- Cannot describe things/events that occur before or after
- The “weakest” form of essay, it usually cannot stand alone. You generally find example of it IN other essays.
Expository Methods of Development:
-Sequence (Process Analysis)
-Example and Illustration
- Cause and Effect
-Classification and Division
*Use transitional terms to help you recognize/identify the correct pattern/method being used*
Coherence: The physical connection between sentences and paragraphs. It creates a logical flow of ideas.
This is SEPARATE from the information above. Coherence is the way a writer organizes their thoughts so that it makes sense.
Transitional Terms – Transitions are connecting words that help link within sentences, between sentences and between paragraphs.
Example: The cows stood silently in the garden. However, in the pig pen chaos ensued as the pen was a flurry of activity.
Example from an essay:
True, they didn’t do so when he was 14 and his consuming passion was collecting hip-hop CDs with especially nasty lyrics.
And true, they didn’t put their foot down when he announced at 16 that he was going to drop out of Tamiscal High School – the elite “alternative” school where students determined their own courses of study and only saw a teacher once a week.
Granted, they didn’t interfere when he abruptly decided to become a Muslim after reading The Autobiography of Malcolm X, grew a beard, and took to wearing long white robes and an oversized skullcap. On the contrary: His father was “proud of John for pursuing an alternative course”, while his mother told friends that it was “good for a child to find a passion.”
To Show Time. after, afterward, always, as soon as, at last, at once, briefly, eventually, finally, immediately, in the meantime, in the past (or future), last, later, meanwhile, next, never, now, often, once, promptly, sometimes, soon.
To Show Place. above, among, around, at this point, behind, below, beside, beyond, down, forward, from, here, in front of, inside, nearby, next to, on, on the other side, opposite, over, through.
To Add An Idea. again, also, and, as well as, besides, for one thing, further, furthermore, in addition to, last, likewise, more, moreover, next, similarly, too.
To Illustrate or Explain an Idea. for example, for instance, in other words, in particular, namely, specifically, such as, that is, thus, to illustrate.
To Compare or Contrast Ideas. but, even so, conversely, differently, however, in contrast, in spite of, in the same way, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, yet.
To Show a Result. accordingly, as a result, consequently, for that reason, hence, then, therefore, thus.
To Emphasize an Idea. above all, especially, indeed, in fact, most important.
To Summarize an Idea. as has been noted, finally, in brief, in other words, in short, on the whole, to sum up.
Synonym Usage -- Synonym usage is using different words with the same meaning. (Helps the writer stay on topic)
He stumbled while looking for the keys in the dark, finally managed to open the door. He shuffled through the hallway, switched on the lights, and in his drunken haze, fumbled with his coat buttons…
"Space is big. You just won't believe how vastly, hugely, mind-bogglingly big it is. I mean, you may think it's a long way down the road to the chemist's, but that's just peanuts to space."
Pronoun or Antecedent Reference -- → The pronoun used in the next sentence replaces the noun it represents, therefore unnecessary repetition is avoided.
Kelly lifted Mickey into the air and then set him down.
Ex: Mary had a little lamb. She had nice wool mitts. (She, being the pronoun)
Parallel Structure -- Parallel structure involves putting together elements of similar structure to achieve balanced writing. Good parallel structure improves the clarity of writing