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## UNIT 1 THE CALENDAR

1. What is your date of birth?

2. How many days are there in a week in the Myanmar calendar? Give the names of the days.

3. Does each month have the same number of days?

It is easy to understand the calendar we use today. It was not always so easy. People had to try for thousands of years before they knew how to put together days, weeks, months, and years.

More than 2,000 years ago, scientists in Egypt made a calendar. There were 5 ten days in a week, three weeks in a month, and twelve months in a year. This calendar showed a way to count weeks and months, tut it was not scientific.

It does not matter how many days are in a week, or in a month; any number can be used. No one, however, can decide how long a day or a year should be. A day is the exact lengthy of time it takes the earth to turn around one time. A year is the length of time the earth takes to travel around the sun one time. The Egyptians did not think about these scientific facts. For them, 12 of their 30- day months made a year, but 360 days do not make a full year.

What did they do about this problem? They made a five-day holiday at the end of each year. But even adding five holidays did not make the Egyptian’ yearly calendar rightist takes the earth a little more than 3655 days to travel around the sun., To be exact, it takes 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds. For a long time people did not add these extra hours and minutes and seconds.

It was like using a watch that runs slow. The Egyptian calendar was slower than the exact sun year. In four years it was about a day behind; in forty years the calendar was 10 days (a full Egyptian week) behind the sun.

Many years later in Rome, Julius Caesar tried to fix the calendar. He thought that a year should be 365 days and 6 hours long. He added an extra day every four years. The year with an extra day is called leap year. The year is really, 365 days, 5 hours, 489 minutes and 46 seconds long. Julius Caesar’s calendar was almost twelve minutes too fast. Twelve minutes is not much, but by the year 1582 scientists showed that the calendar was about 110 days faster than the sun. Pope Gregory13 wanted to make a better plan.

It was easy to take 10 days away from the calendar, this made it right with the sun again. There was still a problem: how to keep the calendar right in the future. Year after year.

Scientists tried one way, and then they tried another. Finally, they decided to continue to have every fourth year as a leap year. Then they solved the problem of the calendar going too fast. They made a plan to take out three days every 400 years. A year ending in 00 is not a leap year unless it can be divided evenly by 400 .The year 1600 was a leap year, but 1700, 1800 and 1900 were not. The year 2000 was a leap year.

This is the plan we use now. Our calendar, named for Pope Gregory, is called the Gregorian calendar. It is not quit exact. It is 26 seconds fast each year by sun time. Our calendar will not be fast by a whole day for at least 3,000 years.

#### COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

Choose the correct expression to fill in each blank.

1. Making a calendar is not a task which is carried out only by imagination; it needs to be_______.

1. Dramatic (b) informative (c) realistic (d) scientific

1. The Egyptian calendar work like ______ that runs slow.

1. An engine (b) a horse (c) a machine (d) a watch

1. The Egyptian calendar was slower than the exact sun year but it showed a way to ______ weeks and months.

1. Add (b) count (c ) solve (d) work out

1. For a long time, scientists could not ______ the problem of the Egyptian calendar.

1. Decide (b) face (c) make (d) solve

1. The sun year is ______ long.

1. 365 days (b) 365 days and 6 hours (c) 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 48 seconds (d) 365 days, 5, hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds

1. In 1582, scientists pointed out that Julius Caesar’s calendar was ______ faster than the sun.

1. A day (b) 10 days (c) 26 seconds (d) 12 minutes

1. A year ending in 00 is ______ year if it can be divided evenly by 400.

1. An extra (b) a leap (c) a slow (d) an exact

1. In a leap year, there is ______ day in February.

1. An extra (b) a surplus (c) a supplementary (d) an additional

1. The Gregorian calendar is not quite ______, for it is 26 seconds fast each year by sun time.

1. Decisive (b) exact (c) fixed (d) certain

1. The Gregorian calendar will be fast by _____ in about 3,000 years.

1. 24 hours (b) 12 hours (c) 26 seconds (d) 3 days

B. Complete the following table, using the information from the passage.
 Stage Name of Calendar When made Weakness/Problem Solution 1 The Egyptian calendar Made a five-day holiday at the end of each year 2 10 days faster than the sun 3 1582

C. Answer the following questions in complete sentences.

1. Who made the first calendar?

2. What is the Egyptian’s way of counting weeks and months?

3. How long does it take the earth to turn around one time?

4. How long does the earth take to travel around the sun one time?

5. How long was the Egyptian year?

6. What was the Egyptian’s yearly calendar like?

7. How did the Egyptians solve this problem?

8. How did Julius Caesar make the Egyptian calendar right?

9. What was the main problem for the scientists in Pope Gregory’s time?

10. How did scientists solve the problem of Julius Caesar’s calendar going too fast?

D. Discussion Points

Do you think the following pairs of underlined expressions are similar in meaning? Say “Yes” or “No”.

1. (a) It was like using a watch that runs slow.

(b) They tried to solve the problem of the calendar going too fast.

1. (a) It takes the earth one day to turn around the sun.

(b) It takes the earth one year to travel around the sun.

1. (a) Julius Caesar tried to fix the Egyptian calendar.

(b) Taking ten days away from the calendar made it right.

1. (a) Scientists have tried for thousands of years to find out how to put together days, weeks, months and years.

1. The Egyptian calendar showed a way to count weeks and months.

1. (a) The calendar we use now is named for Pope Gregory.

(b) The calendar we use now is called the Gregorian calendar.
##### CLOZE

Fill each numbered blank with a word from the list given.

a any are around can

Count day’s easy length length

Not 12 scientific There turn

We weeks year years years

It is easy to understand the calendar--- (1) --- use today. It was not always so --- (2) ---. People had to try for thousands of --- (3) --- before they knew how to put together --- (4) --- weeks, months, and years.

More than 2,000 --- (5) --- ago, scientists in Egypt made a calendar. --- (6) --- were ten days in a week, there --- (7)--- in a month and twelve months in ---(8) --- year This calendar showed a way to --- (9) --- weeks and months, gut it was not --- (10) ---.

It does not matter how many days --- (11) --- in a week or in a month; --- (12) --- number can be used No one, however, --- (13) ---decide how long a day or --- (14) --- should be. A day is the exact --- (15) --- of time it takes the earth to --- (16) --- around one time. A year is the --- (17) --- of time the earth takes travel --- (18) --- the sun one time. The Egyptians did --- (19) --- think about these scientific facts. For them, --- (20) --- of their 30- day months made a year, but 360 days do not make a full year.

#### VOCABULARY

##### The Use of “Make”

1. More than 2,000 years ago, scientists in Egypt made a calendar. (produced or created)

2. Adding five holidays did not make the Egyptians’ calendar right. (cause sty/sub to be or become sty)

3. Pope Gregory Xlll wanted to make a better plan. (make + noun equivalent to verb)

4. 360 days do not make a full year. (equal)

Now put the following expressions in the correct column given below.

Make a guess make it clear make one’s own clothes

Make it easy make a decision A hundred pays make one kyat

Make wine 5 and 7 make 12

 Produce or create Cause sty/sb to be or become Make+noun equivalent to verb equal Make a calendar Make it right Make a plan Make a year

#### GRAMMAR

##### To Infinitive and Gerund

(1) To Infinitive

The Infinitive is the basic form of a verb (without inflections).

To infinitive can be used in structures such as these –
 Verb +to infinitive

Example: She decided to stay at home last night.
 Verb + question word + to infinitive

Example: They found out how to put together days, weeks, months and years.
 Verb + object + to infinitive

Example: The Egyptian calendar showed a way to count weeks and months.
 Verb + object + question word + to infinitive

Example: I’ll show you how to play chess.

Example: It is easy to understand the calendar we use today.
 Adjective + of/ for + + object + to infinitive

Example: It’s very kind of you to help me.

Example: Complete the sentences using the “to infinitive “form of the verbs in the box.

 Answer find leave spell meet unlock

1. Have you got a key ______ this door?

2. It is very nice ______ you.

3. It was careless of me ______ my wallet at home.

5. That’s an impossible question ______.

6. My brother expects ______ a job soon.

(2) The Gerund

When we use the-ing form as a noun, it is called a ‘gerund’.

The-ing form can be used-
 After prepositions

Example: It was like using a watch that runs slow.
 After certain verbs

Example: I enjoy running.
 As the subject or object of a sentence

Example: Adding five holidays did not make the Egyptians’ yearly calendar right.
 After certain idiomatic expressions

Example: This is an excellent book. It’s worth buying.
 After certain verbs which are followed by the preposition ‘to’

Example: I’m looking forward to visiting you in July.

Example: Complete the sentences using the-ing form of the verbs in the box.

 Get make call sew swim

1. Do you ever go ______ in the sea?

2. Is anyone here good at ______?

3. He can’t get used to ______ up early.

4. It’s no use ______ him. His telephone is out of order.

5. _______ a calendar is not easy.

##### B. The Pronoun System

A pronoun is used in place of a noun. The noun it refers to is called the antecedent.

Example: I read the book. It was good.

(The pronoun “it” refers to the antecedent noun “the book”.)

Mya Mya said, “I drink tea”.

(The pronoun “I” refers to the speaker whose name is Mya Mya.)

Possessive pronouns are not followed immediately by a noun: they stand alone.

Example: The book is mine. Yours are over there.

Possessive adjectives are followed immediately by a noun: they do not stand alone.

Example: My book is here. Your books are over there.

Possessive nouns require apostrophes.

Examples: That book is Mya Mya’s.

Possessive pronouns do not take apostrophes.

Examples: That book is hers, and those are theirs. (Correct)

*That book is here’s, and those are theirs. (Incorrect)

###### Person, Gender and Number in the Pronoun System
 Person First Second Third Number Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Gender Masc. Fem. Neut. Subject I we You You He She It They Object me Us You You Him Her It Them Possessive Mine Ours Yours Yours His Hers Its Theirs Possessive Determiner My Ours Your Your His her Its Their Reflexive myself Our-selves yourself Your-selves himself herself itself Them-selves

Exercise I: Identify the pronouns and their antecedents in the following sentences.

Example: Win Heike has a part- time job. He works at a fast – food restaurant.

(He= a pronoun; Win Heike= the antecedent)

1. The teacher corrected the students’ homework last night. She returned them during class the next day.

2. Htut Htut took a banana with him to school. He ate it at lunch-time.

3. Many monkeys do not like water, but they can swim well when they have to.

4. This problem looks easy. I am sure I can solve it easily.

5. Hnin Hnin smiled cheerfully at him. She looked very happy.

Exercise II: Fill in each blank with an appropriate form of the pronoun or possessive pronoun given in brackets.

1. This is a photograph of (he) ______and (he) ______ brothers while (they) ______ were having a picnic.

2. My grandmother and (I) ______ are leaving for Bagan tomorrow.

3. Aye Aye was feeling cold, so (we) ______ lent (she) ______ (you) ______ coat.

4. If Thuta doesn’t have a bicycle, (he) ______ can take (I) ______.

5. (I) ______ am not sure whether the fault is (she) ______ or (they) ______.

6. San San is a good friend of (I) _______.

7. He lives all by (he) ______.

8. Do you ever talk to (you) ______? Most people talk to (they) _______ sometimes.

9. Every town has (it) ______ own places of interest.

10. Those students of (you) ______ are very well-behaved.

##### C. Reported Speech

Reported speech refers to reproducing the idea of another person’s words. Not all of the exact words are used. Verb forms and pronouns may change. Quotation marks are not used.

Example: He said, “I am very busy now”.

He said that he was very busy then.

Reported Statements

If the reporting verb (the main verb of the sentence, e.g. said) is in the past tense, the verb in the noun clause will usually also be in a past form.

When a reporting verb is in the simple present, present perfect or future tense, the verb in the noun cause is not changed.

When the reporting verb (say, think, etc.) is in the past tense, there can be a shift to a form that refers to an earlier time. When changing from Direct Speech to Reported Speech, tenses change in the following way:

 Direct Speech Reported Speech Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Future Conditional Conditional Conditional Perfect

Unless the reporters are talking about themselves or addressing the persons they are reporting, the first and second person become the third person.
 I/you he/she Me/you him/her We/you they Us/you them

When a time is specified (yesterday, today, tomorrow), it is replaced by a less specific term. For example:

Yesterday __________the day before, he previous day

Today __________ that day

Tomorrow __________ the next day, the following day

Now __________ then

Example: Mya Mya said, “I am hungry now”.

Mya Mya said that she was hungry then.

Example: Finish each sentence in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence that is given.

1. The teacher said to Kyaw Kyaw, “I will see you tomorrow”.

The teacher told_______________________.

1. Thuzar said to the policeman, “I’ve lost my way”.

Thuzar told the policeman ____________________.

1. “I’ll see you in the office, Mg Mg,” said the headmistress.

The headmistress told Mg Mg ____________________.

1. The thief admitted, “I stole the money”.

1. The teacher said to Hla Hla, “You can sit here”.

The teacher told Hla Hla _____________________.

#### WRITING

Using the prompts given, write a very short paragraph on: “The Gregorian Calendar”.

• Gregorian Calendar- we use now

• Based on Julius Caesar’s calendar

• Pope Gregory XIll wanted- make Julius Caesar’s calendar

Right-twelve minutes faster than sun year

• Scientists tried one way-another-decided to continue to have every fourth year-as leap year

• Planned to take out three days every four hundred years

• In Gregorian Calendar-seven days in week, four weeks in month, twelve months in year

• year ending in 00- can be divided evenly by 400-leap year

• not quite exact,26 seconds fast each year by sun time

• accepted-not be fast by a whole day for at least 3,000o years

• called Gregorian Calendar- in honor of Pope Gregory

You are Zin Mar. You live at No.18, Yadana Street, Yanking. Write a letter to your friend Mon Mon, telling her that you have planned a trip to Bagan on the full moon day of Thadingyut and inviting her to join you on this trip. Refer to a calendar, and give a detailed programmer of the trip you have drawn up (when you will begin the journey; which town you will arrive at; at what time; how long you will stay there; when you will come back, etc.)

Write an essay of THREE paragraphs on “A beautiful calendar I have got as a present”.