Unit Five: 1750 to 1914 ce what is the main idea that comes to you mind concerning the Industrial Revo.?



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Reform Movement Events:

--reformers wanted limited government intervention; began in Britian where industrialization began

Britain resisted reform movement (Peterloo Massacre, 1819 against a crowd wanting change)

passed Reform Bill in 1832 & a series of laws to improve working condition including Factory Act of 1833

(limited hours to 14, no children under 9, no children working at night, & factory inspectors were used) & Mines Act of 1842 (no children) under 10 underground)

--Rise of Socialism—questions private property—& labor unions (power grew w/ the granting of suffrage to all males in Britain, US,

France, & Germany)

--Chartists in Britain wanted suffrage extended to the working class (1918 given to all men & 1928 to women)

--Luddites formed as many workers were displaced due to mechanization; attacked factories/machines starting in 1811
Role of Women: --males dominated labor unions exceptions would be Emma Goldman in the US or the German Clara Zetkin

Historical Timeline of Feminism:

First Wave (pre-1800s):

--Enlightenment: Wollstonecroft; Declaration of the Rights of Women (Olympe de Gouges, 1791)

--US—NJ gave women suffrage then took it away in 1807

--Utilitarians—Jeremy Bentham championed women rights


--1800s: early efforts were directed toward opening education for women

--Marion Reid, 1843, published “A Plea for Women” calling for suffrage

--Florence Nightingale

--Harriet Martineau—called on women to be abolitionists

--Novelists: Jane Austen, Charlotte Bronte

--mid-1800s suffrage and abolition combined

--US: women took up abolitionism (Grimke Sisters; Sojourner Truth)

--1848 Seneca Falls Convention (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott) declared “A Declaration of Sentiments”


“When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature & of nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such a course. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men & women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator w/ certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, & the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.”
--Late 1800s: more educational opportunities were opened to women; suffrage became main issue

--some feminists actually opposed extended the right to vote to women

--London Society for Women’s Suffrage founded in 1867

--Emmeline Pankhurst (England)

--Isle of Man (1881) & New Zealand (1893) gave women suffrage

--US: WY in 1869 gave women suffrage, followed by Utah

--Nellie Tayloe Ross—first female governor served in Wyoming in 1870

--Esther Hobart Morris (1814-1902) leading WY suffragist & first woman judge in the US

--Susan B. Anthony

--Lucy Stone

--men took up the cause: John Stuart Mill & Friedrich Engels

--Margaret Fuller, Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845)


--early 1900s:

--Women’s Social & Political Union formed by Pankhurst in 1903

--by 1914 protests became more violent (Emily Davison sacrificed herself)

--Australia (1902), Finland (1906), & Norway (1907) gave women suffrage

--some women (such as Margaret Sanger) took up the issue of birth control
Positivism:

Auguste Comte stated that the scientific method could solve problems; all intellectual activity progresses through predictable stages



Authors: Charles Dickens—Hard Times; English writer on industrialism

Victor Hugo (1802-1885) Les Miserables, Hunchback of Notre Dame; French writer who wrote on social injustices

Emile Zola (1840-1902) Germinal, Sister Carrie, The Promiseland—French author who also protested the Dreyfus Affair in 1898

& had to flee to England; died in 1902 due to carbon monoxide poisoning

Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)—Scottish writer; wrote against progress & democracy


Other Issues related to Industrialization:

Movements rose up due to work conditions & class tensions

--Salvation Army formed in 1865 by William Booth

Christian Socialism (aka Fabianists) believed that they could advance their cause through existing government framework

--Charles Fourier--communes

--Robert Owens & “Utopian Socialism”

In Germany Bismarck provided universal male suffrage & labor reforms

In the US labor unions formed after the Civil War; 1890s was a period of strikes & violence

In France there were large scale worker revolts & the creation of labor unions

“Scientific Socialism”; formed the International Working Man’s Association in 1864


Globalization: global trade network (WWW) with a movement from colonialism to imperialism—made possible by steel

Transportation revolution—steamships reduced costs

--railroads, ie. India

--Panama (started by France in 1870s & finished by the US in 1913) and Suez Canal (1850s)

--beginnings of the automobile: 1883 Karl Benz & later German Gottleib Daimler started early gas

powered vehicles; German engineer Rudolf Diesel in 1892 started the diesel engine

Countries becoming more dependent and suffer from ripple effects

Japan: some increased opportunity for education among women

Continued reliance on traditional family life with women subordinate

Growing class tensions

Mechanization decreased the number of small businesses

Communications Revolution

--cross Atlantic telegraph cables (1860s)

--1899 Marconi sent signal across English Channel & in 1901 across the Atlantic



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In the 1800s while China was declining, Japan’s fortunes were also starting to decline

--shogun was taking in 500,000 fewer gold coins or ryo than it was spending

--some daimyos were totally indebted to the growing merchant class

While Europeans were busy w/ China, they pretty much ignored the Japanese.

--Japan had been divided into numerous domains with each under a lord or daimyo, who had samurai under him unlike China & Russia

which tried to reform & modernize within the context of its existing political structure, Japan did so with major political,

social, & economic changes.

--Both China & Japan had chosen isolation to westernization, but at this critical point, Japan decided to embrace westernization
Western encroachment: US decided that it wanted to force Japan to open its ports (“gunboat diplomacy”)

--previously US had traded on behalf of the Dutch b/t 1797-1809

--USS Morrison shot at in 1837 as it approached Edo; 1846 James Biddle failed at opening Japan

--1853 Commodore Matthew Perry steamed into Edo (Tokyo)

--Treaty of Kanagawa—opened ports of Shimoda & Hakodate

--1858 Harris Treaty--opened five port cities to trade & permitted any US citizen to live in those cities

--permitted extraterritoriality & lower tariffs to US products.

--Prior to the Meiji Restoration there were growing financial problems due to a tax based on agriculture while the economy was becoming

more commercialized; under the Tokugawa education & literacy spread & while Confucianism dominated Buddhism & Shintoism were strong (as well as Dutch studies)
The Reaction: Japan underwent a political, economic, & social transformation without a violent political revolution

--up to 1868 there was growing tensions between a government that relied on agriculture while the economy was becoming more

commercialized—period called Bakumatsu

--Japanese society was very literate & Confucian oriented; there was a growing rift between traditionalists & western minded thinkers; in

addition, peasant revolts caused greater concerns

--when the US came in, the samurai felt humiliated

--riots broke out in Yokohama in 1858 due to foreigners moving in

--a combination American, British, French, & Dutch fleet demolished key forts further weakening Japan

Meiji (“enlightened rule”) Restoration:

--1867 the Tokugawa Shogunate was overthrown by a movement of young samurai

--the emperor was restored (Mutsuhito, the 123rd emperor) & capitol moved to Edo (Tokyo=eastern capitol)

--following the resignation of the last shogun, the Boshin War (1868-69) broke out b/t imperial forces & samurai; emperor wins

--the new military crushed the samurai Satsuma Rebellion in 1877 using new western military tactics

--modeled infantry on the French & German while navy modeled on British


The Path to Industrialization & nationalism:

--Under the banner of “Enrich the state & strengthen the armed forces” & building a following of the emperor, Japan started a path

of modernization built around nationalism

--westernization of the culture took place under bunmei kaika (civilization & enlightenment)

--a revival in Shintoism began in the 1800s which combined w/ nationalism

--with a populace that was very literate, movement forward was very fast

--Japan sent out delegations to the US & Europe to discover what made other nations strong (1868 Charter Oath to gather info)

--cultural ties & borrowing from China ceased as Japan switched to Europeans & US for ideas, tech, & culture

--brought in over 3,000 outside experts (oyatoi gaikokujin)

--social effects: universal education stressing the basics w/ loyalty to the nation; western culture, clothing, & calendar were adopted

--Christianity gained few converts

--women were still seen as inferior & worked in low paying jobs

--encouraged loyalty to the emperor to offset economic problems

--centralized the government & the Tokugawa daimyos were abolished in 1871 & placed under emperor control

--organized the country into an eventual 72 prefectures out of 261 daimyo domains

--declared everyone equal & stripped the samurai (7-8% of the population at almost 2 million) of its rank in 1876

--1877 Satsuma Rebellion lasted 8 months killing 30,000

--Conscription Law of 1873—every able bodied male over age 21 serve 3 years (furthered end of samurai); was referred to

“blood tax” on commoners since rich could buy their way out

--Schools established in 1872 for universal education where students were indoctrinated in patriotism & discipline

--slogan such as kuni no tame (for the good of the country) & fukoku kyohei (rich country/strong army) became common

--National Police Force established in 1884 used in enforcing laws but also codes of behavior.

--population explosion

--from 30 million in 1868 to 45 million in 1900

--needed natural resources & territories

--rapid population growth provided a labor pool

--created a modern army & navy

--land reform increased agri. production by permitting individual ownership

--labor unions were suppressed

--built railways & steamships


Internal government changes:

--1889 Constitution gave major power to emperor & set high property qualification to vote (only 5% males)

--became the first non-European country to adopt a constitutional form of government

--two house legislature called a Diet (Teikoku Gikai)—only about 5% of the adult male population could vote

--House of Representatives & House of Peers (nobility)

--was still authoritarian with all power in the emperor

--expanded bureaucracy (Ministry of Industry, 1870) for economic expansion & used civil service exams

--abolished samurai class & its stipends in the 1870s

--many of the samurai moved into the business sector of the economy

--women were officially banned from govt in 1890

--farmers also suffered with a land tax making them responsible for 80% of the govt income

--1890 Imperial Rescript on Education made loyalty to the emperor & respect for parents the basis of education


The Path to Imperialism:

--Once Japan had started westernization & improving its military under the flag of nationalism, it was only a matter of time before they

expressed that nationalism through imperialism.

--Japan had been using French, British, & Prussian military advisors to westernize its military.

--Japan had a lack of resources which will lead to territorial expansion fueled by governmental investment & creation of Zaibatsu (few

wealthy banking & independent families that created large business enterprises)

--big four were Mitsubishi (1870), Mitsui (1876), Sumitomo, & Yasuda (1876)

--embarked on a iron & steel policy to lessen the need on foreign countries

—Japan was able to industrialize w/o a revo.; chose a different path than China who tried to stay isolated

--War against China:

--Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95 gained Taiwan; Treaty of Shimonoseki

--first battle at Port Arthur was a Japanese victory; led to the massacre of hundreds after they won

--in treaty negotiations, the “Triple Intervention” countries (Russia, Germany, & Fr) persuaded Japan to give some land

back to China which furthered its intense growing dislike of foreigners

--Boxer Rebellion in 1900 Japan joined the foreign powers in occupying Beijing

--Alliances: Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 b/t Japan & Britain against Russia

--War against Russia:

--1904 Russo-Japanese War--Japan & Russia fought a brief war as their territorial ambitions collided in Korea & Manchuria.

Japan came out the winner & in 1910 occupied Korea; over 1 million troops mobilized in Japan—massive casualties &

deaths (over 100,000)

--Japan had already gained economic access to Korea in the 1876 Treaty of Kanghwa

--Russia was humiliated again & its navy in the Pacific destroyed at Port Arthur

--1910 Japan annexes Korea

--1914 Japan declares war on Germany & joins the Allies in the Great War (aka WWI)

In both Russia & Japan traditional hierarchies were threatened; compared to Japan, Russia lacked flexibility & changes within leading to revo.

--Industrialization w/ delayed political revo. in 1905 & finally in 1917

--Russia saw a huge population boom from 36 m in 1796 to 125m in 1897
Western encroachment:

Following Peter the Great, the next great ruler was Catherine the Great taking over in 1762

--she gave power back to the nobles

--suppressed a bloody peasant rebellion in 1773; drawing and quartering its leader Pugachev causing her to become more repressive

--extended power south to the Black Sea at the expense of the Ottomans

--died in 1796



The Reaction:

Alexander I (1801-25)

--Russia continued to expand at the beginning of the 1800s in N. Am and fighting wars w/ the Ottomans, Persia, France, and Sweden

--tried to implement civil service exams but failed

--at first Alexander was more liberal in his policies but then became more reactionary

--writers, such as Alexander Pushkin, criticized the government

--following Napoleon’s invasion Russia in 1812, Russia turned inward & rejected westernization.
Nicholas I (1825-55)

--Decembrist Revolt, 1825, the military led the revolt

--after returning from Europe during the Napoleonic Wars, app. 3000 officers wanted to implement reforms

--Tsar Nicholas I repressed the opposition.

—start of a liberal political movement in Russia

--Russia failed to industrialize but remained an agricultural society dependent on serfs

--conflict w/ the Ottomans led to Russia gained the eastern coast of the Black Sea (Treaty of Adrianople)

--Law Code of 1832: forbade unauthorized meetings; strict censorship; secret police used;

--led to conflict over two groups= Westerners and Slavophiles (what direction should Russia take?)
--European revolutions of 1830 & 1848 by-passed the repressive regime & Russia continued to expand its territory

--In its isolation, Russia failed to industrialize & fell behind the West.


--Russian literary and musical culture flourished:

--Dostoyevsky, Crime and Punishment, The Idiot, The Brothers Karamazov

--Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace, Anna Karenina

--Nikolai Gogol, Dairy of a Madman

--Tchaikovsky, 1812 Overture
--Crimean War (1853-56)—conflict over who would be in religious control of the Holy Land (France? Russia?)

--weakness was evident when Britain & France came to the aid of the Ottoman Empire & defeated Russia

--was part of Pan-Slavism (the desire to unite all Slavic people)

--the Ottomans were helped by B & F who wanted to support the “sick man of Europe” & were industrialized

--the Czar saw this as the writing on the wall & knew change was needed

--first “modern war” using ambulances, the Minie ball, trenches, the telegraph

--Florence Nightingale—modern pioneer of nursing

--Battle of Balaclava on 25 October 1854

--”The Charge of the Light Brigade”—Lord Alfred Tennyson

--Russia agreed to neutralization of the Black Sea & would have no warships there


The Path to Industrialization & nationalism: (aka sihtetirwuoy edamIahah)

--Alexander II ended serfdom (23 m out of 67m) in 1861 (Emancipation Edict) & began a period of change

--Serfs were further repressed by the landlords

--all peasant land was given to the mir which then divided it among the village peasants

--serfs had to pay redemption payments to the gov’t if they stayed on the land

--the gov’t then used the redemption payments to payoff the landlords

--Russia embarked on the path of industrialization as people moved into urban areas

--created a large labor force but economic conditions were still harsh

--Unfortunately, social strain meant that the government maintained its autocratic nature. The peasants were mandated to pay high taxes

on the small lot of land they were given, while those who went to the cities faced brutal working conditions. While the emancipation created a large labor pool most people remained poor & the peasants often rose up.


-- Alexander II (1860-70) improved the law codes

--established local political councils (zemstvoes) which had authority over local matters in 1864

--gave political experience to middle class but had no national say w/ the area governor having final control; nobles had the most power in

the zemstov

--were resisted by the intelligentsia, Socialists, & nihilists who wanted more reforms

--Nihilism was pre-existentialist, in the belief that life lacks meaning; came to reject all authority & the use of violence to bring

about political change

--Ivan Turgenev, Fathers and Sons

--also reformed the Judiciary based on the French model

--sold Alaska to the US in 1867

--literacy increased & women gained access to higher education & to more professions

--ideas were transferred more readily

--rise of secret societies, such as Land and Liberty (1876), demanding more reform

--subversive movements spread, incl Marxist organizations of which Vladimir Ulyanov (aka Lenin) was a member

--People’s Will formed in 1879 assassinated Alexander II in 1881 by bombing

--Alexander III suppressed anything anti-Russian

--Russification policy: all peoples were expected to learn the Russian language & convert to Russian Orthodoxy.

--Pogroms--Jews were especially persecuted

--began construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad in 1891 linking Moscow to Vladivostok
The End of the Romanovs:

--Nicholas II gained power (1894) & in the face of growing discontent, he organized a war with Japan in 1904.

--Russia was defeated which didn’t help him at all.

--1894 Alexander Popov invents the radio (before Marconi)

--formation of the Social Democratic Party which later split into Mensheviks (moderates) & Bolsheviks (radicals)

--western investment increased to the point that by 1900 about 50% of industry was foreign owned

--1904-05 Russo Japanese war ended in a defeat for Russia

--1905 Revolt--moderates marched to the czar’s palace in an effort to push enlightened reforms

--Bloody Sunday: Nicholas ordered his military to fire upon the peaceful demonstrators (70 killed)

--1906 Nicholas created the Duma; intended to represent the people but he ended up disbanding it every time he disagreed with it

--1914 Germany declares war on Russia

What is nationalism? People held together by a common language, religion, customs, cultural traditions, historical experiences

--Historian Joseph Ernest Renan in 1882 lectured in “What is a Nation?” that nationalism requires a shared history but also a shared

vision for the future.


--Anthony Smith states that the conditions for a nation are as follows:

--a fixed homeland that is either current or historical; high autonomy; hostile surroundings; memories of battles; sacred

centers; special customs; languages and scripts; historical records and thinking
The above creates a powerful national mythology

Causes of nationalism:

1) Industrialization: laid the foundation for N/I—brought new motives for expansion

--raw materials were needed and markets were required

--the three G’s were no longer enough

2) Religion: missionary activity became private rather than state driven

3) Exploration: ex. Africa by Livingstone only inspired conquest & exploitation

4) Revolutionary ripples

--Fr. Rev. started nationalism as mentioned in the Declaration of the Rights of Man which looked to the people of France as

united & possessing similar qualities. France’s conscript army conquered most of Europe in the name of nationalism

imposing their own gov’t. & legal code on the conquered.
Overview of nationalism:

--was it the American or French Revolution the spark that “created” nationalism?

--1829: in the Balkans, Greece would achieve independence from the Ottomans

--won ind. w/ the military help of the Br., Fr., & Russians who sought to increase their influence at the expense of the Ottoman Empire

(“the sick man of Europe”)

--Starting around 1810, in Latin America, Spain & Portugal lost control as nationalism took over 7 countries became independent.

--1848-a number of revolutions break out in Europe as expressions of nationalism

--Canada would assert its autonomy from Britain in 1867.

--Italy & Germany successfully created unified countries out of disunity.

--In India nationalism would start to show among Hindus & Muslims against Britain

--Like in India, nationalism in the Middle East would start but not reach full fruition until after WWI w/ the decline of Europe’s power;

Zionism would unite Jews

--In the US nationalism is seen as diverse people coming together for a new vision & adherence to a common law.

--US history is a struggle of achieving rights for the disenfranchised


Nationalism has both a positive & negative side

--Positive—seeks to empower the masses w/ freedom & bring collective participation

--Negative—masses are compelled to serve the state & often turn one nation against another

--When nationalists speak of “the people” who is it?

--In South America it was a top down Revo.
There are different types of nationalism: religious, state, ethnic, cultural
The 1800s were a tug-a-war between liberals demanding reform & conservatives wanting to maintain their power.
Generally speaking, conservatives believed in:

--Obedience to political authority (authority that they had!)

--Organized religion was crucial to social order (a glue)

--Hated revolutionary upheavals (a challenge to their authority)

--Unwilling to accept liberal demands for civil liberties & representative gov’t.

--Community takes precedence over individual rights

--Society must be organized & ordered --Tradition was the best guide for order



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