University college of agriculture

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Batch -2014 onwards

Guru Kashi University


Bachelor of Agriculture Science (Hons.) 4 Years


Art, Science and business of crop production, Basic elements of crop production; Factors affecting crop production; History of Agricultural Development; Ancient India Agriculture in Civilization Era, Chronological Agricultural Technology development in India. Indian Agriculture, balance sheet, liabilities; Assets and Contrasting trends (DATA), Agrl. growth, contrasting food chains, diversity in physiography, Soil groups, marine, livestock and water; Liabilities: Soil factors, weather factors, Economic ecology, dry and irrigation agriculture, Farming Systems approach, value addition, requirements in new technology; Women in Agriculture: multifaceted roles and tasks, work stress factors, Nutritional and rural life standards, role in house hold design making, drudgery reduction for farm women, women friendly agricultural technology; Empowerment of women;

Meaning and scope of Agronomy: National and International Agricultural Research Institutes in India, Agro-climatic zones of India and Rajasthan. Tillage, crops stand establishment, Planting geometry and its effect on growth and yield cropping systems, Harvesting. Agricultural meteorology: Weather and climate, micro-climate, weather elements, Earths’ atmosphere, Composition and structure, solar radiation, Nature, properties, depletion, solar constant and energy balance, Atmospheric, temperature, factors affecting, horizontal and vertical distribution, variations and global warming, Air Pressure variations; Wind: factors affecting, cyclones and anticyclones and general circulation, Atmospheric humidity, vapour pressure and saturation, Process of condensation, formation of dew, fog, mist, snow, rain and hail; Formation and classification of clouds, Introduction to monsoon, Basics of weather forecasting.



Study of tillage implements; Practice of ploughing; Practice of puddling; Study of seeding equipments and introduction of remote sensing. Different methods of sowing; Study of manures, fertilizers and green manure crops / seeds (including calculations); Study of intercultivation implements and practice; Practice of methods of fertilizer applications; Participation in ongoing field operations; Site selection for Agro met observatory; Measurement of temperature; Measurement of rainfall; Measurement of evaporation (atmospheric/soil); Measurement of atmospheric pressure; Measurement of sunshine duration and solar radiation; Measurement of wind direction and speed and relative humidity; Study of weather forecasting and synoptic charts.

Mendel’s laws of inheritance and exceptions to the laws; Types of gene action, Multiple alleles, Pleiotropism, Penetrance and expressivity; Quantitative traits, Qualitative traits and differences between them; Multiple factor hypothesis; Cytoplasmic inheritance, it’s characteristic features and difference between chromosomal and cytoplasmic inheritance; Mutation and it’s characteristic features; Methods of inducing mutations and C l B technique. Gene expression and differential gene activation; Lac operon and Fine structure of Gene; Ultra structure of cell and cell organelles and their functions; Study of chromosome structure, morphology, number and types, Karyotype and Idiogram; Mitosis and meiosis, their significance and differences between them; DNA and it’s structure, function, types, modes of replication and repair. RNA and its structure, function and types; Transcription, Translation, Genetic code and outline of protein synthesis; Crossing over and factors affecting it; Mechanism of crossing over and Cytological proof of crossing over; Linkage, Types of linkage and estimation of linkage; Numerical chromosomal aberrations (Polyploidy) and evolution of different crop species like Cotton, Wheat, Tobacco, Triticale and Brassicas; Structural chromosomal aberrations.
Microscopy (Light microscopes and electron microscopes; Preparation and use of fixatives and stains for light microscopy; Preparation of micro slides and identification of various stages of mitosis; Preparation of micro slides and identification of various stages of mitosis; Preparation of micro slides and identification of various stages of meiosis; Preparation of micro slides and identification of various stages of meiosis; Monohybrid ratio and its modifications; Dihybrid ratio and its modifications; Trihybrid ratio; Chi-square analysis and Interaction of factors; Epistatic factors, Supplementary factors and Duplicate factors; Complementary factors, Additive factors and Inhibitory factors; Linkage – Two point test cross; Linkage – Three point test cross; Induction of polyploidy using colchicines; Induction of chromosomal aberrations using chemicals.
Soil: Pedological and edaphological concepts, Composition of Earth crust; Rocks and minerals Weathering, Soil formation factors and processes Components of soils; Soil profile, Soil physical properties, Soil texture, Textural classes, Particle size analysis, Soil structure Classification, Soil aggregates, significance, Soil consistency, Soil crusting, Bulk density and particle density of soils & porosity, their significance and manipulation, Soil compaction, Soil Colour, Elementary knowledge of soil classification and soils of India; Soil water, Retention and potentials, Soil moisture constants, Movement of soil water, Infiltration, percolation, permeability, Drainage, Methods of determination of soil moisture Thermal properties of soils, Soil temperature, Soil air, Gaseous exchange, Influence of soil temperature and air on plant growth; Soil organic matter, Composition, Decomposability, Humus, Fractionation of organic matter, Carbon cycle, C: N ratio. Soil biology, Biomass, Soil organisms and their beneficial and harmful roles.
Determination of bulk density and particle density, Aggregate analysis, Soil strength, Soil moisture determination, Soil moisture constants – Field capacity, Infiltration rate, water holding capacity. soil texture and mechanical analysis, Soil temperature. Analytical chemistry – Basic concepts, techniques and calculations. Collection and processing of soil sample for analysis. Organic carbon, pH, EC. Study of a soil profile. Identification of rocks and minerals.

Surveying: survey equipment, chain survey, cross staff survey, plotting procedure, calculations of area of regular and irregular fields. Levelling – levelling equipment, terminology, methods of calculation of reduced levels, types of levelling, contouring. Irrigation, classification of projects, flow irrigation and lift irrigation. Water source, Water lifting devices – pumps (shallow and deep well), capacity, power calculations. Irrigation water measurement – weirs, flumes and orifices and methods of water measurement and instruments. Water conveyance systems, open channel and underground pipeline. Irrigation methods – drip and sprinkle irrigation systems. Soil and water conservation – soil erosion, types and engineering control measures.

Acquaintance with chain survey equipment; Ranging and measurement of offsets; Chain triangulation; Cross staff survey; Plotting of chain triangulation; Plotting of cross staff survey; Levelling equipment – dumpy level, levelling staff, temporary adjustments and staff reading; Differential leveling; Profile leveling; Contour survey – grid method; Plotting of contours; Study of centrifugal pumping system and irrigation water measuring devices; Study of different components of sprinkler irrigation systems; Study of different components of drip and sprinkler irrigation systems; Uniformity of water application in drip and sprinkler systems; Study of soil and water conservation measures.
Introduction, Important plant pathogenic organisms, different groups, fungi, bacteria, fastidious vesicular bacteria, phytoplasmas, spiroplasmas, viruses, viriods, algae, protozoa and phanerogamic parasites with examples of diseases caused by them. Prokaryotes: classification of prokaryotes according to Bergey’ s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. General Characters of fungi, Definition of fungus, somatic structures, types of fungal thalli, fungal tissues, modifications of thallus, reproduction in fungi (asexual and sexual). Nomenclature, Binomial system of nomenclature, rules of nomenclature, classification of fungi. Key to divisions and sub-divisions. Introduction: Definition and objectives of Plant Pathology. History of Plant Pathology. Terms and concepts in Plant Pathology. Survival and Dispersal of Plant Pathogens. Phenomenon of infection. Pathogenesis – Role of enzymes, toxins, growth regulators and polysaccharides. Defense mechanism in plants. Plant disease epidemiology. General principles of plant diseases management – Importance, general Principles – Avoidance, exclusion, protection – Plant Quarantine and Inspection – Quarantine Rules and Regulations. Cultural methods – Rougeing, eradication of alternate and collateral hosts, crop rotation, manure and fertilizer management, mixed cropping, sanitation, hot weather ploughing, soil amendments, time of sowing, seed rate and plant density, irrigation and drainage. Role and mechanisms of biological control and PGPR. Physical Methods – Heat and Chemical methods – Methods of application of fungicides. Integrated plant disease management (IDM) – Concept, advantages and importance.
Acquaintance to plant pathology laboratory and equipments; Preparation of culture media for fungi and bacteria; Isolation techniques, preservation of disease samples; Study of Pythium, Phytophthora and Albugo; Study of Peronospora, Plasmopara and Bremia; Study of genera Mucor and Rhizopus. Study of Oidium, Erysiphe, Phyllactinia, Uncinula and Podosphaera; Study of Puccinia (different stages), Uromyces, Hemiliea; Study of Ustilago; Study of Agaricus, Pleurotus and Ganoderma; Study of Septoria, Colletotrichum, and Pyricularia; Study of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Fusarium; Study of Helminthosporium, Drechslera, Alternaria, Cercospora, Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium; Demonstration of Koch’ s postulates; Study of different groups of fungicides and antibiotics; Preparation of fungicides – Bordeaux mixture, Bordeaux paste, Methods of application of fungicides – seed, soil and foliar; Bio-assay of fungicides – poisoned food technique, inhibition zone technique and slide germination technique; Bio-control of plant pathogens – dual culture technique, seed treatment. Visit to quarantine station and remote sensing laboratory.
Introduction to Computers, Anatomy of Computers, Input and Output Devices. Units of Memory, Hardware, Software and Classification of Computers. Personal Computers, Types of Processors, booting of computer, warm and cold booting. Computer Viruses, Worms and Vaccines. Disk Operating System (DOS): Some fundamental DOS Commands, FORMAT, DIR, COPY, PATH, LABEL, VOL, MD, CD and DELTREE, Rules for naming files in DOS and Types of files. Applications – MSWORD: Word, processing and units of document, features of word-processing packages. Creating, Editing, Formatting and saving a document in MSWORD; MSEXCEL: Electronic Spreadsheets, concept, packages. Creating, Editing and saving a spreadsheet with MSEXCEL.

Study of Computer Components; Booting of Computer and its Shut Down; Practice of some fundamental DOS Commands, TIME, DATE, DIR, COPY, FORMAT, VOL, LABEL, PATH; MSWORD: Creating a Document, Saving and Editing; MSWORD, Use of options from Tool Bars, Format, Insert and Tools (Spelling & Grammar) Alignment of text; MSWORD, Creating a Table, Merging of Cells, Column and Row width; MSEXCEL: Creating a Spreadsheet, Alignment of rows, columns and cells using Format tool bar; MSEXCEL: Entering Expressions through the formula tool bar and use of inbuilt functions, SUM, AVERAGE, STDEV; MSEXCEL: Data Analysis using inbuilt Tool Packs, Correlation & Regression; MSEXCEL: Creating Graphs and Saving with & without data;

Comprehension: Text for comprehension, Let’s Go Home & Other Stories, Edited by Meenakashi Mukerjee. Orient Longman, New Delhi. And

  1. Essay (not exceeding 400 words)

  2. Precis

  3. Translation from Hindi into English

  4. Allied Grammar: Use of idioms, correction of incorrect sentences, etc

A501115 BOTANY I 3
Classification of plant kingdom with salient features of each group. Cell-structure and its types. Cell division, types of cell division. Meristematic and permanent tissues and their types. Parts of angiosperms plant. External morphology of root. Tap root and adventitious root system. modified tap and adventitious roots. Morphology of stem. modifications and functions of stem. Structure of leaf. Venation. phyllotaxy. Modifications and functions of leaf. Types of inflorescence. types of fruits. Types of ovules. Vegetative reproduction-natural and artificial. pollination and fertilization. Structure of monocot and dicot seed. Seed germination. Factors affecting germination and seed dormancy. types of dormancy and factors affecting it. Basic knowledge of crop growth and development. phytohormones:

brief account and their use in Agriculture.

A501116 LAB- BOTANY I 1
Study of different plant parts. Description of at least two plant species from each group of plants. Preparation of slides of cell and its inclusions. Study of different types of roots. their modifications. Stem types and their modifications. Parts of leaf. Leaf types. Venation. phyllotaxy. modification of leaf. Flower structure. Insertion of floral whorls on thalamus. Floral diagrams. Racemose. Cymose and special types of inflorescence. Fruit types. structure and germination of monocot and dicot seeds
Complex numbers Geometric series. Logarithms. Binomial theorem for positive index. Trigonometric identities and allied angles, graphs of trigonometric functions, addition and subtraction formulae, sum and product formulae, multiple and sub-multiple angles.

Tutorials on: complex numbers, geometric series, logarithms, binomial theorem and trigonometric problems


A501119/A501218/A501316/A501417Lab-NSS/NCC / PHYSICAL EDUCATION 4*(NC)

*One credit for each semsster

NSS: Orientation of students in national problems, study of philosophy of NSS, fundamentals rights, directive principles of state policy, socio-economic structure of Indian society, population problems, brief of five year plan. Functional literacy, non-formal education of rural youth, eradication of social evils, awareness programmes, consumer awareness, highlights of consumer act. Environment enrichment and conservation, health, family welfare and nutrition. NCC: Introduction to NCC, defence services, system of NCC training, foot drill, sizing, forming up in three ranks, open and close order march, dressing, getting on parade, dismissing and falling out, saluting, marching, arms drill, shoulder arm, order arm, present arm, guard of honour, ceremonial drill, weapon training – rifle bayonet, light machine gun, sten machine carbine. Introduction and characteristic stripping, assembling and cleaning, loading, unloading and firing. Field craft, visual training, targets, judging distance, fire discipline and fire control orders, battle craft, field signals, description of ground, section formation, section battle drill, scouts and patrols, ambush, field engineering, map reading, conventional signs, grid systems, use of service protractor, prismatic compass and its use, self defence, general principles, precautions and training, attacks and counter attacks, marching and searching, first aid, hygiene and sanitation, civil defence, leadership and NCC song. Physical Education: Introduction to physical education. Posture, exercise for good posture, physical fitness exercises for agility, strength, coordination, endurance and speed. Rules regulations of important games, skill development in any one of the games, football, hockey, cricket, volleyball, badminton, throw ball, tennis. Participation in one of the indoor games, badminton, chess and table tennis. Rules and regulations of athletic events, participation in any one of the athletic events, long jump, high jump, triple jump, javelin throw, discuss throw, shot put, short and long distance running, Safety education, movement education, effective way of doing day-to-day activities. First-aid training, coaching for major games and indoor games. Asians and indigenous ways for physical fitness and curative exercises. Exercises and games for leisure time, use and experience.
Irrigation: definition and objectives, water resources and irrigation development in India and Rajasthan; Soil plant water relationships; Methods of soil moisture estimation, evapotranspiration and crop water requirement; effective rainfall, scheduling of irrigation; Methods of irrigation: surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation; Irrigation efficiency and water use efficiency, conjunctive use of water, irrigation water quality and its management. Water management of different crops (rice, wheat, maize, groundnut, sugarcane, mango, banana and tomato); Agricultural drainage.
Determination of bulk density by field method; Determination of soil moisture content by gravimetric method, tensiometer, electrical resistance block and neutron moisture meter; Determination of field capacity by field method; Determination of permanent wilting point; Measurement of irrigation water through flumes and weirs; Calculation of irrigation water requirement (Problems); Determination of infiltration rate; Demonstration of furrow method of irrigation; Demonstration of check basin and basin method of irrigation; Visit to farmers field and cost estimation of drip irrigation system; Demonstration of filter cleaning, fertigation, injection and flushing of laterals; Erection and operation of sprinkler irrigation system; Measurement of emitter discharge rate, wetted diameter and calculation of emitter discharge variability; Determination of EC, pH, carbonates, biocarbonates, Ca++ and Mg++ in irrigation water (quality parameters)
Introduction to Seed Production, Importance of Seed Production, Seed policy, Seed demand forecasting and planning for certified, foundation and breeder seed production, Deterioration of crop varieties, Factors affecting deterioration and their control; Maintenance of genetic purity during seed production, Seed quality; Definition, Characters of good quality seed, Different classes of seed, Production of nucleus & breeder’s seed, Maintenance and multiplication of pre-release and newly released varieties in self and cross-pollinated crops; Seed Production, Foundation and certified seed production in maize (varieties, hybrids, synthetics and composites); Foundation and certified seed production of rice (varieties & hybrids); Foundation and certified seed production of sorghum and bajra (varieties, hybrids, synthetics and composites); Foundation and certified seed production of cotton and sunflower (varieties and hybrids); Foundation and certified seed(varieties and hybrids) production of castor, tomato, brinjal, chillies, bhendi, onion, bottle gourd and ridge gourd; Seed certification, phases of certification, procedure for seed certification, field inspection and field counts etc.; Seed Act and Seed Act enforcement, Central Seed Committee, Central Seed Certification Board, State Seed Certification Agency, Central and State Seed Testing Laboratories; Duties and powers of seed inspectors, offences and penalties; Seed control order: Seed Control Order 1983, Seed Act 2000 and other issues related to seed quality regulation. Intellectual Property Rights, Patenting, WTO, Plant Breeders Rights, Varietal Identification through Grow–Out Test and Electrophoresis; Seed Drying: Forced air seed drying, principle, properties of air and their effect on seed drying, moisture equilibrium between seed and air, Heated air drying, building requirements, types of air distribution systems for seed drying, selection of crop dryers and systems of heated air drying, recommended temperature and depth of the seeds, management of seed drying, Planning and layout of seed processing plant; Establishment of seed processing plant. Seed processing: air screen machine and its working principle, different upgrading equipments and their use, Establishing a seed testing laboratory. Seed testing procedures for quality assessment, Seed treatment, Importance of seed treatment, types of seed treatment, equipment used for seed treatment (Slurry and Mist–O–matic treater), Seed packing and seed storage, stages of seed storage, factors affecting seed longevity during storage and conditions required for good storage, General principles of seed storage, constructional features for good seed warehouse, measures for pest and disease control, temperature control, Seed marketing, marketing structure, marketing organization, sales generation activities, promotional media, pricing policy; Factors affecting seed marketing.
Seed sampling principles and procedures; Physical Purity analysis of Field and Horticultural crops; Germination analysis of Field and Horticultural crops; Moisture tests of Field and Horticultural crops; Viability test of Field and Horticultural crops; Seed health test of Field and Horticultural crops; Vigour tests of Field and Horticultural crops; Seed dormancy and breaking methods; Grow out tests and electrophoresis for varietal identification; Visit to Seed production plots of Maize, Sunflower, Bajra, Rice, Sorghum, Cotton, Chillies and Vegetables. (Add or delete crops of the region); Visit to Seed processing plants; Visit to Seed testing laboratories; Visit to Grow out testing farms; Visit to Hybrid Seed Production farms; Varietal identification in seed production plots; Planting ratios, isolation distance, roguing etc
Soil as a source of plant nutrients. Soil colloids, Properties, nature, types and significance; Layer silicate clays, their genesis and sources of charges, Adsorption of ions, Ion exchange, CEC & AEC Factors influencing ion exchange and its significance. Essential and beneficial elements, criteria of essentiality, forms of nutrients in soil and transfermations, mechanisms of nutrient transport to plants, factors affecting nutrient availability to plants. Measures to overcome deficiencies and toxicities. Problem soils – acid, salt affected and calcareous soils, characteristics, nutrient availabilities. Reclamation – mechanical, chemical and biological methods. Fertilizer and insecticides and their effect on soil water and air. Irrigations water – Quality of irrigation water and its appraisal. Indian standards for water quality. Use of saline water for agriculture. Soil fertility – Different approaches for soil fertility evaluation. Soil test based fertilizer recommendations to crops. Factors influencing nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in respect of N, P, K, S, Fe and Zn fertilizers. Source, method and scheduling of nutrients for different soils and crops grown under rainfed and irrigated conditions.

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