для подготовки студентов-магистрантов по дисциплине
“Академическое письмо” (иностранный язык)
на основе профессионального дискурса Направления 05.04.02 География,
20.04.02 Природообустройство и водопользование,
38.04.03 Управление персоналом,
38.04.04 Государственное и муниципальное управление
Обсуждено на заседании кафедры иностранных языков в сфере экономики, бизнеса и финансов 4 марта 2015 года протокол № 7.
Составители: доц. кафедры иностранных языков в сфере экономики, бизнеса и финансов, к.пед.н. Валеева Л.А.,
доц. кафедры иностранных языков в сфере экономики, бизнеса и финансов, к.пед.н. Сиразеева А.Ф.
Рецензенты: Зав. кафедрой иностранных языков в профессиональной коммуникации федерального государственного бюджетного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования «Казанский национальный исследовательский технологический университет», к. пед. н, доцент
Main Body ………………………………………………………………...57
References and quotations………………………………………….…..64
MODULE 5 REVISIONS: REWRITING, PROOFREADING, AND EDITING……66 Exercise 1
MODULE 6 GETTING YOUR RESEARCH PUBLISHED…..75
Сегодня перед студентами-магистрантами неязыкового вуза поставлена задача стать активными членами мирового научного сообщества, печататься в международных научных изданиях, что требует наличия определенных компетенций, от уровня развития которых зависит их конкурентоспособность в профессиональной среде и сфере международных научных коммуникаций. Публикации в ведущих научных журналах, входящих в глобальную базу данных цитирования Web of Science и Scopus, позволяют заявить о себе в международном академическом сообществе, повысить показатели цитируемости, установить научные связи с зарубежными коллегами, работающими по сходной тематике. Однако зачастую недостаточное знание формальных требований зарубежных изданий, ошибки в оформлении заявки и т.п. приводят к тому, что даже качественные научные работы отечественных исследователей не проходят даже первичный отбор.
В связи с этим в современных условиях студенты-магистранты сталкиваются с проблемой освоения большого объема информации на английском языке. Наблюдается отсутствие необходимых навыков работы с письменным текстом на английском языке, как таковым (и, прежде всего, с научным). Академическое письмо обладает рядом характеристик, универсальных для любого языка и характеризуется формальным стилем изложения, что подразумевает использование академической лексики. Вопрос стиля особенно труден для изучающих английский, поскольку в ряде случаев грань между регистрами очень тонка. Как правило, письменные умения и навыки значительно отстают от уровня развития других видов речевой деятельности: чтения, говорения и аудирования. В связи с этим студенты испытывают серьезные трудности при написании научных статей в международных сборниках.
Учебно-практическое издание ACADEMIC WRITING: A STUDY GUIDE направлено на развитие как когнитивных (выдвинуть гипотезу, предложить собственную мысль, проанализировать информацию, переработать и сжать композиционно-смысловую структуру текста, организовать и структурировать собственные идеи), так и языковых (реферирование, перефразирование, формулирование мысли и выражение ее с помощью языковых средств на уровне предложения, абзаца, текста) умений. Кроме того, предоставляет базовую информацию о шаблонах, форматах, нормах академического письма, типичных для оформления научного текста той или иной области знаний (общие рекомендации, написание аннотации, проблема плагиата и др.)
Учебно-практическое издание (УПИ) “Academic writing: a study guide” ориентировано на проведение практических занятий по английскому языку со студентами-магистрантами, обучающимися по направлениям 05.04.02 География, 20.04.02 Природообустройство и водопользование, 38.04.01 Экономика, 38.04.02 Менеджмент, 38.04.03 Управление персоналом, 38.04.04 Государственное и муниципальное управление. Данное издание соответствует Федеральным государственным образовательным стандартам ВПО третьего поколения плюс.
УПИ состоит из 6 разделов (modules): writing process, taking notes, avoiding plagiarism: paraphrasing/summary, organization of an academic paper, revisions: rewriting, proofreading, and editing and getting your research published. Раздел 4 в свою очередь включает детализацию этапов написания научного текста: аннотации, введения, основной части, заключения, оформления ссылок (introduction, main body, conclusion, references and quotations).
Academic writing. Preview Writing is necessary for all students in higher education. It is a process. It starts from understanding your task. It then goes on to doing the research and reading. The next stage is planning and writing various drafts. This is followed by proof-reading and editing. All this should lead to the final text. Writing is purposeful. The way you write something always depends on your purpose.
You will be able to increase both your speed of reading and your comprehension if you can recognise some of the rhetorical functions that the writer is using. Writers use language, for example, to analyse, to describe, to report, to define, to instruct, to classify, to compare, to give examples, to explain, to give reasons, to argue and discuss and to draw conclusions. To understand the text it is necessary to understand what the writer's purpose is.
It is important to remember who you are writing for. Being conscious of academic tone suggests that you are aware of your audience and respect the formality normally associated with academic writing.
When writing academically, you must target a more general audience than just your lecturer and/or marker. You should assume that your readers will be intelligent thinking people, but they may not be specifically informed of your topic. Do not presume that your reader knows all the terms and concepts associated with your work.
Understanding texts. Rhetorical functions in academic writing Academic writing uses different rhetorical functions. Typical rhetorical functions, based on: Werlich (1976) and Lackstrom, Selinker & Trimble (1973), are:
Describing objects, location, structure and direction
Expressing reasons and explanations / cause and effect
Working with different voices and finding your own
Taking a stance
Study the examples below and differentiate between various purposes the author of the piece of writing has. Descriptiverhetorical function:
The following paragraph describes a building:
The largest building, in the very centre of the town, is boarded up completely and leans so far to the right that it seems bound to collapse at any minute. The house is very old. There is about it a curious, cracked look that is very puzzling until you suddenly realize that at one time, and long ago, the right side of the front porch had been painted, and part of the wall - but the painting was left unfinished and one portion of the house is darker and dingier than the other. The building looks completely deserted. Nevertheless, on the second floor there is one window which is not boarded; sometimes in the late afternoon when the heat is at its worst a hand will slowly open the shutter and a face will look down on the town.
Reporting and narrating
Drama in language teaching
Plays have been employed to teach skill in language only since the Middle Ages. In Greece and Rome performing on stage was beneath the dignity of the class whose children could afford to go to school and a social ban remained on this activity until the tenth century, when a German abbess, Hroswitha, composed Latin plays for her novices. The expressed aim was to replace the plays of Plautus and Terence, then considered too saucy for use in the cloister. Owing to the now usual way of acting out the Bible stories in mystery plays, stage work was not an unusual recreation among clerics. Latin plays, written in the classical manner, were often played in the monasteries by the troupes of monks who staged the mystery plays in the churchyard.
Taking their cue from these mystery plays, the Jesuits developed another approach. Many of their plays were in a classical style, but the characters were abstractions drawn from grammar and literary criticism. The plays were meant both to drill pupils in speaking Latin and Greek and to teach formal grammar. it is not unlikely that the characters were modelled on the personifications of the De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii of Martianus Capella, which was still known during the Renaissance. This type of allegory had been a favourite device among medieval poets, and Martianus Capelia had had many medieval imitators in vernacular languages.
One of the last sets of this type of play was the dramatized version of the Ianua linguarum, published in 1664. The adaptation was made by D. Sebastianus Macer for the use of the school of Patakina, at which he had taught, and which was regarded, even by the master himself, as a model school. Though the book followed all the allegorical conventions of the Jesuit play, there were several important differences. First, the Cornenius plays were in prose, while the others had been in verse. Second. the exact classical format was not followed, the plays being of varying length and shape. But as the taste for allegory waned, so too did interest in this sort of play.
Classical drama formed an integral part of the Renaissance classics curriculum. In England several who founded grammar schools specified that a classical play should be performed every year; and on the continent, where Catholics were teaching in Protestant schools and vice versa, the religious climate excluded contemporary religious plays, so the classical repertoire was used exclusively. But medieval scruple hung on grimly, even into the eighteenth century.
In England especially, the custom of an annual performance of a classical play was still vigorously flourishing at the end of the nineteenth century, school editions being prepared with staging in mind. Owing to the activities of the great German classicists, the basic texts were now solidly established, but for school use they were carefully expurgated, a difficult task considering the exigencies of meter. Many editors normalized the preclassical spelling and even added stage directions. The place of such presentations was strengthened by the advent of the Direct Method, and they spread to the teaching of modern languages. Though it was considered most desirable to use plays written for native audiences, this means of instilling confidence was made available to younger pupils by providing them with plays in simplified language and style. As far as modern plays were concerned, teachers were inclined to choose those which reflected the culture of the country.
In modern schools and universities the modern-language play came to be a special show put on for the delectation of students’ parents and staff wives, but it also had the serious purpose of having pupils exercise their oral skills under some difficulty. In Russia, some schools encouraged the pupils to run puppet theatres in the foreign language, a natural outcome of the general interest in this art form.
Useful Language Past tense is common.
Chronological order is also common, but when we are writing about past events, it is necessary to be explicit about the order in which things happened. To make the order clear, we mention dates and time, and we also use various links and connectives.
In 1942, ...
During the 20th century, ...
Twenty five years ago, ...
Before this, …
For the previous X years, …
Prior to this, …
X years previously, …
… before which …
… prior to which …
For the following X years, …
X years later, …
Following this, …
Soon/Shortly/Immediately afterwards, …
… following which …
… after which …
During this period, …
Throughout this period, …
… during which…
… throughout which…
In the following example, the term "lava" is being defined.
Lava is the name applied to the liquid rock material, or magma, when it reaches the surface, as well as to the solid rock formed by consolidation due to cooling. The temperature of lava as it comes to the surface may exceed 2000°F, for copper wire with a melting point of 2200°F was melted in the lava from Vesuvius, and at Kilauea a temperature of 2300°F. has been observed.
This earth of ours by Victor T Allen, p. 3
X is ...
X is called ...
X is known as ...
X may be defined as ...
X is a type of Y that/which ...
A type of Y which ... is X
The following example classifies, and also describes.
The Classification of Species The group species is the starting point for classification. Sometimes smaller groups, subspecies, are recognized, but these will not concern us until we discuss evolution. There are many larger groups: genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom. Let us begin with the first seven species. We belong to the genus Homo and to these more inclusive groups: (1) the family Hominidae, which includes, in addition to Homo, extinct men not of the genus Homo, and (2) the order Primates, which includes also the lemurs, monkeys and apes. The three cats - lion, house cat, and tiger - belong to the genus Fells. In general we can think of a genus as a group of closely related species. The three cats also belong to the family Felidae. Generally a family includes related genera. The first seven species, different enough to be put in three orders, are yet alike in many ways. All are covered with hair, they nurse their young with milk, and their red blood cells are without nuclei. Because of these and other resemblances they are combined in a still more inclusive group, Class Mammalia. A class, therefore, is composed of related orders.
Critical rhetorical function:
Comparing and contrasting: similarities and differences
The following paragraph pattern is one in which several things are compared or contrasted.
A one-million-fold increase in speed characterizes the development of machine computation over the past thirty years. The increase results from improvements in computer hardware. In the 1940s ENIAC, an early electronic computer, filled a room with its banks of vacuum tubes and miles of wiring. Today one can hold in the hand a computing device costing about $200 that is twenty times faster than ENIAC, has more components and a larger memory, is thousands of times more reliable, costs 1/10,000 the price, and consumes the power of a light bulb rather than that of a locomotive.
Expressing reasons and explanations / cause and effect
In this type of pattern, the purpose is to explain cause and effect.
One of the most important properties of a liquid is that its surface behaves like an elastic covering that is continually trying to decrease its area. A result of this tendency for the surface to contract is the formation of liquids into droplets as spherical as possible considering the constraint of the ever-present gravity force. Surface tension arises because the elastic attractive forces between molecules inside a liquid are symmetrical; molecules situated near the surface are attracted from the inside but not the outside. The surface molecules experience a net inward force; and consequently, moving a surface molecule out of the surface requires energy.
Working with different voices and finding your own
The following paragraphs give arguments for and against.
One of the first men to make a commercial success of food conservation was Henry John Heinz. He started by bottling horseradish, and he was so successful that in 1869 he founded a company in Pittsburgh, USA. Like other Americans of his generation, Heinz made his name a household word throughout the western world. At last, man seems to have discovered how to preserve food without considerably altering its taste. The tins of food (Heinz tins!) which Captain Scott abandoned in the Antarctic were opened 47 years after his death, and the contents were not only edible, but pleasant.
The main argument against conserved foods is not that the canning of food makes it taste different; rather, people complain that the recipes which the canning chefs dream up are tedious or tasteless when it is eaten in great quantities. And a company like Heinz can only produce something if it is going to be eaten in great quantities. The tomato is very pleasant to eat when it is freshly picked. A regular diet of tomatoes alone could well prove tedious. The canning companies try to cook the tomato in as many ways as possible. The Heinz factories in Britain use millions and millions of tomatoes every year. They claim that if all the tomatoes were loaded on to 15-ton lorries, the line of lorries would stretch for 60 miles.
But there are many people who do not like to eat food out of season. They like their food to be fresh, and they like to cook it themselves in "the old-fashioned way". But it is very difficult for modern man to realise what it is like to live without the advantages of pre-packageded and canned food. European society in its present form could not cope without modern methods of food processing. Imagine your local supermarket without all the cans of pre-packaged foods. There wouldn't be much variety left, and what was left would have to be increased enormously in order to give the same amount of food. The supermarket would turn into a chaos of rotting vegetables, stale bread and unhealthy meat. The health problems would be insurmountable, unless we all went into the country to support ourselves.
So next time you reject canned food as being tasteless or unimaginative, remember that you can only afford to eat fresh food because canned food exists.
Exercise 1 “Classifying / categorizing” Read the following texts and complete the tree diagram with the words given below:
We shall outline the four major subfields of anthropology that have emerged in the twentieth century: physical anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and cultural anthropology.
Physical anthropology deals with human biology across space and time. It is divided into two areas: paleontology, the study of the fossil evidence of the primate (including human) evolution, and neontology, the comparative biology of living primates, including population and molecular genetics, body shapes (morphology), and the extent to which behavior is biologically programmed.
Archeology is the systematic retrieval and analysis of the physical remains left behind by human beings, including both their skeletal and cultural remains. Both the classical civilizations and prehistoric groups, including our prehuman ancestors, are investigated.
Linguistics is the study of language across space and time. Historical linguistics attempts to trace the tree of linguistic evolution and to reconstruct ancestral language forms. Comparative (or structural) linguistics attempts to describe formally the basic elements of languages and the rules by which they are ordered into intelligible speech.
Cultural anthropology includes many different perspectives and specialized subdisciplines but is concerned primarily with describing the forms of social organization and the cultural systems of human groups. In technical usage, ethnography is the description of the social and cultural systems of one particular group, whereas ethnology is the comparison of such descriptions for the purpose of generalizing about the nature of all human groups.
(From D.E. Hunt and P. Whitten: The Study of Anthropology (Harper and Row, 1976)