Unit 7 Adverbs and Prepositions Fly away, fly away In the bowl of the sky



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Unit 7

Adverbs and Prepositions

Fly away, fly away

In the bowl of the sky.

Fly quickly, fly truly,

Then fly back to me!

245


Grammar

1. Adverbs

One-Minute Warm-Up

Matthew happily boarded the airplane.

What other emotions might someone feel when starting out on a trip? Replace the word happily with adverbs that express other feelings.
• You have learned that an adjective describes a noun or a pronoun. A word that describes a verb is an adverb. Adverbs tell how, when, or where an action happens.

How: The plane landed smoothly at the airport.

When: Soon Jeff would see his grandparents at the gate.

Where: They were waiting for him there.
• Many adverbs end with -ly. Some are included in these lists of common adverbs.

How

fast


hard

together


happily

quietly


secretly

slowly


When

tomorrow


later

again


often

first


next

then


Where

here


inside

far


upstairs

downtown


somewhere

forward


Try It Out

Speak Up What adverb describes the underlined verb in each sentence? Does it tell how, when, or where?

1. Keith and Tina hurried downtown.

2. They easily found Grove Street Park.

3. Then they watched the parade from the corner.

4. A robot walked awkwardly toward them.

5. Tina and Keith immediately recognized Stan.

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On Your Own

Write the adverbs in the sentences below. Then write whether the adverb tells how when, or where.

Example: Mrs. Janis often visits the art museum. often when

6 Yesterday she took Ramiz and Leslie.

7. The bus traveled far.

8 Finally, they reached the museum.

9. Ramiz went downstairs for an art class.

10. In class he worked carefully and skillfully.

11. His artwork was recently exhibited at the museum.

12-20. This poem has nine adverbs. Write each adverb. Then write the verb it describes.

Example: The conductor stepped forward and took a bow. forward stepped

Web site

A Musical Stroll

I went out for a walk and met my friend Mark.

We wandered around. Then we strolled to the park

A big brass band played a concert there.

The tunes rang sweetly through the air.

Trombones brightly gleamed in the sun.

All the cymbals struck together as one.

The bass drum forever boomed the beat.

Joyfully we kept time with our feet.

Write a Poem

Does music cheer you up? relax you? make you want to dance? Write a poem about how music makes you feel. Your poem doesn't have to rhyme. Just describe the music and your reaction to it. Use several adverbs. Then, with one or two classmates, take turns reading your poems. Ask them which detail in your poem is most striking.

247

Revising Strategies

Writing with Adverbs

Elaborating Sentences You can elaborate your sentences by adding adverbs that answer the questions When? Where? and How? Remember, adverbs don't just follow verbs. Use them in different parts of your sentences to make your writing more interesting.

We are going to a concert.

The band will play.

Listen to the weather forecast!


Tonight we are going to a concert.

The band will play outside.

Listen carefully to the weather forecast!

Apply It

1-8. This bossy bandleader's instructions are incomplete! Add adverbs that tell when, where, or how to elaborate each underlined sentence. Have at least two sentences in which the adverbs do not directly follow after the verb.



Revising

Meet at the bandstand. We will practice. Dress for the outdoor event.

Band members will sit, and the chorus will stand. We will begin the performance.

Brass section, sway as you play! Chorus, smile while you sing! Woodwind section, don't rustle your sheet music when you turn the pages!

Bow to the audience when they applaud. Pick up your instruments, and leave the stage.

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Combining Sentences Do you sometimes write one sentence to tell what happened and another to tell how when, or where it happened? Try combining such sentences by moving the adverb to the first sentence or by changing an adjective into an adverb.

The band began to play. They were quiet.



Quietly the band began to play.

Remember that many, but not all, words make their adverb form by adding the ending -Iy.

Apply It

9-16. Revise this newspaper article. Combine each set of underlined sentences, using adverbs.



Revising

Washington School Times

Moony Tunes

Family and friends spread their blankets on the grass. They spread them smoothly. It was a perfect evening! The full moon shone. It was bright. The lawn was packed! The crowd shared food and conversation. They were happy.

The band filed onto the stage at exactly 9:00. They moved slowly. The musicians took their places. They tuned their instruments and prepared to play. They were noisy.

The crowd became quiet. They packed their picnic baskets. They were quick. Everyone settled down to enjoy the music. Most people stretched out under the stars. They looked comfortable.



The band played for one hour. It was beautiful. What an outstanding ' evening everyone had!

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Usage

2. Comparing with Adverbs

One-Minute Warm-Up

In this sentence, how did the chicken run? What two other forms of this adverb do you know? When do you use each one?

Nothing worked. The monster chicken just looked madder and ran at us faster.

—from Summer Reading Is Killing Me! by Jon Scieszka


You know that you can use adjectives to compare people, places, or things. You can use adverbs to compare actions. Like adjectives, adverbs have special forms for comparisons. To compare two actions, add -er to most short adverbs. To compare three or more actions, add -est to most short adverbs.

Tip

Use less/least in the same way you use more/most.



One action: Amy will finish the book soon.

Two actions: Amy will finish sooner than Jessie will.

Three or more: Amy will finish soonest of all.

Rules for Comparing with Adverbs

1. Most short adverbs: Add -er or -est to the adverb.

late


later

latest


early

earlier


earliest

2. Most adverbs of two or more syllables: Use more or most with the adverb.

often


more often

most often

quickly

more quickly



most quickly

Try It Out

Speak Up What form of each word compares two actions? What form compares three or more actions?

1. loudly

2. near

3. cleverly



4. powerfully

250


On Your Own

Write each sentence using the correct form of the adverb.



Example: Matt lives _____ to the pond than Jon does. (near)

Malt lives nearer to the pond than Jon does.

5. Does Adam swim _____ than Barb does? (often)

6. 1 get into the water _____ of all my friends. (slowly)

7. Josh always swims _____ than Kyle does. (straight)

8. I do the side stroke _____ than I do the crawl. (easily)

9. Arlene dives _____ of all the swimmers. (skillfully)

10. Tom swam _____ than I did in the race. (swiftly)

11. Of everyone, Alex swam _____. (fast)

12. Gail and Beth stayed in the water _____ of all. (long)

13-20. This part of an e-mail thank-you note has eight incorrect adverb forms. Write the thank-you note correctly.

Example: Now I skate boldlier than I did before.

Now I skate more boldly than 1 did before.

e-mail

Rapid Mail Delivery

Thank you so much for the in-line skates. Of everything I wished for, I wanted skates more badly. My friend Estella has been skating longest than I have, so she is teaching me. I'm learning more easily than I learned ice-skating. At first I skated awkwardlier than I do now. I fell oftenest of all our friends, but I also tried the most hard! Each day I skate gracefulier than I did the day before. Estella says I'm improving most fast of all the beginners and can be the better skater.



Write an Essay

Write a brief essay about learning a skill such as skating or drawing. Use adverbs to compare your skill as a beginner with your skill as you improved. Which skills stayed the same? Ask a partner to listen to your essay. Work together to check your adverb forms.

251

Usage

3. Adjective or Adverb?

One-Minute Warm-Up

Be an art critic. Make comments about this painting. Use each of the following adjectives and adverbs: good, well, skillful, skillfully.


• Many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective. These words look similar and are easy to confuse. Be careful to use them correctly in a sentence.

Incorrect: Robert writes clear. (adjective)

Correct: Robert writes clearly. (adverb)
• Remember to use an adjective to describe a noun or a pronoun. Use an adverb to describe a verb.

Adjective: Lee made quick moves.

Adverb: She moves quickly.
• The words good and well are also often confused. Good is always an adjective. Use good before a noun or after a linking verb. Do not use good when you mean "healthy."

Adjective: Sam has a good vocabulary. His stories are good.
• Use well as an adverb to describe a verb. Use it as an adjective to mean "healthy."

Adverb: Sam describes buildings well.

Adjective: Because Todd ate too fast, he is not well now.

Try It Out

Speak Up Which word in parentheses correctly completes each sentence? Which word does it describe?

1. The ballet company performed (good, well).

2. The dancers' movements were (graceful, gracefully).

3. The star ballerina spun (rapid, rapidly) on her toes.

4. The audience clapped (loud, loudly) at the end.

252


On Your Own

Write the adjective or the adverb in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence. Then write the word or words that it describes.

Example: James is carving a wooden lion (careful, carefully).

carefully is carving

5. His (expert, expertly) skill is the result of experience.

6. James cut the wood (good, well).

7. The lion took shape (slow, slowly).

8. The surface of the wood was (smooth, smoothly).

9. The finished statue looked (good, well).

10-18. This part of a book review has nine errors in the use of adverbs. Write the book report correctly.

Example: The story characters speak very natural.



The story characters speak very naturally

Do you like realistic stories? Then you sure will like Ali Baba Bernstein, Lost and Found. The author, Johanna Hurwitz, writes very good. She tells her stories both humorously and suspenseful. Her plots hold your attention good, and she describes everything very clearly. You can picture the characters and events easy.

In one story a boy named Ali Baba Bernstein wants a dog bad. When his neighbors go away, Ali Baba takes care of their dog, Slipper. He does his job very responsible, but Slipper disappears. Ali Baba must find him quick! Does the story end good? Read the book to find out.

Write a Book Review

Can you persuade your classmates to read or not to read a book? Write a brief review of a book you liked or disliked reading. Tell why. Be careful to use adjectives and adverbs correctly. With a classmate, take turns reading your reviews aloud. Ask if she or he is convinced.

253

Usage

4. Negatives

One-Minute Warm-Up

There isn't no greater show on Earth!

What's wrong with the sentence on the circus banner? How can you fix it?


• Words that mean "no" or "not" are negatives.

She has no more tickets.

There are none left.
• You have learned to form a contraction from a verb and not. These contractions are also negatives. The letters n't stand for not. The word not is an adverb.

We won't be able to go.

She couldn't get tickets.
• Here is a list of some other common negatives.

not


nowhere

nobody


aren't

haven't


never

nothing


no one

doesn't


wouldn't
• A sentence should have only one negative. Using double negatives in a sentence is usually incorrect.

Incorrect

Ralph hasn't no homework.



Isn't nobody at home?

Correct

Ralph hasn't any homework.

Ralph has no homework.

Isn't anybody at home?

Is nobody at home?



Try It Out

Speak Up Which word in parentheses correctly completes each sentence?

1. Didn't you (ever, never) see a three-ring circus?

2. Isn't (anybody, nobody) watching the high-wire act?

3. There isn't (anything, nothing) underneath the wire.

4. Our friends at home (had, hadn't) none of the fun.

254


On Your Own

Write the sentences correctly. Underline the negative word.

Example: My friends haven't (any, no) extra money.

My friends haven't any extra money.

S. They (have, haven't) nothing to spend.

6. Isn't (anyone, no one) working this summer?

7. There (is, isn't) no work in the neighborhood.

8. Can't you think of (any, no) ideas for earning money?

9. We haven't (ever, never) tried.

10-18. This ad for an electronic bulletin board has nine double negatives. Write the ad correctly.

Example: There aren't no harder workers than Kids for Hire.



There are no harder workers than Kids for Hire.

Proofreading

Bulletin Board

Kids for Hire

Are you spending hours cleaning and weeding?

Those jobs aren't fun for nobody.

Haven't you nothing better to do?



Kids for Hire can help!

No job isn't too big, small, or dirty for us. Nobody can make your home cleaner or your garden neater. You won't never do those boring chores again. Don't bother looking nowhere else for better help. You can't find none. You won't find no one cheaper, either. Don't wait no longer. Call us at 555-6789. We won't never disappoint you.



Write an Ad

Think of ways to earn money, both practical and far-fetched. Select an idea and write an ad for it. Use several negatives. Read your ad to a partner. Then read it together to check for double negatives.

255

Grammar

5. Prepositions

One-Minute Warm-Up

Which group of three words tells where the stripes were? What other similar group of three words is there?

As we drew closer, I knew from the stripes on the cloth that it was probably a mummy bundle.

—from Discovering the Inca Ice Maiden: My Adventures on Ampato, by Johan Reinhard


Small words can make a big difference in meaning.

Sula found it on the shelf.

Sula found it under the shelf.
• The words on and under show very different relationships between found and shelf. The words that show these relationships are prepositions.

Common Prepositions

about


above

across


after

along


around

at

before



behind

below


beside

by

down



during

except


for

from


in

inside


into

near


of

off


on

out


outside

over


past

through


to

under


until

up

with



without
• A preposition relates another word in the sentence to the noun or the pronoun that follows the preposition. The noun or the pronoun that follows a preposition is the object of the preposition.

I liked the book with the blue cover. Sula gave it to me.



Try It Out

Speak Up The object of the preposition is underlined in each sentence. What is the preposition?

1. Scientists study tools from the ancient past.

2. When was the tool used by people?

3. Was it made for a special purpose?

4. What does the tool tell us about them?

256


On Your Own

Write the preposition in each sentence.

Example: Scientists seek clues about the past. about

5. They have found dolls in their special searches.

6. These dolls were made from corn cobs.

7. Ancient people must have lived near these sites.

8. Their children probably played with the small dolls.

9. The dolls can be seen at several museums.

10-18. Write this sign for a museum of the future. Underline the nine prepositions once and any objects of the preposition twice.

Example: The objects had been buried for centuries.

The objects had been buried for centuries.

Leather Glove, A.D. 2000

This large glove was found on Earth. People lived there until the fourth millennium, Such gloves were often worn by ancient people. They were probably used during very cold weather. The size of the glove showed an amazing 1! fact about our ancestors. Archaeologists used the glove for clues to the people's height. Our ancestors must have been over eight feet!



Write a Museum Sign

Suppose future scientists find a skateboard from A.D. 2000. Tell what mistaken ideas they might have about its use. Write a museum sign about it. Use at least five prepositions. Then read your sign to one or two classmates. Have them question what is unclear.

257

Grammar

6. Prepositional Phrases

One-Minute Warm-Up

What preposition do you find in this passage? what object of the preposition? The preposition and its object relate to which other word in the passage?

Look! A song sparrow nestled on her eggs.

—from Crinkleroot's Guide to Walking in Wild Places, by Jim Arnosky


• You have learned that a preposition is always followed by an object. A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and all the words between them. A prepositional phrase describes another word in the sentence.

We packed the fruit in our knapsacks.


• The object of the preposition can be a compound object.

We took enough oranges for Manuel and Anita.


• A prepositional phrase can be at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a sentence.

At dawn we began our walk.

The map of the area was helpful.

The path went by a forest and a large lake.

Try It Out

Speak Up The preposition is underlined in each sentence. What is the prepositional phrase?

1. How would you travel across a river?

2. You might cross at a shallow place or a rocky spot.

3. Bridges are a better solution to the problem.

4. On bridges, traffic moves safely and easily.

5. The George Washington Bridge is used by many travelers.

6. It is an important connection between New York and New Jersey.

258


On Your Own

Write the prepositional phrase in each sentence. Then underline the preposition.

Example: People in every age have built bridges. in every age

7. The oldest bridge was found in England.

8. Piles of rock form the bridge.

9. The Romans used wood for their bridges.

10. During the Middle Ages, stone bridges were built.

11. The bridges were lined with shops and dwellings.

12. The first iron bridge was built in the eighteenth century.

13. In the United States, covered bridges were once popular.

14. People drove wagons and rode horses through them.

15-24. This report has ten prepositional phrases. Write each prepositional phrase, and underline each object of the preposition.

Example: In jungles and mountains, rope bridges are still used.

In jungles and mountains

Write Instructions

You plan to build a toy bridge from toothpicks. Choose a partner and each write brief step-by-step instructions. Use at least five prepositional phrases. Read aloud and compare your instructions.

259

Revising Strategies

Writing with Prepositions

Elaborating Sentences: Prepositional Phrases Prepositional phrases can add meaning and detail to your sentences.

Another name is a drawbridge.

Another name for a bascule bridge is a drawbridge.

When prepositional phrases appear in the wrong places, they can make a sentence unclear or silly. Write the phrase as close as possible to the noun or the verb it describes.



Incorrect: The signal tells the captain to cross on the side of the bridge.

Correct: The signal on the side of the bridge tells the captain to cross.

Apply It

1-8. Revise each sentence in this diagram. Add prepositional phrases to sentences that need more detail. Move prepositional phrases that are written in the wrong place. Use the picture for help.



Revising

A A bascule bridge on strong supports rests. Sections can be raised.

B Most bascule bridges have traffic lights. The lights show when boats can pass.

C Automobile drivers must pay attention. If they don't, they could cause on accident.

D Bridge tenders open the bridge. They into port let ships.

260


Combining Sentences: Prepositional Phrases When you need to vary sentence length, try using prepositional phrases to combine two sentences. Turn a related sentence into a prepositional phrase. Add it to the beginning, to the middle, or to the end of the first sentence. Be sure it makes sense!
To help your reader, use a comma after an introductory phrase of three or more words.

I cross the footbridge

I cross it on my way to school.

I cross the footbridge on my way to school.

or

On my way to school, I cross the footbridge.
Sometimes you'll need to change the wording of a sentence to turn it into a prepositional phrase.

Students like to use the bridge.

It is a shortcut.

Students like to use the bridge as a shortcut.



Apply It

9-14. Revise this petition. Use prepositional phrases to combine each set of underlined sentences.



Revising


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