Unit Two Sources Chart



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Unit Two Sources Chart FYS G114 Reality and the Americas Spring 2011 McCarthy


Unit Two Sources Chart

 

List all your group-members' names here:



Saravothy Sun

Catarina Ferreira

Johana Aries

Elizabeth Borgen



Ashley Barboza- Phoeniz


What is the source's main position/arguments about reality and how reality is constructed? (Be sure to use at least one specific quotation as substantiation.)

How are the arguments about reality, and the evidence used to support them, organized? (Use at least two specific quotations as support.)

Which types of evidence does the argument depend on? What are the best examples of evidence? (Be sure to use at least one specific quotation as substantiation.)

What are three (or more) terms/concepts from the reading that could be added to our general list of course terms? (Be sure to point out why you identified the particular terms that you chose.)

Illustrate how the source connects to another Unit 2 source by associating specific quotes from each one. (At least two direct quotations will be necessary.)

Turkle's "Growing Up Tethered”

Reality has changed over time and that now there is a new meaning for the new things emerged. The use of technology has increased rapidly as time has gone by.  In “Growing Up Tethered” Turkle proves that the young generation relies on their phones a lot, and how they need to be connected at all times. Turkle says, “I’ll pull up my friend…uh, my phone. Julia’s language slips tellingly. When Julia thinks about strong feelings, he thoughts go to her phone and her friends she mixes together “pulling up” a friend’s name on her phone and “Pulling out” her phone, but she does not really correct herself so much as imply that the phone is her friend and that friends take on identities through the phone” (176). Reality is now based on technology, which people now live off of.
-Johana Aries

Turkle’s argument in “Growing up Tethered” was used in the form of a book, with a well-organized smoothly transitioned article telling of the disconnection of the world we live in today, due to technologies like cell phones, and social networks. We are slowly becoming a society of distance amongst each other with face to face conversations being limited to 20 minute phone conversations, and on social network sights we are making a portrayal of a person who we aren’t. Throughout the chapter students (high school and college) opinions on cell phones and social networks were used, two psychologists theory’s about adolescence, one being “Erickson said that identity play is the work of adolescence. And these days adolescence use the rich materials of online life to do that work.” (Page 179) Also a firsthand experience with the “high school” like atmosphere of the social network, done by the author herself when she said “Facebook is a world in which fans are ‘friends’. But of course they are not friends. They have been ‘friended’. That makes all the difference in the world, and I couldn’t get high school out of m y mind.” (Page 182)

-Ashley Barboza-Phoenix



Sherry Turkle, when writing growing up tethered, uses many interviews as evidence to support subject of technology and how it affects teenagers today. One teen that Turkle interviews tells her that cell phones have made it hard for him to have freedom from his parents because his parents can always have an easy access to him, thanks to the use of cell phones. The teen says, "My mother makes me take my phone, but i never answer ti when my parents call , and they get mad at me, i dont feel like i should have to " (173). Getting first hand evidence of these teens experience make Turkles text more believeable and relateable
-Catarina Ferreira

In Turkle’s Growing up tethered, needing to have a cell phone and being connected 24/7 is NOT considered abnormal. Children are kept track of by their parents using cell phones and vice versa. They use the term Pathology on page 177 of the reading as if needing to have a cell phone is NOT pathology, “but an accommodation to what technology affords.” ( page 177, Turkle) Another thing Turkle refers to is THE AVATAR OF ME. The term Avatar, used on page 179, it’s just like the game The Sims Online, is where you can create a virtual self. It’s a virtual place where you can live without really living. It helps people detach from real life. “This kind of identity work can take place wherever you create an avatar.” (page 180, Turkle) People create a Persona for themselves, not only as an avatar, but on their own personal online profiles, such as facebook. Children as young as 13 are making these online profiles and altering them the way they want to be. They use this all the way into applying for colleges. “Creating the illusion of authenticity demands virtuosity.” (page 183, Turkle) Using these methods of communicating and making yourself who and what you want to be is what our generation does, virtually. Person to person has turned into texting instead of in person conversations. It may be a freer way of being who you want to be, but it might not exactly be who you are.

-Elizabeth Borgen




Turkle’s discussion about adolescents staying connected with their devices shows how technologies is expanding and the “adolescent need to separate” (Turkle 173) because they believe they doesn’t need to be with their parents anymore, as they’re grown up. The interview was rendered to show the present reality where natural exploratory are causing teenagers to collaborate with themselves and towards others with perseverance changes. According to Trish, she stays on “The Sims” to recreate her personal life as she currently lives in an unsuitable environment with her drunken father (Turkle 179). Turkle’s writings “Growing Up Tethered” can be related to Postman’s writings “Reenactments and Docudramas, or No News is Sill News” because of what Postmans explained about “recreation” where there are programs that simulate reality (Postman 90). The present today has prominent features that can recreate themselves as the society of entertainment back then was depended on an announcer because they were limited with technologies.
-Saravothy Sun




Unit Two Sources Chart

List all your group-members' names here:


Bri

Richard J. Amanda



Alex

Richard Y.



What is the source's main position/arguments about reality and how reality is constructed? (Be sure to use at least one specific quotation as substantiation.)

How are the arguments about reality, and the evidence used to support them, organized? (Use at least two specific quotations as support.)

Which types of evidence does the argument depend on? What are the best examples of evidence? (Be sure to use at least one specific quotation as substantiation.)

What are three (or more) terms/concepts from the reading that could be added to our general list of course terms? (Be sure to point out why you identified the particular terms that you chose.)

Illustrate how the source connects to another Unit 2 source by associating specific quotes from each one. (At least two direct quotations will be necessary.)

Jhally's Advertising and the End of the World

This source is suggesting that reality is constructed by the things that people encounter on a daily basis and one of those things is advertisements. We watch TV every day and they are there and they are all around us on billboards and flyers. It seems like advertisements are being forced on us and making us do the things that it wants us to do which was described as “magic” by some people. “If an anthropologist from Mars were to look at this society, where messages are everywhere, they’d conclude that this society is dominated by a belief in Magic” (Jhally 2).
Bri

In Jhally’s Advertising and the End of the World he discussed the topics of advertising and commercials. He explains how commercials are taking over our culture. Commercials broadcast a big message to society, and sends a message convey culture. Since commercials are taking over culture, which helps us survive it connects back to reality because it shows how society acts and how we are depicted. Jhally mentions how “… in fact, advertising has taken up more, and more space in culture” (3). Jhally also states how “Our culture has simply become an adjunct to the system of production and consumption” (4). The reality of this is that advertising is taking on a position that does not help us view ourselves and the world clearly when we could use it in order to help us broadcast a productive message. Seeing as though advertising is becoming a leading factor in culture, we should be able to use advertising to broadcast not only our commodities but our morals and goals and to set a positive example. The evidence that Jhally uses to in order to support his arguments are well organized because he uses commercials in order to justify what he is saying, as well as other researchers to back him up. Jhally quotes commercials so that we can get a feel of the message that they are trying to convey and if it helps us understand the world around us. Jhally introduces us to researches that conduct surveys and have different views on the advertising topics so that we can come up with opinions on the topic of advertising and the end of the world.

Amanda


In Jhally he says that our society is consumed by commercials and advertisements. Also predicts the end of the world because of all these advertisements. If we look around, ads are all around us, from movies, to subway stations, T.V, buses and so much more. He also goes on to say that if any other culture or society were to witness or examine our “society” they would say that it is a society of magic and make believe ideas. An example he points out is “If an anthropologist from Mars were to look at this society, where messages are everywhere, they’d conclude that this society is dominated by a belief in magic.” (Jhally 2) This statement proves that our society is based on fantasy rather than reality.

Richard J.



1.Magic System- Jhally states, “If an anthropologist from mars were to look at this society, where messages are everywhere, they’d conclude that this society is dominated by a belief in magic” (Jhally 9)

2. Happiness surveys- Material things make us happy but in surveys it shows us that material things don’t really make us truly happy. “In these surveys what the researchers wanted to find was how people thought about their own subjective happiness. And what they found was, despite the fact that we have gotten richer in that time, that we have access to far more commodities, that our standard of living is undoubtedly higher, the number of people who have reported themselves as very happy has remained remarkably stable.” (Jhally 9)

3. Adverting- Ads is our reality because it is all around us. It’s what drives our society and culture forward and it sometimes helps us, but it could eventually be our greatest downfall.

All


Sut Jhally expresses a point in his movie “does advertising bring happiness?’ Jhally shows a series of advertisements before getting into detail and right in the beginning he states “If an anthropologist from Mars were to look at this society, where messages are everywhere, they’d conclude that this society is dominated by a belief in magic” (Jhally 2). Advertisements does show a form of magic when the public believes the advertisement system. “The cultural theorist Raymond Williams, one of the first people who paid careful attention to advertising, actually called it the “magic system” where goods were held to have incredible power … They can bring instant happiness, and gratification” (Jhally 2). We are being run over by technology, we are being expressed through the new ways of technology this is similar to the essay written by Sherry Turkle. Turkle expresses the main point of being “Tethered”. Tethered is “something (as a rope or chain) by which an animal is fastened so that it can range only within a set radius”

(Merriam Webster). In the context of Turkle’s essay this expresses how we are tethered to our

cellphones or consider them robot pets. Let’s compare with Jhally and compose a new theory,

how does the future of technology express the future of humans? Well in the context of both

Jhally and Turkle we may not have much time left.

Alex & Richard Y.






Unit Two Sources Chart

List all your group-members' names here: Dena, Daniela, Kaila. Eddie and Andrea



What is the source's main position/arguments about reality and how reality is constructed? (Be sure to use at least one specific quotation as substantiation.)

How are the arguments about reality and the evidence used to support them, organized? (Use at least two specific quotations as support.)

Which types of evidence does the argument depend on? What are the best examples of evidence? (Be sure to use at least one specific quotation as substantiation.)

What are three (or more) terms/concepts from the reading that could be added to our general list of course terms? (Be sure to point out why you identified the particular terms that you chose.)

Illustrate how the source connects to another Unit 2 source by associating specific quotes from each one. (At least two direct quotations will be necessary.)

Postman's and Powers's "Reenactments..." (Chapter 7)

1. Postman and Power chapter 7 reconstructs reality to be more like a "docudrama". The author’s state that everything is recreated, re-enacted or simulated nothing is really the "truth" or in other words real. You might watch a video and some of the parts might be real but several parts are "weave in events created by the writer” (Postman and Powers 90). Postman and Powers state, many producers re-enact their clips and often times they come to realize that even though "audiences tend to absorb information from television even though they forget where the information originated does not trouble the producers of docudramas"(90). Sometime it is easier for the producer to produce a docudrama because not everything is real, and it comes with a little twist that interests the audience. Even news clips are re-enacted or stimulated, Edward R. Murrow once stated, "There will always be some errors in news gathering, but the tricks that microphone, cameras, and film make possible must never be contrived to pass off as news events that were fabricated to document and event that we missed or which may never have happened"(Murrow as qtd. in Postman and Powers 92). The argument show us that reality is re-enacted and half of the things we see, watch, and hear is stimulated or might not even be the whole TRUTH.

(Kaila)
2. This source is informing the reader about how the news uses recreations and simulations of events that have happened in the past. The reality of the situation is that the news networks create fake images and also use sound or video recordings to display important information about an event. Postman/Powers say: “Generally speaking, television executives don’t see reenactments as a problem, primarily because reenactments make engrossing television…ABC’s ‘World News Tonight’ showed footage of U.S. diplomat Felix Bloch handing a briefcase to a Soviet agent. The scene was not labeled as a re-creation. The word ‘simulation’ or some other warning…was accidently left off the screen, leaving viewers with the impression they were watching the actual taped event (Postman and Powers 89).” This quote shows how the author’s position on reenactments is that they bend the truth to gain more viewers to the network, therefore earning more capital. (Eddie Saliba)



In the reading Reenactments and Docudramas, or No News Is Still News by Postman and Powers it talks about the reality of television and how they used technology back then.  They used radio stations for entertainment for the people.  “In the early days of radio, details of baseball games were telegraphed down the line to radio stations where announcers would recreate the game without seeing it” (Postman and Powers 87).  So, people could pick up the game and listen to it on the radio, and by doing this it made good theater, which people enjoyed.  They used docudramas besides using recreations for entertainment.  “TV producers have created whole programs of simulated reality.  They are called docudramas.  These usually use real news stories for the starting point of a story line, then weave in events created by a writer” (Postman and Powers 90).  They liked this for entertainment because docudramas had a low cost and it was like real-life drama and people like to watch stuff like that.  This is how they organized the entertainment business, to make people want to listen and watch different kinds of reality; even if it is not true, it’s what people want to see.
(Dena)

The evidence that Postman and Power rely on in chapter seven, Reenactments and Docudramas or no news is still news, are T.V shows, and what some critics say about the TV shows and reenactments. For example, Postman and Powers say that “some critics claim that re-creations mislead the viewer into thinking he or she is watching a recording of the real thing” (89). In this case they are using the claim of the critics, to supports what they say about reality on TV not being so real. Another example, is when they quote one of the program’s host, this is what they say; “to his credit, Cronkite is on record as believing that historical re-creations have ‘no place in a news division’, that, in effect, they are devices to be used to entertain and not for anything else” (Cronkite as qtd. In Postman and Powers 88). Postman and Powers use this evidence to show how to some people TV serves just as a form of entertainment and not reality. They also use TV shows such as, Phil Donahue and Geraldo Rivera to support their argument. Postman and Powers say that the show is not a newscast show but it attracts people by portraying true life stories, in order to make profit from it. They say that TV shows are exploiting peoples problems in order to attract people and make money from it.

Daniela Vargas



In Postman and Power chapter 7 the four terms that can be added to our general list of course terms is docudrama, reenactment, simulate, and exploiting. Docudrama can be added to our course list because it is fictionalized drama, the opposite from reality and the real thing that is happening. Also simulate because in Postman and Powers chapter 7 the authors argues "instead of a blank screen we have a stimulation of reality and reenactment. These two words are opposite of reality and this is what we see on the screen today a stimulation of reality and scripts being reenacted. Also films, movies and TV shows are re-enacted and exploited because it gives the audience more entertainment it is reality but with a twist from the writer. Not everything is true. The four new course terms listed above are all reality opposite subcategories. Within the four definitions we do have reality including a mixture of imagination, stimulation, recreation, and docudrama. All the producers twist up their scripts and created a docudrama, "whole programs of stimulated reality"(Postman, Powers 90).

(Kaila)


In the essay, Reenactments and Docudramas No News is Still News, by Postman and Powers, the reality of television and radio is explored. Postman and Powers describe to the readers the actual truth and reality that occurs backstage in the making of television shows, news, and radio shows. Most of what we see on television isn't all the truth or isn't exactly what happened, as Postman and Powers explain, “What the announcer said might not have been the truth but it was good theater" (88). People don't want to know the truth; simply because the truth isn't always entertaining therefore is up to the producers of these shows to make things interesting to grab the attention of the audience, "A docudrama can remedy unhappy or unjust conclusions by packaging them in palatable form" (Postman and Powers, 91). By bending the truth audiences are allowed to take in horrible events in a more well put together manner, this way is a way of not completely lying but giving some truth at the same time. This habit of bending the truth is quite popular in our modern day society and also the past. Postman and Powers idea of bending reality to entertain the audience is quite common even for people in the past, as the book 1491 by Charles Mann as he describes a researcher's experience in Bolivia. Charles Mann uncovered Holmberg's mistake in his book, stating that, “Holmberg’s Mistake explained the colonist’s view of most Indians as incurably vicious barbarians” (Mann, 13), Holmberg was obviously wrong in his findings yet he never came out and gave the truth. This is one example of how people bend the truth and even lie to cover up reality. Although in Postman and Powers essay talks about the television and how they bend the truth Mann explains how Holmberg even after finding out that his research on the Siriono people were wrong he refused to change the public views on Indians, “the advertisement still embodied Holmbergs Mistake, for it implicitly depicted Inidans as people who never changed their environment from its original wild state” (Mann 14). This advertisement was still carried out to the public even after the truth was uncovered. This goes to show how the truth isn’t always accurate even in our most scholarly sources. (Andrea)





Unit Two Sources Chart
Rachael Llanes, Vely Michel, Andrew Liang & Natalia Sanchez-Artu

What is the source's main position/arguments about reality and how reality is constructed? (Be sure to use at least one specific quotation as substantiation.)

(Vely)


How are the arguments about reality, and the evidence used to support them, organized? (Use at least two specific quotations as support.)

Which types of evidence does the argument depend on? What are the best examples of evidence? (Be sure to use at least one specific quotation as substantiation.)

What are three (or more) terms/concepts from the reading that could be added to our general list of course terms? (Be sure to point out why you identified the particular terms that you chose.)

Illustrate how the source connects to another Unit 2 source by associating specific quotes from each one. (At least two direct quotations will be necessary.)

Postman's and Powers's "...Images..." (Chapter 8)

You never know what is true or false and can’t take the news stories exact words for it, according to Postmans and Powers “it means that the viewer must never assume that the words spoken on television news show exactly what happened (Postman & Powers, 99). This has changed my perspective to because until now I have believed every word that news shows have used. Now I know I need to look carefully on what the news shows are saying and where are they getting their information anyways. I know me and probably most people have listened and believed every word the News Reporters said you would think the people you should trust the most is not always telling the truth. Next time I will be more careful on what I see and what I listen to.

(Vely)


Based on the second chapter of Postman and Powers’ The Bias of Languages and Pictures, the authors mention the false images and facts that producers portray on television. What is portrayed from television is now always “real”. “When a television news show distorts the truth by altering or manufacturing facts (through re-creations), a television viewer is defenseless even if a re-creation is properly labeled (Postman and Powers 97). In this article, Postman and Powers use secondary sources to support their argument. The represented re-creation in two forms – language and pictures (Postman and Powers 98). The pictures shown on television are usually described in complex details to make the scene more interesting for the audience to watch. “Moving pictures are a kind of language themselves, but the language of pictures of pictures differs radically from oral and written language, and the differences are crucial for understanding television news” (Postman and Powers 105). Throughout the chapter, the authors organize the chapter by presenting the false images from television to contrast to the definition of reality. (Andrew)

Together, Powers and Postman worked together to reveal the truth about re-

creations in the world of the media. They write of how the media (television,

movies, sporting events, etc.) tend to “exaggerate” the truth to create more of

an impact on their audience. They add sounds, certain lighting or even special

effects to create a new way to view the “reality” of the media. In doing so, they

use their own opinions and facts to convey their messages. “When a television

news show distorts the truth by altering or manufacturing facts (through re-

creations), a television viewer is defenseless even if a re-creation is properly

labeled. Viewers are still vulnerable to misinformation since they will not

know…what parts are fiction and what parts are not” (Postman & Powers 97).

Both authors stress that is important for the audience to be able to distinguish

what is real and what is not so that they can remain in reality. “…the viewer

must be on guard against assuming that he or she has heard ‘the absolute truth’”

(Postman & Powers 99). (Rachael)



Re-creation is a term that can be added because it is a form of “stretching the truth.” Re-creation adds effects to create a bigger impact on the audience, effects that are not necessarily true. Re-presentation is another term because it is another way of saying reenactment. In doing so, people can add their own spin to the truth. Television is also another term because everything on it is scripted – including “reality TV”; nothing is visceral. Lastly, orchestrated is another term that can be added to our list. With the media, people behind it can orchestrate and alter reality however they want in order to make it more “believable” to the naked eye… and so they can make more money. (All)

In Postman and Powers The Bias of Language, The Bias of Picture, relates to Unit two because it deals with reality of the present. Also Jhally’s movie, Advertising and The End of the World not only relates to Postman and Powers essay but it also relates to realism in the Americas. Postman and Powers talk about how the television “…distorts the truth by altering or manufacturing facts”(97). Viewers gather false information through the television because of how the television “distorts” not only pictures but facts. However, Jhally is also talking about the same idea except it deals with advertisements. Advertisements also “manufactures facts”, but in a way that mirrors “…what we are dreaming or what we desire and need” (Jhally 10). Advertisements are in television and the television affects our culture, and it also uses false facts and also false ads. (Natalia)


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