Annual Report 2007. New Delhi, Central Road Research Institute.(2007).

  • NCRB. Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India - 2007. New Delhi, National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs. (2008).

  • Mohan, D., Tsimhoni, O., Sivak, M., & Flannagan, M.J. Road Safety in India: Challenges and Opportunities. UMTRI-2009-1, pp.1-57. Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.(2009).

  • G ururaj, G. Road traffic injury prevention in India. p.56, pp.1-137.Bangalore, NIMHANS. (2006).

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