Unit Five: 1750 to 1914 ce what is the main idea that comes to you mind concerning the Industrial Revo.?

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Date: ______________ Africa & Latin America: Imperialism & Nationalism Unit ____: ___________

In Hawaii the British ruled until 1810 when Hawaii came under a single king. Royalty began imitating Western ways, dissolved the ancient rules called kapu and women rulers abandoned patriarchical values; Christians won many converts and they changed customs and established schools. Diseases decimated the population and communal lands went to the elite as sugar plantations moved in. Population changes took place as Americans and Asians (Chinese and Japanese arrived to work the sugar plantations) arrived. In 1874 a treaty was signed giving the US exclusive trading rights. In 1887 the US forced Hawaii to adopt a constitution (aka the Bayonet Constitution) that stripped most Hawaiians of their right to vote. In 1893 the US Minister to Hawaii sent in troops and effectively took over the government. At first President Cleveland dismissed the takeover and then embraced it. In the end, Hawaii was gained by the US in 1898 during the height of the Spanish American War—America’s first step into the world of imperialism and the global expression of its nationalism.

Date: ______________ China: Encroachment and Reaction—the Sick Man of Asia Unit ____: ___________

Following the defeat of the Taiping, secret societies had arisen starting in the 1890s, such as the. was one of the leaders who was hostile to European involvement. Many of the leaders were educated in western schools and were considered the intellectuals. Additionally, Chinese that were overseas provided valuable monetary support to the revolt. Sun Yat Sen focused on his: Racialism; Democracy; and Livelihood.

Eventually the last Manchu emperor was forced to resign in 1911 in the Xinhai Revolution which led to the creation of a republican form of government. Puyi would maintain figurehead status, briefly be restored for 12 days in 1917, banished from Beijing in 1924, installed as a puppet-emperor of Manchukuo (the name given to Manchuria by the Japanese) by the Japanese, and later spent ten years in a Chinese communist re-education camp.
Latin America Independence Movements: Latin America was one of the four major areas to escape the imperialistic scramble, the others were Russia, the Middle East, & East Asia—their time would come later. Most Latin America countries would gain independence in the 1800s & then faced the problems of building their nations w/ class resentment, economies dependent on outsiders, & uneven distribution of wealth.
Spain had ruled the New World through a set of viceroyalties. But Spain’s New World fortunes mirrored its fortunes on the European continent and as other nations grew Spain declined.
Using the presidio (Spanish fort), pueblo (town) and the Catholic mission, Spain extended its borders to the north and south. As a result of the Seven Year’s War, Spain received the former holdings of France in North America and Cuba was returned to it from Britain.
It was also during this time that the 21 missions were established along the coast of California. In 1800 France would regain the area of Louisiana in the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso which allied Spain and France against Britain.
By the early 1800s the creole elites (colonial born whites) were laying the foundation of Revo. having been influenced by the American Revo. (the French Revo. was seen as too radical, while the Haitian revolt made them fear slaves uprising) & the confusing political turmoil in Spain & Portugal. Following L. Am. Independence, Britain would become the dominant economic force w/ its strong military & commercial navy w/ exports & imports. In the end, it continued pre-independence economic policies.
By 1800 social problems were also coming to head. In an effort to keep the classes from mixing, an informal caste system was created. (peninsulars, creoles, mestizos, mulattos, blacks, natives, slaves) Overtime, the mestizos would encompassed the majority of the population.
The economy stagnated until after 1850 when demand for coffee, grains, & guano brought in money. In the later 1800s liberals gained power & stressed Positivism or a scientific approach to social problems. Economic growth continued but at the expense of the peasants.
By 1810 Mexico was Spain’s most populous and wealthiest colony due to the rich silver mines. It was a peasant revolution that changed into an elite revolution. In Mexico the creole Padre Hidalgo called for revolution in 1810 under the banner of the Grito de Delores and the Virgin of Guadalupe. He called on mestizos to rise up after a disastrous famine. While many poor joined his revolt, they were undisciplined and many in power were killed and their support switched to the Spanish. He was caught by the Spanish in 1811, tried, and executed before a firing squad. His head was put on a stick like a popsicle and place on the entry way into the town where the revolt started.
The cause was then taken up by various guerilla bands until Padre Morelos, a mestizo priest rose to prominence. Morelas was caught and also executed in 1815. Morelos had established a constitution with universal male suffrage and an end to the caste system. After Morelos’ death, Vicente Guerrero took up the campaign.
But it would be Iturbide who brought Mexican independence in 1821 when Spain became politically unstable at home when liberals overthrew the conservative king. Iturbide saw the liberals as a threat to his power and rapidly led the creoles to power in Mexico. He made three proclamations: Mexico would be an independent monarchy; criollos and peninsulars would be equal; and the Roman Catholic Church would remain. These principles became known as the Plan de Iguala.
The new government, a creole monarchy with Iturbide crown king (Augustin I), collapsed & became an independent state in 1823 with the Central American states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua becoming independent states. In 1824 the constitution guaranteed basic civil rights but failed to address land distribution, the status of Indians, the problems of education, or the poverty of most Indians. Liberal reforms in the 1830s were stopped by conservatives led by the caudillo Santa Anna. Santa Anna would hold the highest office eleven times between 1833 – 1855.
In the 1820s US had followed a policy of encouraging immigrants in to Texas, part of Mexico, and by the late 1830s outnumbered Mexicans 4 to 1. In 1836 after a brief war Texas gained its independence and in 1845 the US made it a state provoking a war with Mexico. After capturing Mexico City, Mexico surrendered and in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico lost half its territory and the Rio Grande became the official border. In return Mexico received $15 million but three years later gold was discovered in California (bummer).
The Adam-Onis Treaty of 1819 gave Florida to the US and established a western border.
In 1846-48 Mexico entered into a war with the expansionistic US in the Mexican-American War or the War of US Aggression. The cause of the war was the annexation of Texas in 1845 by the US as part of its Manifest Destiny philosophy. Texas had seceded from Mexico in 1836 as the Lone Star Republic when General Santa Anna had attempted to assert the power of Mexico’s central government. Texans had disagreed with the Mexican abolition of slavery. The most important effect from the war was the loss of almost ½ its territory to the US.
In 1854 a liberal lawyer Benito Juarez, under the banner of La Reforma, led a revolt and created a new constitution with military and church privileges cut back and communal lands sold—unfortunately, only the rich could buy the land and the peasants were even more poor. Juarez suspended payments on loans and this angered the major European nations. Taking advantage of the US being pre-occupied with its Civil War, conservatives asked for French help Originally the French had British and Spanish support but once French imperialistic desires were made known, they left.
Using the troops of the French Foreign Legion, the French eventually pushed their way to Mexico City in 1863. Once in charge, the French appointed Maximilian on the throne in 1862 to represent Napoleon III in France. Maximilian though soon found himself without friends. For conservatives he was too liberal—he wanted to abolish child labor, limit working hours, and reform land ownership to assist the Indians. For liberals, he represented a monarchy and they could not deal with that. After issuing the Black Decree which stated any Mexican captured in war with execution, he himself was captured and executed in 1867.
As a result, Napoleon III withdrew French troops and Juarez returned to power with the 1857 Constitution in place. The constitution confiscated land of the Catholic Church and forbade priests from an active role in politics.
By 1880 Mexico was on the verge of a strong central government and political stability. In 1876 Porforio Diaz was elected president and dominated politics for 35 years. He imposed a strong central government and utilized foreign money for internal improvements and industrialization.
As time passed, he became more powerful and individual rights were suppressed. In 1910 a middle class revolt led by Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa began seeking electoral reform which led to a bloody 10 year civil war with millions dying and millions of others fleeing the country. In 1917 a new constitution promised land reforms.

Mexican Revolution continued:

Diaz had become the virtual dictator of Mexico once he gained power. He used army (“rurales”) to terrorize the people and maintain control. He believed in a strong government to control the people. The Mexican economy did grow but on the backs of the poor and civil liberties. In 1908 Diaz agreed to elections but when Madero opposed him, he had Madero jailed which burst the pimple.
Between 1910 and 1920 Mexico underwent many political changes in leadership. In 1910 Diaz was the dictator in Mexico who was overthrown by the peasant leader Zapata. Using guerilla techniques Zapata won many battles. Land reform was high on Zapata’s agenda—giving it back to the people. Women were very involved in the civil war/revolution.
The US sought to maintain the status quo to protect its economic interests and supported Diaz. After the overthrow of Diaz the US had to continue to adapt to the changes in Mexican government.
In 1911 Francisco Madero succeeded Diaz after he escaped from jail and issuing the Plan de San Luis Potosi which initiated a revolution against Diaz. Diaz and Madero were able to work out an agreement that allow elections and Madero won with the support of the peasants, the US and revolutionaries, such as Zapata. Unfortunately, Madero failed to follow through with land reform and Zapata broke away promising forced return of land to the peasants.
Into this came General Huerta who staged a coup d’etat and executed Madero. The US under the Taft administration and Huerta worked together to get rid of Madero. This changed during the Wilson presidency, when Wilson refused to acknowledge Huerta as the leader. Wilson was trying to follow a “moral foreign policy” toward Latin America and overthrowing leaders did not fit into his moral policy.
In 1914 civil war broke out again with Zapata, Villa, and Alvaro Obregon leading the fight against Huerta. Huerta would be forced to leave but then would later return with German assistance in order to distract the US during WWI. German-Mexican intentions were revealed in the Zimmerman Telegram. Huerta was arrested in Texas and died from booze in 1916.
Meanwhile, Venustinano Carranza became president of Mexico in 1914 and was officially elected in 1917. He put together the Constitution of 1917 which granted liberal reforms. In 1920 General Obregon took over and Carranza was assassinated.
Other revolutionaries were also dying. Zapata was assassinated in 1919 and Villa was murdered in 1923 when his car was blow to bits with bullets.
With the loss of over one million people, by 1920 Mexican peasants had shown the world that a peasant revolt could work. Unfortunately, Mexico continue to be unstable and Obregon was assassinated in 1928 after winning the election.
In South America, Simon Bolivar, a wealthy creole officer, won victories in Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 using English mercenaries who had fought Napoleon. He united the three as Gran Columbia until 1830 when they separated. Meanwhile, in Argentina San Martin began a rebellion that brought independence in 1816 with the United Republic of Rio de la Plata being proclaimed.
Paraguay separated from it in 1813. San Martin continued conquering remaining Spanish territories, such as Peru and Chile, until 1825 when all of South America was independent. In Brazil Portugal had control with a large slave population. In 1807 France invaded Portugal and the royal family fled to Brazil until 1820. When King Joao (John VI) returned he left his son Pedro in charge who declared Brazilian independence in 1822 and became its constitutional monarch, Pedro I.
For years many Brazilians had resented Brazil’s subordination to Portugal. Pedro pushed for a constitution with political representation and protections for political oppositions. His stand against slavery earned him many enemies in the country but went on to end the slave trade in 1830. In 1831 he abdicated the throne to his 5 year old son, Pedro II, who ruled until 1889. Independent Brazil maintained a social system based on slavery, while all the former Spanish colonies were slave free by 1854. Socially, property and literacy qualifications left many disenfranchised and women were subordinate to men despite the active involvement in the revolutions.

While large unions were created at the beginning, these fell apart due to lack of nationalism and strong political rivalries. Armies that were loyal to their leaders led to the creation of caudillos or men who controlled local areas. Within the governments certain factions arose: liberals who valued individual rights and stressed a federalist government; centralists who wanted strong governments with broad powers; and federalists favoring giving more authority to local leaders.

The role of the church in this post-independence period was crucial with conservatives and liberals arguing over its role. In the middle were the peasants who just wanted to survive. In the end political instability was the result.

In Argentina the rich coastal areas took advantage of the inland pampas ranchers and new lands were opened. Juan Rosas ruled as a dictator starting in 1831 until liberals and caudillos overthrew him in 1852. Between 1862 and 1890 Domingo Sarmiento passed economic and political reforms that brought foreign investments and prosperity. The population tripled from European immigration, while a successful war against Paraguay increased national unity and pride. By 1914 one-third of the population was foreign born. Labor unrest continued to grow until the Radical Party came to power in 1916.

Unfortunately, it was just as repressive as its predecessor. In Brazil Pedro I was the acting autocrat despite a constitution in 1824. He was forced to abdicate in 1831 until his son took over in 1840. Power struggles arose between those favoring a centralized government and regional provinces. The development of coffee and coffee estates called fazandas, brought economic prosperity but slavery persisted until 1888. European immigration gradually reduced the need for slaves. The monarchy was replaced in 1889 but social and political problems persisted.
Women gained little ground in Latin America being not able to vote or hold office. Lower class women had more economic and personal freedom. New opportunities were open to women in teaching and by the 1900s educated women were demanding more rights.
While most of the new states officially ended the caste system based on color and ethnicity, in reality little changed. Control of land, politics, and the economy was still dominated by a small white, Creole elite. As the 1800s progressed the elite minority adopted the philosophy of Social Darwinism more and more when they looked to the poor around them. In essence, they came to emulate their former European masters.
The United States’ economic and political interests grew in Latin America in the 1800s, especially after the Civil War. During the 1890s the US was going through a depression and many politicians advocated using imperialism as a way to pull the country out of the depression. The Spanish American War in 1898 brought the US directly in contact with Latin American politics. Jose Marti had been speaking out against Spanish rule and when the USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor, the US under pressure from yellow journalism invaded. US investment in Cuba prior to the war left it open to direct investment after the war. Cuba would become dependent on the US economically and Puerto Rico was annexed.
In 1901 Congress passed the Platt Amendment which tied the Cuban government’s hands financially, granted the right to a US naval base at Guantanamo Bay, and allowed the US to get involved in Cuban affairs. Along with this Cuban sugar plantations came to dominate the economy and these were aligned with the US markets. As time passed the US came to dominate the sugar economy more and more.
Also as a result of the war, the Philippines had been ruled by the Spanish until the US took over in 1898. The Spanish had brought Catholicism & the encomienda system of land grants. In the 1800s wealthy Filipinos sent their sons abroad for an education and a movement for reforms began. A revolt broke out in 1896 and promises of reform were made. Then the US got involved & Admiral Dewey sank the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. Emilio Aguinaldo thought the Philippines could gain its independence but the US hoped he would help them against the Spanish
He declared Filipino independence in 1898 but it would come only forty years later. In the Philippine American War, over 4,000 US soldiers were killed to the over 20,000 Filipinos. The US scorched earth policies in rural areas and many atrocities were committed on both sides, such as the Lonoy and Balangiga massacres in 1901. The US also resorted to using camps to forced civilians into where many died. While the US occupied the country, English was declared the official language, hundreds of US teachers were sent in, and Catholic lands purchased and redistributed.
Also during this time, the US became more and more interested in finishing the canal that the French had started then abandoned. In 1904 President Theodore Roosevelt issued his Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The Corollary stated that the US would get involved in Latin American affairs if it was deemed necessary. During the presidency of Taft, the US adopted a foreign policy toward Latin American called Dollar Diplomacy which stated that the US would get involved when its business interests were involved.
Gradually overtime the US began to adopt a policy called “gunboat diplomacy”—using the navy as a means to pressure nations. Following the Spanish American War, the US went steps furthering by building up its navy known as the Great White Fleet.
In 1909 the US sponsored rebels to overthrow the government. Between 1912-33 the US occupied the country. The US also occupied Haiti from 1915 to 1934 after fears of a German takeover become heightened. The US also occupied the Mexican port of Veracruz in 1914 following the Tampico Incident, when the Mexican government refused to raise the US flag. Further US-Mexico relations were strained when Pancho Villa moved into US territory against Columbus, New Mexico in 1916 killing 17. President Wilson sent General John J. Blackjack Pershing with 12,000 troops into Mexican territory looking for Villa. It never found him and the US troops were withdrawn and sent to Europe to fight in the Great War. In 1916 the US occupied the Dominican Republic.
When Columbia was reluctant to meet US demands for a canal, the US supported a revolution in Panama and gained exclusive rights over the canal. It was the start of suspicions and anxiety over US involvement in Latin America. US policy in Latin America began to take on new meaning with the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine of 1819. President Taft pushed for Dollar Diplomacy —both policies took on an economic bent in that when our business interests were threatened, we would intervene.
Ding-dong, now it’s time to identify the following using the notes:
In Hawaii the British ruled until 1810 when Hawaii came under a single king. Royalty began imitating Western ways, dissolved the ancient rules called kapu and women rulers abandoned patriarchical values; Christians won many converts and they changed customs and established schools. Diseases decimated the population and communal lands went to the elite as sugar plantations moved in. Population changes took place as Americans and Asians (Chinese and Japanese arrived to work the sugar plantations) arrived. In 1874 a treaty was signed giving the US exclusive trading rights. In 1887 the US forced Hawaii to adopt a constitution (aka the Bayonet Constitution) that stripped most Hawaiians of their right to vote. In 1893 the US Minister to Hawaii sent in troops and effectively took over the government. At first President Cleveland dismissed the takeover and then embraced it. In the end, Hawaii was gained by the US in 1898 during the height of the Spanish American War—America’s first step into the world of imperialism and the global expression of its nationalism.

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