Protagonist - Main character; usually the “good guy”
– The character who opposes the main character in some way; the “opponent”
see p. 95
Characters: The different people in the story
On The Simpsons, Bart Simpson is the protagonist and Principal Skinner is one of the antagonists.
Foil character is either one who is opposite to the main character or nearly the same as the main character. The purpose of the foil character is to emphasize the traits of the main character by contrast only.
Example: In the cartoon SpongeBob SquarePants, both Patrick and Squidward serve as foils to Spongebob. Patrick is nearly the same as and Squidward is opposite to Spongebob.
see p. 95
A main problem in the story that the main character faces.
Can be internal or external.
Internal Conflict: A character “at war” with him or herself (exp: Ariel has to decide whether she should leave the ocean) Ariel-Part of Your World
External Conflict: One character versus society, nature, or another character (exp: protagonist vs. antagonist) Darth Vader vs. Luke Skywalker
Types of External Conflict
Man Vs. Nature- Main character fights against nature.
exp: In Titanic, the ship passengers fight against the iceberg that breaks the ship.
Man Vs. Man-Main character fights against another character.
exp: In Titanic, one of the main conflicts is between Jack and Rose’s fiancé.
Man Vs. Society-Character fights against the rules of his/her society.
exp: In Titanic,Rose fights against the rules of her family and upper-class society when she falls in love with Jack.
see p. 107
Plot: The pattern of action of a story; the series of linked events that make up the story
Usually starts with a problem or conflict that has to be resolved.
Exp: In Cinderella, the plot begins with the conflict between Cinderella and her wicked stepsisters.
Tone is the way words are used to convey a writer’s attitude towards a subject.
E.g. Serious, sarcastic, romantic.
“It was a dark and stormy night” sets a scary, uneasy tone vs. “The sun was shining brightly on the meadow” that sets a happy tone.
see p. 125
Mood is the feeling created by a piece of literature. Another way to think about it is the way you feel when you read it.
The Twilight Zone
Some literature makes you feel sad, others joyful or anxious.
Tone vs. Mood
Tone is the feeling or atmosphere the author means to set.
Mood is the feeling or atmosphere perceived by the reader.
see p. 90
Drama, or dramatic literature is another word for play.
Plays/dramas are when characters tell a story in a theater performance.
Characters in a play speak in , the words characters speak on stage.
Stage directions are directions in play scripts that tell actors what to do and how to say their lines (Usually in parentheses and italics)
see p. 90
Dramatic says that it could be acted out on a stage, and is a form of drama (theater).
• Monologue is a long speech that one person makes, either to themselves or to another character.
• A dramatic monologue is written to reveal both the situation in the play and the character’s thoughts.
A soliloquy is just like a dramatic monologue, but it is spoken to the audience and is part of a longer play.
An aside is when a character speaks to the audience.
What do you notice about the speaker?
see pg. 101
A symbol is a person, place, or thing that stands for an abstract idea or concept.
Sometimes the symbols are not as clear as the examples above, because sometimes authors create their own symbolism within a story.
Compound sentences: A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. The clauses of a compound sentence are either separated by a semicolon (relatively rare) or connected by a coordinating conjunction.
FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
My dog has hair hanging over his eyes. He looks just like a dust mop.
Combined with and
My dog has hair hanging over his eyes, and he looks just like a dust mop.