University of madras

Question Paper Pattern Arabic Language Part -I

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Question Paper Pattern

Arabic Language Part -I

Part –A (10 * 1 = 10 )
Answer the following questions
Part – B ( 5 * 5 = 25)
Answer any five out of following

Part – C (4 * 10= 40)

Explain in detail any four of the following



(Common to all U.G. courses and Five Year Integrated P.G. courses 2008-2009)


Max .Marks:100

Credit:4 Time : 3 Hrs

I.A: 25 + External : 75

Unit 1 to 5





Time : 3 Hrs

I.A: 25 + External : 75

1.Gulistaan By Shaikh Sa’di (First Chapter only)
Unit 1 to 5

Question Paper Pattern

Persian Language Part 1:

Part –A (10 * 1 = 10 )

Answer the following questions

Part – B ( 5 * 5 = 25)
Answer any five out of following

Part – C (4 * 10= 40)

Explain in detail any four of the following

For Part II English Paper III & IV for II year

(i.e. for III & IV Semester)

Syllabus will be communicated in due course.

SECOND AND THIRD YEAR (i.e. III, IV, V and VI Semesters)


(w.e.f. 2008-2009)




Unit I
Functional morphology of the types included with special emphasis on the adaptations to their mode of life and environment – General characters and classification of Phylum Chordata up to orders.
Unit II
Prochordates: General characters and classification – Type study: Amphioxus, Balanoglossus, Asidian – Affinities and systematic position of Cephalochordata, Hemichordata and Urochordata.
Unit III
Agnatha: General characters and affinities – Type study: Petromyzon
Unit IV
Pisces: General characters and classification – Type study: Scoliodon sorrakowah, Mugil oeur, Epiceratodus – Affinities of Dipnoi – Types of scales and fins – Accessory respiratory organs – Air bladder – Parental care – Migration – Economic importance.
Unit V
Amphibia: General characters and classification – Type study: Rana hexadactyla – Adaptive features of Anura, Urodela and Apoda – Neoteny in Urodela – Parental care in amphibia.

Unit I
Reptilia: General characters and classification – Type study: Calotes versicolor (endoskeleton of Varanus instead of Calotes).
Unit II
Snakes of India – Poison apparatus and biting mechanism of poisonous snakes – Skull in reptiles as basis of classification.
Unit III
Aves: General characters and classification – Type study: Cloumba livia – Ratitae – Flight adaptations – Migration.
Unit IV
Mammalia: General characters and classification – Type study – Rabbit – Adaptive radiation in mammals – Egg laying mammals.
Unit V
Marsupials – Flying mammals – Aquatic mammals – Dentition in Mammals.


  1. Hickman, C.P. Jr., F.M. Hickman and L.S. Roberts, 1984. Integrated Principles of Zoology, 7th Edition, times Merror/Mosby College Publication. St. Louis. 1065 pp.

  2. Ayyar, E.K. and T.N. Ananthakrishnan, 1992. Manual of Zoology Vol. II (Chordata), S. Viswanathan (Printers and Publishers) Pt Ltd., Madras, 891P.

  3. Jordan, E.K. and P.S. Verma, 1995. Chordate Zoology and Elements of Animal Physiology, 10th edition, S. Chand & Co Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi, 1151 pp.

  4. Nigam, H.C., 1983. Zoology of Chordates, Vishal Publications, Jalandhar – 144 008, 942.

  5. Newman, H.H., 1981. The Phylum Chordata, Satish Book Enterprise, Agra – 282 003, 477 pp.

  6. Parker and Haswell, 1964. Text Book of Zoology, Vol II (Chordata), A.Z.T, B.S. Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi – 110 051, 952 pp.

  1. Waterman, Allyn J. et al., 1971. Chordate Structure and Function, Mac Millan & Co., New York, 587 pp.

Unit I
History of Cell Biology – Microscopes – Types – Light, Phase contrast, SEM, TEM.
Unit II
Cell – Cell theory – Viruses – Types and structure – Bacteria – Bacterial membrane – Ultra structure of Animal cell – Cytoplasm – Structure and Composition, Function – Extra Cytoplasmic structure – Cytoplasmic Inclusions.
Unit III
Cell components – Plasma Membrane – Ultra structure and Functions; Ultrastructure, Composition and Function of Endoplasmic reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgi complex, Lysosomes, Centrioles, Mitochondria and Microsomes.
Unit IV
Nucleus – Ultrastructure, Composition and Functions – Nuclear membrane – Nucleoplasm – Chromosomes – Heterochromatin and Euchromatin – Nucleolus – DNA and RNAs – Protein Synthesis.
Unit V
Cell Divisions and Cell Cycle – Amitosis, Mitosis and Meiosis and their Significance – Cancer, Ageing of cells and Stem cell studies.

  1. Ambrose, E.J. and Dorothy, M. Easty, 1970. Cell Biology, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd., 500 pp.

  2. Burke, Jack. D., 1970. Cell Biology, Scientific Book Agency, Calcutta.

  3. Cohn, N.S., 1979, Elements of Cytology, Freeman Book Co., New Delhi – 110 007, 495 pp.

  4. DeRobertis, E.D.P. and E.M.F. DeRobertis, 1988. Cell and Molecular Biology, 8th edition, International edition, Informed, HonKong, 734 pp.

  5. Giese, A.C., 1979. Cell Physiology, Saunders Co., Philadelphia, London, Toronto, 609 pp.

  1. Powar, C.B., 1989. Essential of Cytology, Himalaya Publishing House, Bombay – 400 004, 368 pp.

  2. Dowben, R., 1971. Cell Biology, Harper International Edition. Harper and Row Publisher, New York, 565 pp.

  3. Veerbala Rastogi, Introductory cytology. Kedar Nath Ram Nath. Meerut – 250 001.

  4. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal, 1995. Cell and Molecular Biology, 8th edition, S.Chand & Co., New Delhi – 110 055, 567 pp.

  5. Loewy, A.G. and P. Sickevitz, 1969. Cell structure and Function, Amerind Publishing Co., New Delhi – 110 020, 516 pp.

  1. Swansen, C.P. and P.L. Webster, 1989. The Cell, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi – 110 001, 373 pp.

  2. Simplified course – Cell Biology – S. Chand & Company – 2000.

Unit I
Introduction to Genetics- Basis of Mendelian Inheritance and Mendelian laws. Simple Problems Relating to Inheritance. Structure of gene – Interaction of Gene – Commentary factors, Supplementary factors, Inhibitory and lethal Factors – Atavism.
Unit- II
Blood Groups and their Inheritance in Human – Linkage and Crossing Over:-Drosophila – Morgans’ Experiments – Complete and Incomplete Linkage, Linkage Groups, Crossing Over types, Mechanisms – Cytological Evidence for Crossing Over, Mapping of Chromosomes – Interference and Coincidence.
Sex Linkage in Drosophila and Man, Sex influenced and Sex Limited Genes – Non-Disjunction and Gynandromorphs – Cytoplasmic Inheritance – Meternal Effect on Limnaea (Shell Coiling), Male Sterlity (Rode’s Experiment). CO2 sensitivity in Drosophila, Kappa particles in Paramecium, Milk factor Mice.

Nature and Function of Genetic Material – Fine Structure of the Gene – Cistron, Recon, Muton – Gene Regulation – Operon Concept – Lac Operon – Positive and Negative Regulation. Mutation – Molecular Basis of Mutation, Types of Mutation, Mutagens, Mutable and Mutator Genes. Chromosomal Aberrations – Numerical and Structural Examples from Human.
Applied Genetics- Animal Breeding – Heterosis, Inbreeding, Out Breeding, Out Crossing, Hybrid Vigour. Population Genetics, Hardy Weinberg Law – Gene Frequency, Factors Affecting Gene Frequency, Eugenics, Euphenics and Ethenics, Bioethics.

  1. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal, 1995. Genetics, 8th edition, S. Chand & Co., New Delhi – 110 055, 580 pp.

  2. Gunther, S. Stent, 1986. Molecular Genetics. Macmillan Publishing Co Inc. 773 pp.

  3. Goodenough, V., 1978. Genetics, 2nd ed., New York Holt, Rinchart and Winston, 894 pp.

  4. Hart, D.L. and D. Freifelder, 188. Basic Genetics, John & Barlet Publishers, 505 pp.

  5. Garder, 1972. Principles of Genetics, Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd. 590 pp.

  6. Watson, J.D. and W.A. Benjamin, 1976. Molecular Biology of the Gene, 3rd., Benjamin Co. Inc., New York, 739 pp.

  7. Winchester, 1967. Genetics, Oxford IBH Publications, 504 pp.

  8. Stickberger, 1968. Genetics, Macmillan Publications, New York, 914 pp.

  9. Pai, A.C., 1974. Foundations of Genetics, McGraw Hill Publications, New York, 464 pp.

  10. Weaver, Robert and Brown, William C, 1996. Genetics, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co Ltd., New Delhi, 656 pp.

  11. Burns, George, W. (New edition) – The Science of Genetics.

  12. Concept of Genetics, Human genetics & Eugenics – P.S. Verma & V.K. Agarwal – S. Chand & Company – 1999.


Unit I

Definition, Fields of Physiology and Scope. Physiology of Digestion – Protein, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Digestive enzymes.

Unit II

Enzyme classification and nomenculature. Apoenzymes, Co-enzymes and allosteric enzymes and inhibition. Properties of enzymes. Factors affecting enzyme action – pH, temperature, time substrate concentration.

Unit III

Respiration, Respiratory pigments and their functions. Hormones composition of blood and their functions. Factors of coagulation – Intrinsic and extrinsic factors – Cardiac cycle – Cardiac Rhythm.

Unit IV

Muscle – Muscle contraction. Nerve – Nervous coordination. Michalis Menton constant – Ramachandran Plot – Clinical and Industrial Applications of enzymes.

Unit V

Urine formation – Ultra filtration, reabsorption, secretion – Hormonal regulation. Hormonal action – Pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Sex hormones and their functional significance.


  1. Parameswaran, Anantha Krishnan and Anantha Subramaniam, 1975. Outlines of Animal Physiology, S. Viswanathan, Printers and Publishers, Pvt. Ltd., 329 pp.

  2. Berg J.M. Tymoczke., J. L. and Styer L. Palmer D.T. Handbook of enzymes.

  3. Biological chemistry by H.R. Mabler and E. Corder (1986).

  4. Enzyme by Dixon and Webb.

  5. Molecular Biotechnology by Click and Paster hark, ASM press.

  6. General and comparative Animal Physiology by William Hoar.

Unit I: Introduction
Scope – Concept – Branches in Ecology: Autoecology, Synecology, integrated ecology. Micro and macro environment. Types of media and substratum and their influence on animals. Biosphere – Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, Stratosphere. Biocoenosis (Community) and Biogeocoenosis (Ecosystem).
Water: Properties – Forms of water, soft & hard water. Air: Composition – Properties. Substratum: Soil: Varieties – Soil formation, Soil texture, soil groups of India, soil profile, soil water, soil chemistry. Temperature: Distribution of temperature as a limiting factor Homeotherms, poikilotherms, thermal adaptations – meeting extremes of temperature – Dormancy, hibernation, aestivation, torpidity, diapause. Light: Composition – light on land and water. Biological effects of light on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Light on a limiting factor. Reproduction, Metamorphosis, pigmentation, vision, photosyntheses. Pressure, Gravity, Moisture and humidity. Atmospheric gases: Oxygen, Carbondioxide.
Limiting factors – Leibig’s law of Minimum – Shelford’s law of Tolerance. Biogeohemical cycles – Gaseous cycle: Oxygen, carbon, nitrogen cycles. Sedimentary cycle: Sulphur, Phosphorus.
Biotic factors: Intra specific and interspecific associations. Aggregation, colony formation, social organization, competition, predation, parasitism, antibiosis, commensalisms, mutualism, neutralism.
Ecosystem: Concepts, components, structure, relationship between habitat and ecological niche – Autrophic and heterotrophic producer, consumer – trophic level – energy flow in an ecosystem. Ecological efficiencies – Primary productivity – methods of measurements. Stages of decomposition and benefits. Ecotypes. Homeostasis of ecosystem. Terrestrial habitat. Biomes – Characters – tundra, grass land, forest (Coniferous, tropical, temperate, deciduous). Deserts – fauna, adaptations of animals inhabiting deserts and caves. Types of forests in India. Fresh water habitat. Physico-chemical nature of fresh water – biotic communities – lintic-lakes (Oligotrophic and Eutrophic) – ponds – biotic communities of ponds, swamps, lotic – river, streams. Marine ecology: Characteristics – salinity – temperature – pressure, zonation and stratification – chemical properties – biotic communities of pelagic and benthic zone, intertidal zone (rocky shore, sandy shore and muddy shore) sublittoral zone, coral reefs as a specialized oceanic ecosystem. Esturine ecology: Characteristics, types, fauna and their adaptations. Mangrove ecosystem: Ecological conditions – flora and fauna, mangroves of India.

Unit II: Population Ecology
Population: Definition – Characteristics – Density; measurements of density, natality, mortality, survivorship curve, age distribution age pyramids – population growth forms, concept of carrying capacity. Population fluctuations: Seasonal and annual; population equilibrium – biotic potential – population dispersal – regulation of population density: density dependent factors, reproduction, predation, emigration, disease, social behaviours, ecotone and edge effect – ecological succession and community evolution, classification of community.
Unit III: Environmental Issues
Gulf war – Oil pollution. Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Monitoring and Auditing. Environmental ethics and laws – Earth summits – Role of Governmental & Non-Governmental agencies for environmental monitoring.

Unit IV: Theories and Trends in Evolution
Greek thinkers – ideas of evolution before Darwin – Lamarckism and Neo-Lamarckism – Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism – Germplasm theory – Mutation theory – Modern Synthetic theory. Geological eras – Fossils and fossilization – Dating of fossils – Extinctions – Living fossils. Adaptations – Variations & Origin – adaptive trends – Polymorphism – Transient and stable – Mimicry & Colouration – Batesian and Mullerian. Convergent, Divergent and Parallel evolution – Co-evolution. Isolating mechanisms – different types – species concepts – definition of species – Origin of species – Allopatric and Sympatric speciation. Genetic drift – Founder’s principle.
Unit V: Evolutionary processes
Natural selection in action – DDT and mosquitoes – Industrial melanism – adaptations of Carcinus and Aonidiella (Citrus insect) – Evolution of horses in the New World and Old World – Evolution of Man – Biological & Cultural.

  1. Kotpal, R.L. and N.P. Bali, 1986. Concepts of Ecology, Vishal Publications, Delhi – 7, 264 pp.

  2. Rastogi V.B. and M.S. Jayaraj, 1988-89. Animal Ecology and distribution of animals, Kedar Nath Ram Nath, Meerut – 250 001, 429 pp.

  3. Clarke, G.L., 1954. Elementa of Ecology, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, London, 534 pp.

  4. Ananthakrishnan, T.N. and S. Viswanathan, Principles of Animal Ecology.

  5. Eugene P. Odum, 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology. Saunders Internationsl Student Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London, Toronto, 574 pp.

  6. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal, 1986. Environmental Biology, S. Chand & Co. Ltd., 591 pp.

  7. Simpson, G.C. 1967 – The meaning of Evolution. Revised Edition – New Haven, Tale University Press.

  8. Colbert, E.H. 1969 – Evolution of vertebrates, Wiley, New york.

  9. Mayr, Ernst, 1973 – Animal species and Evolution. The Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge.

  10. Dobzansky, T. 1976 – Genetics and the origin of species. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.

  11. Savage, J.M. 1976 – Evolution. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

  12. Elic. Minkoff, 1983 – Evolutionary Biology, Addison Wesley.

  13. Leninger, A.L., Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. 1993 – principles of Biochemistry, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

  14. Life, Origin, Evolution and adaption 2002 – Sanjib Chattopadhyay. Books and Allied (p) Ltd.

Unit I
Origin of germ cells – Process of Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis – Types of sperms – Types of Eggs.
Unit II
Mechanism and Physiology of Fertilization. Cleavage and Gastrulation: General principles – Comparative study in Amphioxus and chick.
Unit III
Development of Brain, Eye and Ear in Vertebrate. Extra-embryonic membranes. Placentation in Mammals. Artificial Insemination – Cryopreservation – IVF – Embryo transfer – Test tube babies – Amniocentesis – Super Ovulation – Advantages of Embryo transfer – Ethics in Artificial Reproductive Technology and embryo manipulation.
Unit IV
History of Immunology – Immunohaematology – blood transfusion – Rh – Compatibilities. Innate immunity – Acquired immunity. Structure, composition and functions of cells and organs involved in immune system – Microbial infections, virulence and host resistance related to immunity.
Unit V
Antigens, types, properties, Haptens, Adjuvants – vaccines – types – Toxoids Antitoxins. Immunoglobulins, structure, types and properties. Theories of antibody production. Complement structure properties – function and pathway. Antigen – antibody reaction – invitro methods. Agglutination – precipitation – complement fixation – immuno-fluorescence – ELISA, RIA.

  1. Verma P.S., V.K.Agarwal and Tyagi 1995, Chordate Embryology, S. Chand & Co., New Delhi 110 055, 420 pp.

  2. Arumugam N. A Textbook of Chordate Embryology – Saras Publication – 420 pp.

  3. Balinsky, B.L. 1981, Introduction to Embryology, Saunders College Publishing, 768 pp

  4. Berrili, N.J., 1986, Developmental Biology, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., 534 pp

  1. Nelson O.E., 1953. Comparative Embryology of the Vertebrates. The Blakiston Co. Inc. New York, Toronto, 982 pp.

  2. Raven, P. 1959, Developmental Physiology, Pergamon Press, 230 pp.

  3. Roitt I.M. 2000 Essential Immunology. Blackwell Scientific Publishers

  4. Kuby, J. 1999, Immunology W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

Unit I
Microbiology: History of Microbiology – Biogenesis – contributions of Louis Pasteur – Leuwanhoeck, Lazaro, Spallanzani, John Tyndall, Joseph Lister, Robert Koch. Anatomy of Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes – Microbial identification – morphological, physiological and biochemical properties. Microscopy – simple & compound light microscopy – Dark field – phase contrast – fluorescence and Electron microscopy – Sterilization methods.
Unit II
Culture techniques – Media preparation – Preservation of cultures – Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria – Growth of bacteria – Microbial morphology – wet mounting drop – Staining method – dyes – simple – differential and special staining techniques – acid fast – spore capsule stains.
Unit III
Microbial classification – Basic concepts of microbial metabolism – Microbiology of drinking water, waterborne diseases.
Unit IV
Biotechnology: Definition and history – scope and significance – principles and applications of genetic recombinant technology in medicine, agriculture, veterinary and food industry – Production of biotechnological products – food SCP (algae, yeast, mushroom) – Biofertiliser – Biofuel – Biopesticides – Biogas production – waste and sewage management – effective microorganisms – Enzyme biotechnology – sources and production of commercially important enzymes cellulase, amylase, pectinases, proteinases. Immobilization of enzymes and its applications – Genomic Library.
Unit V
Vectors – types, plasmids (PBR 322, PBR 327), Phage – 1, 113, cosmid insertion vectors, replacement vectors, shuttle vectors and high expression vectors. DNA fragment, Enzymes – Nucleases, Restriction enzymes: Polymerase and Ligases. Gene cloning in E.coli. Isolation of DNA – insertion of DNA – use of linkers and adapters – Transformation – uptake of DNA by host cell – selection of clones, Identification of recombinants, Insertional inactivation.

  1. Pelczar Jr. M.J. Chan E.C.S. and Kreig N.R. 2001 Microbiology – McGraw Hill Inc. New York.

  2. Stainer R.Y., Ingraham J.L., Wheelis M.L. and Painter P.R. 1999 General Microbiology – Macmillan Education Ltd. London.

  3. Biotechnology Fundamentals and applications – Purohit Mathur.

  4. Gene cloning and Introduction – T.A. Brown.

  5. Higgins I.J., Best G.J., and Jones J. 1996, Biotechnology – Principles and applications, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford London.

  6. Gupta P.K. Elements of Biotechnology 2001, Rastogi Publications, Meerut.

Unit I

Biostatistics – Definition and Scope – Collection of Data – Census and sampling methods – Variable: Discrete and Continuous. Presentation of Data: Classification and tabulation, Diagrams and graphs: Bar, Pie, Histogram, Line graph – Concept of statistical population and sample characteristics of frequency distribution.

Unit II
Measures of Central tendency: Mean, Median, Mode & Weighted Arithmetic mean – Measures of Dispersion: Range, Quartile deviation, Mean deviation & Standard deviation – Correlation and Regression.
Unit III
Sampling & test of significance student – L test, F test, X2 – test for independency – Continsenty table.
Unit IV
The Computer system – Hardware – software – BASIC: Character sets in BASIC language – Constants and variables – Library functions – Expressions – System commands – Assignment and input / output statements, Transfer & control statements, jumping, Branching, Multiple Branching and Looping statements – Subscripted variables – String data manipulation – File Management.

Unit V
Use of Internet, Messenger and e-mail – Basic knowledge of Medical transcription and Bio-informatics.

  1. Practical Statistics – S.P. Gupta

  2. Rangaswamy R.A., Textbook of Agriculture Statistics, New Age International Publishers, 1995.

  3. Narasimhan, M. Learning with BASIC (Book I,II,III) Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi. 1996.

  4. Goutham Roy. Introduction to Computing and Computing lab and Cad 2002, Books and Allied (p) Ltd.

  5. Introduction of computing science and Programming in BASIC – Dr. S.K. Nag – Books and Allied (p) Ltd.

Unit I
Computer networking LAN, WAN, MODEM and Fiber Optics Networks – Introduction to Internet, WWW, NICNET, ERNET, VSNL, ISDN.
Unit II
Database – Definitions – Biological database – Primary Database (EMBL, Genebank, DDBJ) – Protein Databases (SWISS – PROT, TREMBL, NRL – 3D PIR MIPS); - Secondary databases (PROSITE, PFAM, BLOCKS, PRINTS IDENTIFY) – Composite databases (NRDB, OWL MIPSX); - Protein structure databases (PDB, MMDB).

Unit III
Pair wise alignment – Local and global alignment – BLAST, FASTA, Multiple Sequence Analysis (MSA).
Unit IV
Evolution of Bio-informatics – Potentials of bio-informatics – Human Genome Project – bio-informatics in India – Future in Bio-informatics.

Unit V
Scope of Bio-informatics – Useful Bio-informatics sites – Bio-informatics in Pharmaceutical industry – Bio-informatics orientation in IT industry.

  1. T.K. Attwood and D.J. Parry – Smith, Introduction to bioinformatics, Pearson Education Ltd., New Delhi (2004).

  2. Arthur M. Lesk, Introduction to bioinformatics, Oxford University Press, New Delhi (2003).

  3. S. Sundara Rajan and R. Balaji, introduction to Bioinformatics, Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi (2002).

  4. Irfan A. Khan and Atiya Khanum, Emerging trends in Bioinformatics, Ukaaz Publications, Andhara Pradesh (2002).

Unit I
The Computer system – Hardware – software – BASIC: Character sets in BASIC language – Constants and variables – Library functions – Expressions.
Unit II
System commands – Assignment and input / output statements, Transfer & control statements, jumping, Branching, Multiple Branching and Looping statements – Subscripted variables – String data manipulation – File Management.
Unit III
MS:WORD: File operations: New, Open, Save & Print – Editing: Cut, Copy, Paste, Find & Replace – Insert: Page numbers & Pictures – Format: Font, Bullet & Numbering, Paaragraph & Background – Tools: Spelling & Grammar – Data: Sort.
Unit IV
MS:EXCEL: Presentation of Biostatistical data using Excel: Autosum, Paste function, Chart wizard, Sort function & Drawing.
Unit V
Use of Internet, Messenger and e-mail – Basic knowledge of Medical transcription and Bio-informatics.

  1. Narasimhan, M. Learning with BASIC (Book I,II,III) Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi. 1996.

  2. Goutham Roy. Introduction to Computing and Computing lab and Cad 2002, Books and Allied (p) Ltd.

  3. Introduction of computing science and Programming in BASIC – Dr. S.K. Nag – Books and Allied (p) Ltd.

  4. MS: OFFICE for Win 95 – Microsoft Office Press.

Unit I
Introduction – Scope of the subject. Collection of specimens, records and preparation of reports. Cleaning, maintenance and care of glasswares.
Unit II
Sterilization – Physical and Chemical methods. Disposal of specimens and infected materials, safety precautions and first aid treatment for superficial wounds, burns, chemical poisoning, contamination of infected microbiological specimens and electric shock.
Unit III
Urine: Analysis of urine samples, chemical parameters routinely required to be analysed. Pregnancy test. Analysis of stools, semen, cerebrospinal fluid for chemical investigation.

Unit IV
Pathology: Organisms causing infectious diseases. Viruses – Measles, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis, HIV. Bacteria – Tuberculosis, Whooping cough – Tetanus – Diptheria, Cholera. Protozoans – Amebic dysentery, Malaria, Leismaniasis. Helminths – filariasis, Cysticercasis.

Unit V
Principles use and maintenance of laboratory instruments like Autoclave, hot air oven, Incubators, Water bath, Refrigerator, Centrifuge, Calorimeter, pH meter, Haemoglobinometer, Haemocytometer, Microtomes balances.

  1. SOOD RAMNIK, 1985. Medical Laboratory Technology. Japee brothers, New Delhi, 384 pp.

  2. BAKER F.J. and SILVERTON R.E. Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technology.

Unit I
Scope of fishery, Definition of extensive aquaculture – Selection of site and preparation of pond – Construction – Soil preparation – Water supply – Control of aquatic weeds, weed fishes, insects and other predators.
Unit II
Reproductive system, Breeding and Spawning, Maturity stages (Morphological and Histological), Development, Collection of fish seeds. Water quality management, fertilization of pond, procurement of seed, transport of seed, stocking, natural and artificial feed, aeration, harvesting and management. Fish farm implement.

Unit III
Induced Breeding of Major Carps. Types of ponds in intensive aquaculture.
Unit IV
Age determination, Schooling in fish, Spawning migration, Mass mortality in fishes and control measures, Common fish diseases and control, Fish parasites, Fresh water fish food organisms.

Unit V
Varieties of aquarium fishes, Home aquarium & maintenance. Public health


  1. Jhingran, V.G., 1985. Fish and Fisheries of India, Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Delhi, 666 pp.

  2. Trivedi, K.K. (Ed), 1986. Fisheries Development, 2000 A.D. Association of India Fisheries Industries, Oxford and I.B.H., New Delhi, 268 pp.

  3. Bal, D.V. and K.V. Rao, 1984. Marine Fisheries, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi. 470 pp.

  4. Bardah, Ryther and McLarrey, 1972. Aquaculture, John Wiley, New York, 868 pp.

  5. Shapherd and Bromage, 1988. Intensive Ship Farming, BSP Professional Books, London, 404 pp.

  6. David Cushing, 1979. Fisheries Resources of the Sea and their Managements OUP & ELBS Edition, London, 87 pp.

  7. Mills, Dick, 1993. Aquarium Fish, DK Publishing Inc., New York – 100 016.

  8. Spotte, S., 1991. Captive Seawater fishes, Argent chemical Laboratories Reference Library, Seattle WA, USA.

Unit I
History of Sericulture: Types of Silkworm – Mulberry, tasar, muga and eri. Mulberry Silkworms: Morphology and Life cycle of silkworms. Silkworm rearing: Rearing house and equipments.

Unit II
Silk reeling: Selection of raw material for reeling – Storage and preservation of raw materials. Marketing and the role of Central Silk Board in the Development of sericulture.
Unit III
Apiculture: Bee keeping down the ages – Present status of Apiculture in India – Species of Honey bees. Embryology and life history – Anatomy and Physiology of honey bee.
Unit IV

Bee colony, Castes. Natural colonies and their yield. Types of beehives – structure – location, care and management.

Unit V
Honey yield in national and international market. Uses of honey and beeswax in Indian medicine.

  1. Manual of Silkworm Rearing: Manual of Mulberry Cultivation by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), United States.

  2. Yoshimaro Tanaka. Sericology, central Silk Board, 99-B, Meghdoot, Merine Drive, Bombay-2.

  3. Yokoyama, T. synthesized science of Sericulture.

  4. Kovaleve, P.A. Silkworm breeding Stocks, Central Silk Board, Merine Drive, Bombay.

  5. Sardar Singh. Bee keeping in India.

  6. Cherian and Ramanathan, S. Bee keeping in south India.

  7. Sharma P.L. and Singh, S.H. and Book of Bee keeping

Unit I
Brief account of morphology, classification (Major orders) and development (Metamorphosis) of insects.
Unit II
Beneficial and harmful insects. Economic importance of honeybees, silkworm and lac insect – parasitic and predatory insects. Damages to plants, animals and man by insects. Brief account of any three pests of 1. Rice, Cholam and Pulses 2. Sugarcane 3. Cotton 4. Groundnut, Gingely and Coconut 5. brinjal, Tomato and Lady’s finger 6. Cardomam, Chilies, tea and Coffee 7. Mango and Citrus.
Unit III
Insect pests of stored grains – Insect vectors of plants, animals and man – Other insects affecting the health of man domestic animals.

Unit IV
Insect pest control methods (Physical, mechanical, biological and chemical) – Classification of pesticides and their modes of action.
Unit V
Plant protection appliances used – basic principles of insecticide formulations and their application in pest control. Pesticides and environmental pollution – precautions in handling pesticides.

  1. David, B.V. and T. Kumarasamy, 1984. Elements of Economic Entomology, Popular Book Depot, Madras, 536 pp.

  2. Nayar, K.K., T.N. Ananthakrishnan and B.V. David. 1992. General and Applied Entomology. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi – 110 051.

  3. David, B.V., 1992. Pest Management and Pesticides Indian Scenario, Namratha Publications, Madras.

  4. Metcalf, C.L. and W.P. Flint, 1973. Desctructive and Useful Insects. 4th Ed., Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi – 110 051, 1087 pp.

  5. Roya D.N. and A.W.A. Brown (Eds), 1981. Entomology Medical and Veterinary (3rd Ed.) The Bangalore Printing and Publishing Company, Bangalore –18.

  6. Ramakrishna Iyer, T.V., Economic Entomology, Government Publications. Madras.


Any Bony Fish

  1. Externals

  2. Digestive System

  3. Aortic arches

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