While Europe was out colonizing & “imperializing” the world, at home it was undergoing political transformation that would cause tension between those who wanted change & those wanting to maintain the status quo. Nationalism was another “ism” that had its origins in the political revolutions of America & France. Nationalists wished to create strong national identities that was manifested in a strong military, governmental power, & overseas power.
The Thesis: Conservativism
The Antithesis: Liberalism--characterized by liberty & equality & demanded representative government
Nationalism was another tool for both sides & a radical idea to arise during this time period that threatened the status quo
--An interesting thought is that while Europe was out changing the status quo around the world, they attempted
just the opposite at home. (hmmm……)
Chain of Events:
--land battles ensued and ind. came in 1832 but w/o all Greeks united
--birth of Megali Idea-to unite all Greek speaking people
--opened the door to other nationalists in the Balkan area
--1830 Revolutions in France and Belgium
--France—the July Revolution replaced the Bourbons with the Orleans
--Louis XVIII replaced by Charles X in 1824-began steps toward repression
--ex: imposed death penalty for anyone profaning the Catholic Church
--when he tried to imposed stricter censorship, the pimple broke forth for 3 days
--Louis Philippe became king in 1830 in a constitutional monarchy replacing a hereditary one
--1852 the Second republic declared
--Southern Provinces of the Netherlands revolted and established an independent Belgium
--tensions resulted from Dutch/Calvinist domination in French/Catholic southern areas
--an attempt was made to make Dutch the official language but met w/ resistance in 1823
--ripple effect from the July revolution provided the spark
--unable to stop the revolt a constitutional monarchy was established w/ Prince Leopold as king in 1831
--1848 Revolutions were a watershed in European history
--only England, Russia, the Netherlands, & the Ottoman Empire escaped unscathed
--In England the concessions already made to workers helped prevent the revolt from spreading there.
--causes: widespread famine that hurt the peasants the most; industrial workers suffering; cholera spread
--started in the Italian states & spread from there to France
--revolutionary fervor then swept through Europe
--in France workers demanded the right to work, the right to a living wage, & right to organize
--liberals demanded constitutions & representative governments—when these demands were not met, riots broke out. These
revolutionary movements were harshly stomped out throughout Europe by the aristocratic authoritarian monarchs intent on maintaining the status quo w/ the support of the new middle class. Both groups wanted to maintain their economic growth as the Industrial Revo. continued to grow.
--before 1870 neither Italy or Germany existed as they do today but each divided into states w/ different rulers.
--Many of the states of Germany had been part of Charlemagne’s empire & later the Holy Roman Empire.
Of these states Austria was the largest while Prussia was gaining influence. Under Frederick the Great Prussia became the dominant w/ better education & a stronger workforce & was set to become the dominant state.
--Frederick the Great (1740-86, King of Prussia): an “enlightened absolutist”
--modernized the bureaucracy, civil service, & promoted religious tolerance; seen as a military genius
--followed by Frederick III who was defeated by Napoleon
--1806 the old Holy Roman Empire of over 300 territories was dissolved by Napoleon
--under French control, German nationalism took root
--1815 Congress of Vienna reduced the number of states of the German Confederation from about 300 to 39 w/
Prussia & Austria as the largest
--Many philosophers & historians had urged the unification of the German people for years
--German nationalists wanted to unite German people & unification was held together by common language,
similar traditions, & growing economic integration
--Brothers Grimm stories published in 1812 brought together various stories from all the German
--student organizations also called for unification
--1818 a zollverein (a German Customs Union) had created a free trade zone in the German states providing an
economic foundation for unification.
--massive road building program, then steamships, and finally railroads (starting in 1835)
--1848 revolutionaries wanted a Germany led by a parl. govt but the cons. leaders created a strong central govt w/ Kaiser
Wilhelm as leader
--Wilhelm I appointed Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister in 1861
--Bismarck followed a “blood & iron” policy called Realpolitik to solidify rule by engaging in a series of wars
--Bismarck wanted to build a strong military & unify the small states under one king, William I
--1866 Prussia defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War after aligning w/ the new Italy
--shifted power from Austria toward Prussia
--1871 Prussia defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War
--1870: Isaac Butt forms the Home Rule Movement calling for self-rule
--1879: Irish Land League and a Ladies Land League moved toward self-rule (women actually involved)
--1880: growing interest in Gaelic language (Gaelic Union for the Preservation & Cultivation of the Irish Language)
--1884: Gaelic Athletic Assoc. formed
--1916 the Easter Rebellion would break out but would be suppressed by the British w/ the leaders executed.
French nationalistic reaction:
--see 1830 and 1848 revolution information
--In the 1860s France became involved in Mexico & actually took it over for a brief period of time.
--In 1871 the Franco-Prussian War broke out as Bismarck sought to unify the southern German states.
--In the end, Napoleon was captured, Paris besieged, & France surrendered in humiliation.
--In 1870 the government had been overthrown & the Third Republic established.
--France would go on to consolidate its power on the continent & when WWI burst forth, it was ready to
avenge its humiliation & express its French nationalism.
The Mother of all Pimples!
By 1914 the political landscape of Europe consisted of Great Britain w/ Ireland & Scotland under its wing, the French Republic, Spain, a unified Germany & Italy, a weakening Austria-Hungary, & a variety of small nationalist countries in the Balkans, such as Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Albania, & Greece. Of course, 1914 was the start of the Great War or WWI—what were the causes of the war? The war was the product of long-standing issues that were not resolved in the 1800s but were left to fester for years. The humiliations suffered in the Crimean War & later in the Franco-Prussian War left nations anxious for political & military redemption & war was their savior & left them by the millions washed in the blood of their enemies. The 1800s had been an age of isms & each one contributed to WWI: militarism; nationalism; imperialism; & political isms.
Date: ______________ Case Study Canada, Australia, Middle East Unit ____: ___________
"We must remember what ruthless and utter destruction our own species has wrought, not only upon animals such as the vanished bison & dodo but also upon its own inferior races. The Tasmanians, in spite of their human likeness, were entirely swept out of existence in a war of extermination waged by European immigrants, in the space of fifty years." – HG Wells, The War of the Worlds
--explored by the Dutch as New Holland and then claimed by Britain after the voyages of James Cook who called it New South Wales,
Australia soon became the destination of prisoners following the loss of the American Colonies (Cook would be later killed and partially eaten by natives of the Sandwich Islands)
--during this time several liberal reformers became active, such as LaFontaine, and called for more representation & called for a
government where the people had the power
Other reformers, such as William MacKenzie, demanded total equality or they threatened to leave Britain
--1834, 92 Resolutions were passed outlining the problems with Britain
--Several small revolts were crushed by the British
--1839 they started giving increasing self-rule
--Fr sentiment was eased w/ the creation of Quebec w/ the Act of Union in 1840 & new railroads allowed immigrants to fill in the interior
--during the 1860s Britain feared that the US would move northward during the Civil War
--Canada was given quasi-independence in 1867 w/ passage of the British North American Act
--Britain retained control over external matters, while Canada handled internal
--John MacDonald became the new prime minister
--in 1885 east and west Canada was linked via its own transcontinental railway
--as in the US, anti-immigrant sentiment took hold in the late 1800s with a tax placed on in-coming Chinese in 1886
--Later in 1923 Chinese immigration was banned
--Sikhs were another group that were banned
--As Canada entered the 20th century the animosity between the English and French Canadians would continue
Timeline of Zionism:
1839: Judah Alkalai advocates restoration of the Jews in Palestine
1844: Mordecai Noah publishes Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews
1861: Zion Society formed in Germany
1862: Moses Hess, Rome & Jerusalem: The Last National Question calls for socialist return
1870: Mikveh Israel, first agricultural society formed in Israel
the Lovers of Zion set up 30 farming communities through 1890
1881: Russian pogroms kill thousands fueling the emigration of 2 m Jews to the US & Israel
Eliezer ben Yehuda forms movement to make Hebrew the common language
1882: 1st Aliyah
1894: the Dreyfus Affair
1896: Theodore Herzl writes The State of Jews calling for the creation of a Jewish state
1897: Zionist Organization of America is formed
First Zionist Congress in Switzerland & establishes the World Zionist Organization
Zionism was the movement to recreate a Jewish homeland for Jews of the Diaspora located mainly in Russia, Poland, & the Ukraine. Suffering from pogroms in Russia (following the assassination of Czar Alexander II & anti-Semitism elsewhere Jews felt increasingly persecuted. Following the French Revolution, many Jews across Europe & in particular France began the process of assimilation. They took up the causes of nationalism & liberalism.
Instead of hating the Jewish religion, anti-Semites began to hate the Jewish race. Before 1914 anti-Semitism was the strongest in Eastern Europe & in Russia where the government used the Jews as scapegoats for their political & economic problems between 1881-1884. As a result almost 2.75 million Jews left Eastern Europe between 1881 & 1914.
Early Zionists included Judah Alkalai who called for a Jewish homeland in 1839. It also includes Mordecai Noah who wanted to establish a homeland in Grand Island, New York. The early Zionist movement would be secular rather than solely religious. In 1861 a Zion Society would be formed in Germany, followed the next year by Moses Hess in Rome & Jerusalem: The Last National Question calling for Jews to build a socialist state with an agricultural foundation.
From 1870- 90, several dozens Jewish farming communities were established in Palestine. In 1881 Eliezer ben Yehuda led efforts to revive Hebrew as the common language among Jews. Between 1882-1903 the first major wave of Jews emigrated or made aliyah to Palestine.
The trial of Alfred Dreyfus in France who was unjustly accused of treason solidified their movement. Theodore Herzl concluded that Jews could only be safe in their own country & in 1897 he formed the First Zionist Congress. The Congress had the main objective of securing a homeland for the Jewish people. In 1896 he wrote The Jewish State which stated that assimilation attempts had failed & attempts to combat anti-Semitism would never succeed. The same year the Zionist Organization of America was formed.
After rejecting the 1903 Uganda Plan proposed by the British, the Zionists settled on Palestine home to 600,000 Arabs who took the point of view of the newcomers as colonists. Herzl looked to young Jews & the poor to build a national identity. Already Jews were rediscovering Hebrew as their language & Herzl pushed the Magan David as the symbol of Judaism. Eliezer ben Yehuda pushed for the revival of Hebrew as the common language among Jews & as a unifier, despite Herzl officially proclaiming German to be the language of the Jews.
Between 1903-06 more pogroms took place in Russia pushing out more Jews.
During WWI, the Holy Land was part of the conflict as the Ottoman Empire met its death & the British & French carved up the remains. The British would take possession of what would later include the nation of Israel.
In 1917 Herzl was able to secure the Balfour Declaration from Britain that provided support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Unfortunately, this would lead to future problems as Europe’s power waned & a power vacuum developed leaving two pimples festering & waiting to come to a head.
Date: ______________ Case Study Africa Unit ____: ___________
AFRICA: SOUTH AFRICA
In Africa the impact of Europeans prior to the 1800s was mainly in the area of slave trade. Even w/ the abolition of the slave trade, slave exports had continued. Britain tried to put an end to the slave trade w/ its navy capturing over 1600 slave ships & returning slaves to Liberia (established by the American Colonization Society in 1821) & Sierra Leone (taken over by Britain in 1808).
W/ industrialization came the desire for African raw materials which needed Africans to provide. The direction of slavery then switched to the east in the 1800s w/ Zanzibar becoming prominent.
By the mid-1800s, having been almost completely pushed out of North & South America by independence movements & the growing power of the United States, Europe now turned full force to Africa. Armed w/ superior technology (repeating rifles to conquer superior numbers, steamships to go upriver, quinine to fight malaria, & its growing industrialization behind it), Europe advanced inland into an area already devastated by the slave trade.
In 1850 only Britain, France, Portugal, & Spain had claims along the coast, but by 1914 Germany, Italy, & Belgium were added w/ all countries carving up Africa. The Ottoman Empire continued to hold Northern Africa areas, such as Egypt, Libya, Algeria, & Tunisia until it started disintegrating in the 1800s.
In South Africa, Dutch settlers or Boers (farmers) had arrived in 1652 as part of the trade network to India established along the coast of Africa in South Africa. As more arrived they started to displace the local Khoikhoi people & often enslaved them. Unlike Canada but similar to Australia, settlers did not move inland until the mid-1800s. The Afrikaners or Boers enslaved the African people but when the British took over South Africa, starting w/ Capetown as an offshoot of the French Revo. after Holland was overrun by France, trouble began.
Unlike in Canada & Australia which would gain dominion status, South Africa was held longer as a colony & British laws & customs were transferred to it. The Afrikaners, who were culturally different than the British, resisted the push to end slavery in 1834. Between 1834-41, approximately 8,000 Afrikaners moved inland in what was known as the Great Trek where they pushed into Bantu territory & caused conflict there. The Boers were moving into a territorial power vacuum left by the remnants of Shaka’s Zulu warriors.
The Afrikaners formed two republics, the Orange Free State & the Transvaal, during the 1850s & remained independent until the discovery of diamonds in 1867 & gold in 1885 when large numbers of people moved into their lands. The discoveries rejuvenated interest in South Africa after a decline following the creation of the Suez Canal in 1869 which provided a short cut to India.
Cecil Rhodes, owner of the DeBeers Diamond Mining Company, & others started intruding into their lands. Black Africans were increasingly persecuted since under the British, only whites had suffrage & held the best land. The British also passed literacy tests & had property qualifications in order to vote. In addition, under the Masters & Servants Act black movement was restricted. The increase in British immigration was too much for the Boers & fighting broke in the Boer War from 1899 -1902.
Cecil Rhodes was a main instigator of the war w/ desire to control the interior of Africa; eventually the Boers were completely defeated in 1905. During the war the British had 450,000 men against 88,000 Boers. Facing such a large number the Boers used guerilla warfare against the British. During the last phases of Boer resistance the British would round up Boer women & children into concentration camps where many died until their husbands/fathers surrendered.
Following the war, British policy placed the African population under Afrikaner control who held the most positions of power following the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910 w/ its own constitution. White South Africans numbered only 21% of the population in 1910, but the constitution only granted suffrage to the white minority. In 1912 the African National Congress (ANC) was formed to opposed European colonialism & the racial policies. In 1913 the Natives Land Act would close 87% of the South African land to African ownership.
Cecil Rhodes would go to be a champion of British rule in Africa wanting an empire stretching from Egypt to South Africa. (Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe & Zambia, was named after him after he took it between 1889-93). South Africa was now ripe for the Afrikaners to continue their takeover which would eventually lead into apartheid.
Elsewhere in Africa tribes tried to fight over the technologically superior Europeans but ultimately failed. One of these leaders was Shaka Zulu who created the Zulu Kingdom in 1818 in southern Africa just north of the Boer colonies. Shaka ranked all young people by age into regiments who lived together & immersed themselves in Zulu culture. He instituted new battle formations w/ flanks that could envelope enemies. He created a nationalistic feeling among his warriors. In 1828 he was assassinated his kingdom continued to expand forcing people to migrate into new lands causing further displacement.
Other kingdoms were created, such as the Swazi & Lesotho, to protect themselves from the Zulus. The Zulu kingdom was eventually conquered by the British in 1879. To the north in West Africa Islam states arose including the Sokoto Caliphate which was the largest state since the fall of Songhai in the 16th century. Islam & Islamic education was the unifying force in these states.